Donohue Kathleen A.

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Kathleen A.

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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Article
    The scientific and societal uses of global measurements of subsurface velocity
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-24) Szuts, Zoltan B. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Girton, James B. ; Hummon, Julia M. ; Katsumata, Katsuro ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Ortner, Peter B. ; Phillips, Helen E. ; Rossby, H. Thomas ; Shay, Lynn Keith ; Sun, Charles ; Todd, Robert E.
    Ocean velocity defines ocean circulation, yet the available observations of subsurface velocity are under-utilized by society. The first step to address these concerns is to improve visibility of and access to existing measurements, which include acoustic sampling from ships, subsurface float drifts, and measurements from autonomous vehicles. While multiple programs provide data publicly, the present difficulty in finding, understanding, and using these data hinder broader use by managers, the public, and other scientists. Creating links from centralized national archives to project specific websites is an easy but important way to improve data discoverability and access. A further step is to archive data in centralized databases, which increases usage by providing a common framework for disparate measurements. This requires consistent data standards and processing protocols for all types of velocity measurements. Central dissemination will also simplify the creation of derived products tailored to end user goals. Eventually, this common framework will aid managers and scientists in identifying regions that need more sampling and in identifying methods to fulfill those demands. Existing technologies are capable of improving spatial and temporal sampling, such as using ships of opportunity or from autonomous platforms like gliders, profiling floats, or Lagrangian floats. Future technological advances are needed to fill sampling gaps and increase data coverage.
  • Preprint
    The Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres
    ( 2009-07-01) Jayne, Steven R. ; Hogg, Nelson G. ; Waterman, Stephanie N. ; Rainville, Luc ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Watts, D. Randolph ; Tracey, Karen L. ; McClean, Julie L. ; Maltrud, Mathew E. ; Qiu, Bo ; Chen, Shuiming ; Hacker, Peter
    This paper reports on the strength and structure of the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres. In the time average, quasi-permanent recirculation gyres are found to the north and south of the Kuroshio Extension jet. The characteristics of recirculation gyres are determined from the combined observations from the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) field program program (June 2004 – June 2006) and include current meters, pressure and current recording inverted echo sounders, and sub-surface floats. The position and strength of the recirculation gyres simulated by a high-resolution numerical model are found to be consistent with the observations. The circulation pattern that is revealed is of a complex system of multiple recirculation gyres that are embedded in the crests and troughs of the quasi-permanent meanders of the Kuroshio Extension. At the location of the KESS array, the Kuroshio Extension jet and its recirculation gyres transport of about 114 Sv. This represents a 2.7-fold increase in the transport of the current compared to the Kuroshio’s transport at Cape Ashizuri before it separates from the coast and flows eastward into the open ocean. This enhancement in the current’s transport comes from the development of the flanking recirculation gyres. Estimates from an array of inverted echo sounders and a high-resolution ocean general circulation model are of similar magnitude.
  • Article
    Four current meter models compared in strong currents in Drake Passage
    (American Meteorological Society, 2013-10) Watts, D. Randolph ; Kennelly, Maureen A. ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Tracey, Karen L. ; Chereskin, Teresa K. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Victoria, Ivan
    Seven current meters representing four models on a stiffly buoyed mooring were placed for an 11-month deployment to intercompare their velocity measurements: two vector-measuring current meters (VMCMs), two Aanderaa recording current meter (RCM) 11s, two Aanderaa SEAGUARDs, and a Nortek Aquadopp. The current meters were placed 6-m apart from each other at about 4000-m depth in an area of Drake Passage expected to have strong currents, nearly independent of depth near the bottom. Two high-current events occurred in bursts of semidiurnal pulses lasting several days, one with peak speeds up to 67 cm s−1 and the other above 35 cm s−1. The current-speed measurements all agreed within 7% of the median value when vector averaged over simultaneous time intervals. The VMCMs, chosen as the reference measurements, were found to measure the median of the mean-current magnitudes. The RCM11 and SEAGUARD current speeds agreed within 2% of the median at higher speeds (35–67 cm s−1), whereas in lower speed ranges (0–35 cm s−1) the vector-averaged speeds for the RCM11 and SEAGUARD were 4%–5% lower and 3%–5% higher than the median, respectively. The shorter-record Aquadopp current speeds were about 6% higher than the VMCMs over the range (0–40 cm s−1) encountered.
  • Article
    Oleander is more than a flower twenty-five years of oceanography aboard a merchant vessel
    (Oceanography Society, 2019-09-05) Rossby, H. Thomas ; Flagg, Charles Noel ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Fontana, Sandra ; Curry, Ruth G. ; Andres, Magdalena ; Forsyth, Jacob S. T.
    Since late fall 1992, CMV Oleander III has been measuring upper ocean currents during its weekly trips between Bermuda and Port Elizabeth, New Jersey, by means of an acoustic Doppler current profiler installed in its hull. The overarching objective of this effort has been to monitor transport in the Gulf Stream and surrounding waters. With 25 years of observation in hand, we note that the Gulf Stream exhibits significant year-to-year variations but no evident long-term trend in transport. We show how these data have enabled studies of oceanic variability over a very wide range of scales, from a few kilometers to the full 1,000 km length of its route. We report that the large interannual variations in temperature on the continental shelf are negatively correlated with flow from the Labrador Sea, but that variability in the strength of this flow cannot account for a longer-term warming trend observed on the shelf. Acoustic backscatter data offer a rich trove of information on biomass activities over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A peek at the future illustrates how the new and newly equipped Oleander will be able to profile currents to greater depths and thereby contribute to monitoring the strength of the meridional overturning circulation.
  • Article
    Assessment of numerical simulations of deep circulation and variability in the Gulf of Mexico using recent observations
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-04-08) Morey, Steven L. ; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh ; Pallás-Sanz, Enric ; Azevedo Correia De Souza, Joao Marcos ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Pérez-Brunius, Paula ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Hamilton, Peter ; Candela, Julio
    Three simulations of the circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (the “Gulf”) using different numerical general circulation models are compared with results of recent large-scale observational campaigns conducted throughout the deep (>1500 m) Gulf. Analyses of these observations have provided new understanding of large-scale mean circulation features and variability throughout the deep Gulf. Important features include cyclonic flow along the continental slope, deep cyclonic circulation in the western Gulf, a counterrotating pair of cells under the Loop Current region, and a cyclonic cell to the south of this pair. These dominant circulation features are represented in each of the ocean model simulations, although with some obvious differences. A striking difference between all the models and the observations is that the simulated deep eddy kinetic energy under the Loop Current region is generally less than one-half of that computed from observations. A multidecadal integration of one of these numerical simulations is used to evaluate the uncertainty of estimates of velocity statistics in the deep Gulf computed from limited-length (4 years) observational or model records. This analysis shows that the main deep circulation features identified from the observational studies appear to be robust and are not substantially impacted by variability on time scales longer than the observational records. Differences in strengths and structures of the circulation features are identified, however, and quantified through standard error analysis of the statistical estimates using the model solutions.
  • Article
    Observations of the subtropical mode water evolution from the Kuroshio Extension System Study
    (American Meteorological Society, 2006-03) Qiu, Bo ; Hacker, Peter ; Chen, Shuiming ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Watts, D. Randolph ; Mitsudera, Humio ; Hogg, Nelson G. ; Jayne, Steven R.
    Properties and seasonal evolution of North Pacific Ocean subtropical mode water (STMW) within and south of the Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre are analyzed from profiling float data and additional hydrographic and shipboard ADCP measurements taken during 2004. The presence of an enhanced recirculation gyre and relatively low mesoscale eddy variability rendered this year favorable for the formation of STMW. Within the recirculation gyre, STMW formed from late-winter convection that reached depths greater than 450 m near the center of the gyre. The lower boundary of STMW, corresponding to σθ 25.5 kg m−3, was set by the maximum depth of the late-winter mixed layer. Properties within the deep portions of the STMW layer remained largely unchanged as the season progressed. In contrast, the upper boundary of the STMW layer eroded steadily as the seasonal thermocline deepened from late April to August. Vertical eddy diffusivity responsible for this erosion was estimated from a budget analysis of potential vorticity to be in the range of 2–5 × 10−4 m2 s−1. The latitudinal extent of the STMW formation was narrow, extending from 30°N to the Kuroshio Extension jet near 35°N. South of 30°N, STMW did not form locally but was transported from the recirculation gyre by lateral induction.
  • Article
    A comparison of in situ bottom pressure array measurements with GRACE estimates in the Kuroshio Extension
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-09-10) Park, Jae-Hun ; Watts, D. Randolph ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Jayne, Steven R.
    Ocean bottom pressure estimates from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been validated by comparisons with an array of in situ bottom pressure measurements. The 600 km by 600 km array comprised 46 bottom pressure sensors that were part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS). Validations in other ocean regions have been limited by available data to pointwise bottom pressure measurements. Spatially-averaged monthly-mean bottom pressure over the KESS array is highly correlated with GRACE bottom pressure estimated at the center of the array. The correlations are nearly equally high for three standard choices of spatial smoothing radius applied to GRACE estimates, 300, 500, and 750 km. In contrast, pointwise comparisons between GRACE and individual bottom pressures are high or low in sub-regions of KESS, depending partially upon the local variance of deep mesoscale eddies whose energetic length scales are shorter than 300 km. KESS is a suitable validation experiment for the GRACE estimates at monthly scales with 300 to 750 km spatial radius of smoothing.
  • Article
    Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: Observed transport and variability
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-06-07) Frajka-Williams, Eleanor ; Ansorge, Isabelle ; Baehr, Johanna ; Bryden, Harry L. ; Chidichimo, Maria Paz ; Cunningham, Stuart A. ; Danabasoglu, Gokhan ; Dong, Shenfu ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Elipot, Shane ; Heimbach, Patrick ; Holliday, Naomi Penny ; Hummels, Rebecca ; Jackson, Laura C. ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Le Bras, Isabela A. ; Lozier, M. Susan ; McDonagh, Elaine L. ; Meinen, Christopher S. ; Mercier, Herlé ; Moat, Bengamin I. ; Perez, Renellys ; Piecuch, Christopher G. ; Rhein, Monika ; Srokosz, Meric ; Trenberth, Kevin E. ; Bacon, Sheldon ; Forget, Gael ; Goni, Gustavo J. ; Kieke, Dagmar ; Koelling, Jannes ; Lamont, Tarron ; McCarthy, Gerard D. ; Mertens, Christian ; Send, Uwe ; Smeed, David A. ; Speich, Sabrina ; van den Berg, Marcel ; Volkov, Denis L. ; Wilson, Christopher G.
    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) extends from the Southern Ocean to the northern North Atlantic, transporting heat northwards throughout the South and North Atlantic, and sinking carbon and nutrients into the deep ocean. Climate models indicate that changes to the AMOC both herald and drive climate shifts. Intensive trans-basin AMOC observational systems have been put in place to continuously monitor meridional volume transport variability, and in some cases, heat, freshwater and carbon transport. These observational programs have been used to diagnose the magnitude and origins of transport variability, and to investigate impacts of variability on essential climate variables such as sea surface temperature, ocean heat content and coastal sea level. AMOC observing approaches vary between the different systems, ranging from trans-basin arrays (OSNAP, RAPID 26°N, 11°S, SAMBA 34.5°S) to arrays concentrating on western boundaries (e.g., RAPID WAVE, MOVE 16°N). In this paper, we outline the different approaches (aims, strengths and limitations) and summarize the key results to date. We also discuss alternate approaches for capturing AMOC variability including direct estimates (e.g., using sea level, bottom pressure, and hydrography from autonomous profiling floats), indirect estimates applying budgetary approaches, state estimates or ocean reanalyses, and proxies. Based on the existing observations and their results, and the potential of new observational and formal synthesis approaches, we make suggestions as to how to evaluate a comprehensive, future-proof observational network of the AMOC to deepen our understanding of the AMOC and its role in global climate.