The Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres

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Jayne, Steven R.
Hogg, Nelson G.
Waterman, Stephanie N.
Rainville, Luc
Donohue, Kathleen A.
Watts, D. Randolph
Tracey, Karen L.
McClean, Julie L.
Maltrud, Mathew E.
Qiu, Bo
Chen, Shuiming
Hacker, Peter
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This paper reports on the strength and structure of the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation gyres. In the time average, quasi-permanent recirculation gyres are found to the north and south of the Kuroshio Extension jet. The characteristics of recirculation gyres are determined from the combined observations from the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) field program program (June 2004 – June 2006) and include current meters, pressure and current recording inverted echo sounders, and sub-surface floats. The position and strength of the recirculation gyres simulated by a high-resolution numerical model are found to be consistent with the observations. The circulation pattern that is revealed is of a complex system of multiple recirculation gyres that are embedded in the crests and troughs of the quasi-permanent meanders of the Kuroshio Extension. At the location of the KESS array, the Kuroshio Extension jet and its recirculation gyres transport of about 114 Sv. This represents a 2.7-fold increase in the transport of the current compared to the Kuroshio’s transport at Cape Ashizuri before it separates from the coast and flows eastward into the open ocean. This enhancement in the current’s transport comes from the development of the flanking recirculation gyres. Estimates from an array of inverted echo sounders and a high-resolution ocean general circulation model are of similar magnitude.
Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 56 (2009): 2088-2099, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2009.08.006.
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