The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century

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Carey, Rebecca
Soule, Samuel A.
Manga, Michael
White, James D. L.
McPhie, Jocelyn
Wysoczanski, Richard
Jutzeler, Martin
Tani, Kenichiro
Yoerger, Dana R.
Fornari, Daniel J.
Caratori Tontini, Fabio
Houghton, Bruce
Mitchell, Samuel
Ikegami, Fumihiko
Conway, Chris E.
Murch, Arran
Fauria, Kristen
Jones, Meghan
Cahalan, Ryan
McKenzie, Warren
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The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter. Most (>75%) of the total erupted volume was partitioned into the pumice raft and transported far from the volcano. The geological record on submarine volcanic edifices in volcanic arcs does not faithfully archive eruption size or magma production.
© The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Science Advances 4 (2018): e1701121, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1701121.
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Science Advances 4 (2018): e1701121
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