Henderson Paul B.

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Paul B.

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  • Preprint
    Geochemical and physical sources of radon variation in a subterranean estuary — implications for groundwater radon activities in submarine groundwater discharge studies
    ( 2007-12-13) Dulaiova, Henrieta ; Gonneea, Meagan E. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), in form of springs and diffuse seepage, has long been recognized as a source of chemical constituents to the coastal ocean. Because groundwater is two to four orders of magnitude richer in radon than surface water, it has been used as both a qualitative and a quantitative tracer of groundwater discharge. Besides this large activity gradient, the other perceived advantage of radon stems from its classification as noble gas; that is, its chemical behavior is expected not to be influenced by salinity, redox, and diagenetic conditions present in aquatic environments. During our three-year monthly sampling of the subterranean estuary (STE) in Waquoit Bay, MA, we found highly variable radon activities (50-1600 dpm L-1) across the fresh-saline interface of the aquifer. We monitored pore water chemistry and radon activity at 8 fixed depths spanning from 2 to 5.6 m across the STE, and found seasonal fluctuations in activity at depths where elevated radon was observed. We postulate that most of pore water 222Rn is produced from particle-surface bound 226Ra, and that the accumulation of this radium is likely regulated by the presence of manganese (hydr)oxides. Layers of manganese (hydr)oxides form at the salinity transition zone (STZ), where water with high salinity, high manganese, and low redox potential mixes with fresh water. Responding to the seasonality of aquifer recharge, the location of the STZ and the layers with radium enriched manganese (hydr)oxide follows the seasonal land- or bay-ward movement of the freshwater lens. This results in seasonal changes in the depth where elevated radon activities are observed. The conclusion of our study is that the freshwater part of the STE has a radon signature that is completely different from the STZ or recirculated sea water. Therefore, the radon activity in SGD will depend on the ratio of fresh and recirculated seawater in the discharging groundwater.
  • Article
    GEOTRACES radium isotopes interlaboratory comparison experiment
    (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012-06) Charette, Matthew A. ; Dulaiova, Henrieta ; Gonneea, Meagan E. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Moore, Willard S. ; Scholten, Jan C. ; Pham, Mai Khanh
    In anticipation of the international GEOTRACES program, which will study the global marine biogeochemistry of trace elements and isotopes, we conducted a multi-lab intercomparison for radium isotopes. The intercomparison was in two parts involving the distribution of: (1) samples collected from four marine environments (open ocean, continental slope, shelf, and estuary) and (2) a suite of four reference materials prepared with isotopic standards (circulated to participants as 'unknowns'). Most labs performed well with 228Ra and 224Ra determination, however, there were a number of participants that reported 226Ra, 223Ra, and 228Th (supported 224Ra) well outside the 95% confidence interval. Many outliers were suspected to be a result of poorly calibrated detectors, though other method specific factors likely played a role (e.g., detector leakage, insufficient equilibration). Most methods for radium analysis in seawater involve a MnO2 fiber column preconcentration step; as such, we evaluated the extraction efficiency of this procedure and found that it ranged from an average of 87% to 94% for the four stations. Hence, nonquantitative radium recovery from seawater samples may also have played a role in lab-to-lab variability.
  • Article
    Increased fluxes of shelf-derived materials to the central Arctic Ocean
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2018-01-03) Kipp, Lauren ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Moore, Willard S. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Rigor, Ignatius
    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean region are responsible for changes such as reduced ice cover, permafrost thawing, and increased river discharge, which, together, alter nutrient and carbon cycles over the vast Arctic continental shelf. We show that the concentration of radium-228, sourced to seawater through sediment-water exchange processes, has increased substantially in surface waters of the central Arctic Ocean over the past decade. A mass balance model for 228Ra suggests that this increase is due to an intensification of shelf-derived material inputs to the central basin, a source that would also carry elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients. Therefore, we suggest that significant changes in the nutrient, carbon, and trace metal balances of the Arctic Ocean are underway, with the potential to affect biological productivity and species assemblages in Arctic surface waters.
  • Article
    Revisiting 228Th as a tool for determining sedimentation and mass accumulation rates
    (Elsevier, 2022-07-12) Tamborski, Joseph ; Cai, Pinghe ; Eagle, Meagan ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    The use of 228Th has seen limited application for determining sedimentation and mass accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Recent analytical advances have enabled rapid, precise measurements of particle-bound 228Th using a radium delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). Herein we review the 228Th cycle in the marine environment and revisit the historical use of 228Th as a tracer for determining sediment vertical accretion and mass accumulation rates in light of new measurement techniques. Case studies comparing accumulation rates from 228Th and 210Pb are presented for a micro-tidal salt marsh and a marginal sea environment. 228Th and 210Pb have been previously measured in mangrove, deltaic, continental shelf and ocean basin environments, and a literature synthesis reveals that 228Th (measured via alpha or gamma spectrometry) derived accumulation rates are generally equal to or greater than estimates derived from 210Pb, reflecting different integration periods. Use of 228Th is well-suited for shallow (<15 cm) cores over decadal timescales. Application is limited to relatively homogenous sediment profiles with minor variations in grain size and minimal bioturbation. When appropriate conditions are met, complimentary use of 228Th and 210Pb can demonstrate that the upper layers of a core are undisturbed and can improve spatial coverage in mapping accumulation rates due to the higher sample throughput for sediment 228Th.
  • Preprint
    Coupled radon, methane and nitrate sensors for large-scale assessment of groundwater discharge and non-point source pollution to coastal waters
    ( 2009-12-09) Dulaiova, Henrieta ; Camilli, Richard ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    We constructed a survey system of radon/methane/nitrate/salinity to find sites of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and groundwater nitrate input. We deployed the system in Waquoit Bay and Boston Harbor, MA where we derived SGD rates using a mass balance of radon with methane serving as a fine resolution qualitative indicator of groundwater. In Waquoit Bay we identified several locations of enhanced groundwater discharge, out of which two (Childs and Quashnet Rivers) were studied in more detail. The Childs River was characterized by high nitrate input via groundwater discharge, while the Quashnet River SGD was notable but not a significant source of nitrate. Our radon survey of Boston Harbor revealed several sites with significant SGD, out of these Inner Harbor and parts of Dorchester Bay and Quincy Bay had groundwater fluxes accompanied by significant water column nitrogen concentrations. The survey system has proven effective in revealing areas of SGD and non-point source pollution.
  • Article
    Underground gamma-ray measurements of radium isotopes from hydrothermal plumes in the deep Pacific Ocean
    (Elsevier, 2019-07-31) Hult, Mikael ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Lutter, Guillaume ; Marissens, Gerd ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Sobiech-Matura, Katarzyna ; Simgen, Hardy
    The radium isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra can provide important data on the dynamics of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes that travel the oceans for decades and have great impact on the ocean chemistry. This study focuses on parameters important for obtaining low detection limits for 228Ra using gamma-ray spectrometry. It is present at mBq-levels in samples collected during the US GEOTRACES 2013 cruise to the Southeast Pacific Ocean.
  • Article
    The Ra-226–Ba relationship in the North Atlantic during GEOTRACES-GA01
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2018-05-17) Le Roy, Emilie ; Sanial, Virginie ; Charette, Matthew A. ; van Beek, Pieter ; Lacan, Francois ; Jacquet, Stéphanie H. M. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Souhaut, Marc ; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I. ; Jeandel, Catherine ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Sarthou, Geraldine
    We report detailed sections of radium-226 (226Ra, T1∕2 =  1602 years) activities and barium (Ba) concentrations determined in the North Atlantic (Portugal–Greenland–Canada) in the framework of the international GEOTRACES program (GA01 section – GEOVIDE project, May–July 2014). Dissolved 226Ra and Ba are strongly correlated along the section, a pattern that may reflect their similar chemical behavior. Because 226Ra and Ba have been widely used as tracers of water masses and ocean mixing, we investigated their behavior more thoroughly in this crucial region for thermohaline circulation, taking advantage of the contrasting biogeochemical patterns existing along the GA01 section. We used an optimum multiparameter (OMP) analysis to distinguish the relative importance of physical transport (water mass mixing) from nonconservative processes (sedimentary, river or hydrothermal inputs, uptake by particles and dissolved–particulate dynamics) on the 226Ra and Ba distributions in the North Atlantic. Results show that the measured 226Ra and Ba concentrations can be explained by conservative mixing for 58 and 65 % of the samples, respectively, notably at intermediate depth, away from the ocean interfaces. 226Ra and Ba can thus be considered conservative tracers of water mass transport in the ocean interior on the space scales considered here, namely, on the order of a few thousand kilometers. However, regions in which 226Ra and Ba displayed nonconservative behavior and in some cases decoupled behaviors were also identified, mostly at the ocean boundaries (seafloor, continental margins and surface waters). Elevated 226Ra and Ba concentrations found in deepwater in the West European Basin suggest that lower Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADWl) accumulates 226Ra and Ba from sediment diffusion and/or particle dissolution during transport. In the upper 1500 m of the West European Basin, deficiencies in 226Ra and Ba are likely explained by their incorporation in planktonic calcareous and siliceous shells, or in barite (BaSO4) by substitution or adsorption mechanisms. Finally, because Ba and 226Ra display different source terms (mostly deep-sea sediments for 226Ra and rivers for Ba), strong decoupling between 226Ra and Ba were observed at the land–ocean boundaries. This is especially true in the shallow stations near the coasts of Greenland and Newfoundland where high 226Ra ∕ Ba ratios at depth reflect the diffusion of 226Ra from sediment and low 226Ra ∕ Ba ratios in the upper water column reflect the input of Ba associated with meteoric waters.
  • Article
    Lingering radioactivity at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls
    (Elsevier, 2017-10-30) Buesseler, Ken O. ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Pike, Steven M. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Kipp, Lauren
    We made an assessment of the levels of radionuclides in the ocean waters, seafloor and groundwater at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls where the US conducted nuclear weapons tests in the 1940's and 50's. This included the first estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived from radium isotopes that can be used here to calculate radionuclide fluxes in to the lagoon waters. While there is significant variability between sites and sample types, levels of plutonium (239,240Pu) remain several orders of magnitude higher in lagoon seawater and sediments than what is found in rest of the world's oceans. In contrast, levels of cesium-137 (137Cs) while relatively elevated in brackish groundwater are only slightly higher in the lagoon water relative to North Pacific surface waters. Of special interest was the Runit dome, a nuclear waste repository created in the 1970's within the Enewetak Atoll. Low seawater ratios of 240Pu/239Pu suggest that this area is the source of about half of the Pu in the Enewetak lagoon water column, yet radium isotopes suggest that SGD from below the dome is not a significant Pu source. SGD fluxes of Pu and Cs at Bikini were also relatively low. Thus radioactivity associated with seafloor sediments remains the largest source and long term repository for radioactive contamination. Overall, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls are an ongoing source of Pu and Cs to the North Pacific, but at annual rates that are orders of magnitude smaller than delivered via close-in fallout to the same area.
  • Article
    Radium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-03-28) Charette, Matthew A. ; Breier, Crystaline F. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Pike, Steven M. ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Jayne, Steven R. ; Buesseler, Ken O.
    Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs) concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ~ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2–3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d) to derive an average water mass age (Tr) in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days). From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9–4.6 × 1013 Bq d−1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr) was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz) of 0.7 m2 d−1 (0.1 cm2 s−1); from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d−1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ~ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11–16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released to the ocean directly from the Fukushima NPP.
  • Preprint
    Actinium and radium fluxes from the seabed in the northeast Pacific Basin
    (Elsevier, 2022-10-22) Kemnitz, Nathaniel ; Hammond, Douglas E. ; Henderson, Paul ; Le Roy, Emilie ; Charette, Matthew ; Moore, Willard ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Fleisher, Martin Q. ; Leal, Anne ; Black, Erin ; Hayes, Christopher T. ; Adkins, Jess ; Berelson, William ; Bian, Xiaopeng
    Five sediment cores were collected along a cruise tract from Hawaii to Alaska in August 2017 (C-Disk-IV cruise) with the objective of characterizing the behavior of 227Ac, 228Ra, and 226Ra and their fluxes into the overlying water column, information that is essential to the interpretation of the distribution of these tracers in the ocean, for example, as measured on GEOTRACES cruises. Solid phase profiles of these isotopes were measured, and reaction-transport models were applied that incorporated molecular diffusion, bioturbation, sedimentation, distribution coefficients (kd), and the fraction of each isotope released to pore water by parent decay (called F). Fits to these profiles used kd values determined in lab experiments for C-Disk-IV sediments. Ra kd values (1000–3000 mL g−1) agreed with previous estimates for deep-sea sediments, and Ac kd values (3500–22,000 mL g−1) correlated with those for Ra but were about 7 times greater. Two independent approaches were used to quantify the benthic fluxes of 227Ac and 228Ra in the Northeast Pacific: (1) use of solid phase profiles with a reaction-transport model, as well as integrated downcore daughter-parent deficiency; and (2) direct measurement of fluxes based on core incubation. The two independent methods agreed within uncertainty, and the average 227Ac and 228Ra sediment fluxes for the Northeast Pacific are 90 ± 20 and 600 ± 200 dpm m−2-yr−1, respectively. The 226Ra sediment flux was only determined by the former approach, and the flux calculated in this study is similar to previous work in the North Pacific, averaging 1300 ± 200 dpm m−2-yr−1. This is over 2× higher than the water column inventory of 226Ra in this region (600 dpm m−2-yr−1), and indicates the importance of lateral 226Ra export from the N. Pacific. The largest 227Ac and Ra isotope fluxes in the study area are near the center of the Northeast Pacific (∼37°N). Smaller 227Ac, 228Ra and 226Ra fluxes occur north of 40°N, primarily due to dilution of their Pa and Th ancestors by higher sediment accumulation rates.
  • Article
    Using Ra-226 and Ra-228 isotopes to distinguish water mass distribution in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
    (European Geosciences Union, 2020-10-16) Mears, Chantal ; Thomas, Helmuth ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Charette, Matthew A. ; MacIntyre, Hugh ; Dehairs, Frank ; Monnin, Christophe ; Mucci, Alfonso
    As a shelf-dominated basin, the Arctic Ocean and its biogeochemistry are heavily influenced by continental and riverine sources. Radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, and 223Ra), are transferred from the sediments to seawater, making them ideal tracers of sediment–water exchange processes and ocean mixing. As the two long-lived isotopes of the radium quartet, 226Ra and 228Ra (226Ra with a t1∕2 of 1600 years and 228Ra with a t1∕2 of 5.8 years) can provide insight into the water mass compositions, distribution patterns, as well as mixing processes and their associated timescales throughout the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The wide range of 226Ra and 228Ra activities, as well as of the 228Ra∕226Ra, measured in water samples collected during the 2015 GEOTRACES cruise, complemented by additional chemical tracers – dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (AT), barium (Ba), and the stable oxygen isotope composition of water (δ18O) – highlight the dominant biogeochemical, hydrographic, and bathymetric features of the CAA. Bathymetric features, such as the continental shelf and shallow coastal sills, are critical in modulating circulation patterns within the CAA, including the bulk flow of Pacific waters and the inhibited eastward flow of denser Atlantic waters through the CAA. Using a principal component analysis, we unravel the dominant mechanisms and apparent water mass end-members that shape the tracer distributions. We identify two distinct water masses located above and below the upper halocline layer throughout the CAA and distinctly differentiate surface waters in the eastern and western CAA. Furthermore, we highlight water exchange across 80∘ W, inferring a draw of Atlantic water (originating from Baffin Bay) into the CAA. This underscores the presence of an Atlantic water “U-turn” located at Barrow Strait, where the same water mass is seen along the northernmost edge at 80∘ W as well as along the southeasternmost confines of Lancaster Sound. Overall, this study provides a stepping stone for future research initiatives within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, revealing how quantifying disparities in the distributions of radioactive tracers can provide valuable information on water mass distributions, flow patterns, and mixing within vulnerable areas such as the CAA.
  • Article
    Erratum : GEOTRACES radium isotopes interlaboratory comparison experiment
    (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012-06) Charette, Matthew A. ; Dulaiova, Henrieta ; Gonneea, Meagan E. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Moore, Willard S. ; Scholten, Jan C. ; Pham, Mai Khanh
    In our original paper, Charette, M. A., H. Dulaiova, M. E. Gonneea, P. B. Henderson, W. S. Moore, J. C. Scholten, and M. K. Pham. 2012. GEOTRACES radium isotopes interlaboratory comparison experiment. Limonol. Oceanogr.: Methods 10:451, the incorrect headers were used for Table 9.
  • Article
    Submarine groundwater discharge to a small estuary estimated from radon and salinity measurements and a box model
    (Copernicus Publications, 2005-06-24) Crusius, John ; Koopmans, D. ; Bratton, John F. ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Kroeger, Kevin D. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Ryckman, L. ; Halloran, K. ; Colman, John A.
    Submarine groundwater discharge was quantified by a variety of methods for a 4-day period during the early summer of 2004, in Salt Pond, adjacent to Nauset Marsh, on Cape Cod, USA. Discharge estimates based on radon and salinity took advantage of the presence of the narrow channel connecting Salt Pond to Nauset Marsh, which allowed constructing whole-pond mass balances as water flowed in and out due to tidal fluctuations. The data suggest that less than one quarter of the discharge in the vicinity of Salt Pond happened within the pond itself, while three quarters or more of the discharge occurred immediately seaward of the pond, either in the channel or in adjacent regions of Nauset Marsh. Much of this discharge, which maintains high radon activities and low salinity, is carried into the pond during each incoming tide. A box model was used as an aid to understand both the rates and the locations of discharge in the vicinity of Salt Pond. The model achieves a reasonable fit to both the salinity and radon data assuming submarine groundwater discharge is fresh and that most of it occurs either in the channel or in adjacent regions of Nauset Marsh. Salinity and radon data, together with seepage meter results, do not rule out discharge of saline groundwater, but suggest either that the saline discharge is at most comparable in volume to the fresh discharge or that it is depleted in radon. The estimated rate of fresh groundwater discharge in the vicinity of Salt Pond is 3000-7000 m3 d-1. This groundwater flux estimated from the radon and salinity data is comparable to a value of 3200-4500 m3 d-1 predicted by a recent hydrologic model (Masterson, 2004; Colman and Masterson, 2004), although the model predicts this rate of discharge to the pond whereas our data suggest most of the groundwater bypasses the pond prior to discharge. Additional work is needed to determine if the measured rate of discharge is representative of the long-term average, and to better constrain the rate of groundwater discharge seaward of Salt Pond.
  • Article
    Shelf-derived iron inputs drive biological productivity in the southern Drake Passage
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-10-27) Dulaiova, Henrieta ; Ardelan, M. V. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    In the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts interact with shelf waters facilitating lateral transport of shelf-derived components such as iron into high-nutrient offshore regions. To trace these shelf-derived components and estimate lateral mixing rates of shelf water, we used naturally occurring radium isotopes. Short-lived radium isotopes were used to quantify the rates of shelf water entrainment while Fe/228Ra ratios were used to calculate the Fe flux. In the summer of 2006 we found rapid mixing and significant lateral iron export, namely, a dissolved iron flux of 1.1 × 105 mol d−1 and total acid leachable iron flux of 1.1 × 106 mol d−1 all of which is transported in the mixed layer from the shelf region offshore. This dissolved iron flux is significant, especially considering that the bloom observed in the offshore region (0.5–2 mg chl a m−3) had an iron demand of 1.1 to 4 × 105 mol Fe. Net vertical export fluxes of particulate Fe derived from 234Th/238U disequilibrium and Fe/234Th ratios accounted for only about 25% of the dissolved iron flux. On the other hand, vertical upward mixing of iron rich deeper waters provided only 7% of the lateral dissolved iron flux. We found that similarly to other studies in iron-fertilized regions of the Southern Ocean, lateral fluxes overwhelm vertical inputs and vertical export from the water column and support significant phytoplankton blooms in the offshore regions of the Drake Passage.
  • Article
    Pore water exchange-driven inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes
    (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2021-03-11) Tamborski, Joseph ; Eagle, Meagan ; Kurylyk, Barret L. ; Kroeger, Kevin D. ; Wang, Zhaoihui Aleck ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    Respiration in intertidal salt marshes generates dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) that is exported to the coastal ocean by tidal exchange with the marsh platform. Understanding the link between physical drivers of water exchange and chemical flux is a key to constraining coastal wetland contributions to regional carbon budgets. The spatial and temporal (seasonal, annual) variability of marsh pore water exchange and DIC export was assessed from a microtidal salt marsh (Sage Lot Pond, Massachusetts). Spatial variability was constrained from 224Ra : 228Th disequilibria across two hydrologic units within the marsh sediments. Disequilibrium between the more soluble 224Ra and its sediment-bound parent 228Th reveals significant pore water exchange in the upper 5 cm of the marsh surface (0–36 L m−2 d−1) that is most intense in low marsh elevation zones, driven by tidal overtopping. Surficial sediment DIC transport ranges from 0.0 to 0.7 g C m−2 d−1. The sub-surface sediment horizon intersected by mean low tide was disproportionately impacted by tidal pumping (20–80 L m−2 d−1) and supplied a seasonal DIC flux of 1.7–5.4 g C m−2 d−1. Export exceeded 10 g C m−2 d−1 for another marsh unit, demonstrating that fluxes can vary substantially across salt marshes under similar conditions within the same estuary. Seasonal and annual variability in marsh pore water exchange, constrained from tidal time-series of radium isotopes, was driven in part by variability in mean sea level. Rising sea levels will further inundate high marsh elevation zones, which may lead to greater DIC export.
  • Article
    Seasonal evolution of water contributions to discharge from a Greenland outlet glacier : insight from a new isotope-mixing model
    (International Glaciological Society, 2011-10-01) Bhatia, Maya P. ; Das, Sarah B. ; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Burke, Andrea ; Charette, Matthew A.
    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) subglacial hydrological system may undergo a seasonal evolution, with significant geophysical and biogeochemical implications. We present results from a new isotope-mixing model to quantify the relative contributions of surface snow, glacial ice and delayed flow to the bulk meltwater discharge from a small (∼5 km2) land-terminating GrIS outlet glacier during melt onset (May) and at peak melt (July). We use radioactive (222Rn) and stable isotopes (18O, deuterium) to differentiate the water source contributions. Atmospherically derived 7Be further constrains meltwater transit time from the glacier surface to the ice margin. We show that (1) 222Rn is a promising tracer for glacial waters stored at the bed and (2) a quantitative chemical mixing model can be constructed by combining 222Rn and the stable water isotopes. Applying this model to the bulk subglacial outflow from our study area, we find a constant delayed-flow (stored) component from melt onset through peak melt. This component is diluted first by snowmelt and then by increasing glacial ice melt as the season progresses. Results from this pilot study are consistent with the hypothesis that subglacial drainage beneath land-terminating sections of the GrIS undergoes a seasonal evolution from a distributed to a channelized system.
  • Article
    Shelf-basin interactions and water mass residence times in the western Arctic Ocean: Insights provided by radium isotopes
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-04-26) Kipp, Lauren ; Kadko, David C. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Moore, Willard S. ; Charette, Matthew A.
    Radium isotopes are produced through the decay of thorium in sediments and are soluble in seawater; thus, they are useful for tracing ocean boundary‐derived inputs to the ocean. Here we apply radium isotopes to study continental inputs and water residence times in the Arctic Ocean, where land‐ocean interactions are currently changing in response to rising air and sea temperatures. We present the distributions of radium isotopes measured on the 2015 U.S. GEOTRACES transect in the Western Arctic Ocean and combine this data set with historical radium observations in the Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin. The highest activities of radium‐228 were observed in the Transpolar Drift and the Chukchi shelfbreak jet, signaling that these currents are heavily influenced by interactions with shelf sediments. The ventilation of the halocline with respect to inputs from the Chukchi shelf occurs on time scales of ≤19–23 years. Intermediate water ventilation time scales for the Makarov and Canada Basins were determined to be ~20 and >30 years, respectively, while deep water residence times in these basins were on the order of centuries. The radium distributions and residence times described in this study serve as a baseline for future studies investigating the impacts of climate change on the Arctic Ocean.
  • Article
    The transpolar drift as a source of riverine and shelf-derived trace elements to the central Arctic Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-04-08) Charette, Matthew A. ; Kipp, Lauren ; Jensen, Laramie T. ; Dabrowski, Jessica S. ; Whitmore, Laura M. ; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. ; Williford, Tatiana ; Ulfsbo, Adam ; Jones, Elizabeth M. ; Bundy, Randelle M. ; Vivancos, Sebastian M. ; Pahnke, Katharina ; John, Seth G. ; Xiang, Yang ; Hatta, Mariko ; Petrova, Mariia V. ; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Newton, Robert ; Pasqualini, Angelica ; Agather, Alison ; Amon, Rainer M. W. ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Andersson, Per S. ; Benner, Ronald ; Bowman, Katlin ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Gdaniec, Sandra ; Gerringa, Loes J. A. ; González, Aridane G. ; Granskog, Mats A. ; Haley, Brian ; Hammerschmidt, Chad R. ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Kadko, David C. ; Kaiser, Karl ; Laan, Patrick ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lamborg, Carl H. ; Levier, Martin ; Li, Xianglei ; Margolin, Andrew R. ; Measures, Christopher I. ; Middag, Rob ; Millero, Frank J. ; Moore, Willard S. ; Paffrath, Ronja ; Planquette, Helene ; Rabe, Benjamin ; Reader, Heather ; Rember, Robert ; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A. ; Roy-Barman, Matthieu ; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers ; Saito, Mak A. ; Schauer, Ursula ; Schlosser, Peter ; Sherrell, Robert M. ; Shiller, Alan M. ; Slagter, Hans ; Sonke, Jeroen E. ; Stedmon, Colin ; Woosley, Ryan J. ; Valk, Ole ; van Ooijen, Jan ; Zhang, Ruifeng
    A major surface circulation feature of the Arctic Ocean is the Transpolar Drift (TPD), a current that transports river‐influenced shelf water from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas toward the center of the basin and Fram Strait. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program included a high‐resolution pan‐Arctic survey of carbon, nutrients, and a suite of trace elements and isotopes (TEIs). The cruises bisected the TPD at two locations in the central basin, which were defined by maxima in meteoric water and dissolved organic carbon concentrations that spanned 600 km horizontally and ~25–50 m vertically. Dissolved TEIs such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Hg, Nd, and Th, which are generally particle‐reactive but can be complexed by organic matter, were observed at concentrations much higher than expected for the open ocean setting. Other trace element concentrations such as Al, V, Ga, and Pb were lower than expected due to scavenging over the productive East Siberian and Laptev shelf seas. Using a combination of radionuclide tracers and ice drift modeling, the transport rate for the core of the TPD was estimated at 0.9 ± 0.4 Sv (106 m3 s−1). This rate was used to derive the mass flux for TEIs that were enriched in the TPD, revealing the importance of lateral transport in supplying materials beneath the ice to the central Arctic Ocean and potentially to the North Atlantic Ocean via Fram Strait. Continued intensification of the Arctic hydrologic cycle and permafrost degradation will likely lead to an increase in the flux of TEIs into the Arctic Ocean.
  • Article
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017
    (Elsevier, 2018-06-01) Schlitzer, Reiner ; Anderson, Robert F. ; Dodas, Elena Masferrer ; Lohan, Maeve C. ; Geibert, Walter ; Tagliabue, Alessandro ; Bowie, Andrew R. ; Jeandel, Catherine ; Maldonado, Maria T. ; Landing, William M. ; Cockwell, Donna ; Abadie, Cyril ; Abouchami, Wafa ; Achterberg, Eric P. ; Agather, Alison ; Aguliar-Islas, Ana ; van Aken, Hendrik M. ; Andersen, Morten ; Archer, Corey ; Auro, Maureen E. ; Baar, Hein J. W. de ; Baars, Oliver ; Baker, Alex R. ; Bakker, Karel ; Basak, Chandranath ; Baskaran, Mark ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; van Beek, Pieter ; Behrens, Melanie K. ; Black, Erin E. ; Bluhm, Katrin ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bouman, Heather ; Bowman, Katlin ; Bown, Johann ; Boyd, Philip ; Boye, Marie ; Boyle, Edward A. ; Branellec, Pierre ; Bridgestock, Luke ; Brissebrat, Guillaume ; Browning, Thomas ; Bruland, Kenneth W. ; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buck, Clifton S. ; Buck, Kristen N. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Bull, Abby ; Butler, Edward ; Cai, Pinghe ; Cámara Mor, Patricia ; Cardinal, Damien ; Carlson, Craig ; Carrasco, Gonzalo ; Casacuberta, Nuria ; Casciotti, Karen L. ; Castrillejo, Maxi ; Chamizo, Elena ; Chance, Rosie ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Chaves, Joaquin E. ; Cheng, Hai ; Chever, Fanny ; Christl, Marcus ; Church, Thomas M. ; Closset, Ivia ; Colman, Albert S. ; Conway, Tim M. ; Cossa, Daniel ; Croot, Peter L. ; Cullen, Jay T. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Daniels, Chris ; Dehairs, Frank ; Deng, Feifei ; Dieu, Huong Thi ; Duggan, Brian ; Dulaquais, Gabriel ; Dumousseaud, Cynthia ; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Ellwood, Michael J. ; Fahrbach, Eberhard ; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. ; Flegal, A. Russell ; Fleisher, Martin Q. ; van de Flierdt, Tina ; Frank, Martin ; Friedrich, Jana ; Fripiat, Francois ; Fröllje, Henning ; Galer, Stephen J. G. ; Gamo, Toshitaka ; Ganeshram, Raja S. ; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi ; Garcia Solsona, Ester ; Gault-Ringold, Melanie ; George, Ejin ; Gerringa, Loes J. A. ; Gilbert, Melissa ; Godoy, Jose Marcus ; Goldstein, Steven L. ; Gonzalez, Santiago ; Grissom, Karen ; Hammerschmidt, Chad R. ; Hartman, Alison ; Hassler, Christel ; Hathorne, Ed C. ; Hatta, Mariko ; Hawco, Nicholas J. ; Hayes, Christopher T. ; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric ; Helgoe, Josh ; Heller, Maija Iris ; Henderson, Gideon M. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; van Heuven, Steven ; Ho, Peng ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Hsieh, Yu-Te ; Huang, Kuo-Fang ; Humphreys, Matthew P. ; Isshiki, Kenji ; Jacquot, Jeremy E. ; Janssen, David J. ; Jenkins, William J. ; John, Seth ; Jones, Elizabeth M. ; Jones, Janice L. ; Kadko, David ; Kayser, Rick ; Kenna, Timothy C. ; Khondoker, Roulin ; Kim, Taejin ; Kipp, Lauren ; Klar, Jessica K. ; Klunder, Maarten ; Kretschmer, Sven ; Kumamoto, Yuichiro ; Laan, Patrick ; Labatut, Marie ; Lacan, Francois ; Lam, Phoebe J. ; Lambelet, Myriam ; Lamborg, Carl H. ; le Moigne, Frederique ; Le Roy, Emilie ; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J. ; Lee, Jong-Mi ; Lherminier, Pascale ; Little, Susan ; López-Lora, Mercedes ; Lu, Yanbin ; Masque, Pere ; Mawji, Edward ; McClain, Charles R. ; Measures, Christopher I. ; Mehic, Sanjin ; Menzel Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas ; Merwe, Pier van der ; Middag, Rob ; Mieruch, Sebastian ; Milne, Angela ; Minami, Tomoharu ; Moffett, James W. ; Moncoiffe, Gwenaelle ; Moore, Willard S. ; Morris, Paul J. ; Morton, Peter L. ; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru ; Nakayama, Noriko ; Niedermiller, John ; Nishioka, Jun ; Nishiuchi, Akira ; Noble, Abigail E. ; Obata, Hajime ; Ober, Sven ; Ohnemus, Daniel C. ; van Ooijen, Jan ; O'Sullivan, Jeanette ; Owens, Stephanie A. ; Pahnke, Katharina ; Paul, Maxence ; Pavia, Frank ; Pena, Leopoldo D. ; Peters, Brian ; Planchon, Frederic ; Planquette, Helene ; Pradoux, Catherine ; Puigcorbé, Viena ; Quay, Paul D. ; Queroue, Fabien ; Radic, Amandine ; Rauschenberg, Sara ; Rehkämper, Mark ; Rember, Robert ; Remenyi, Tomas A. ; Resing, Joseph A. ; Rickli, Joerg ; Rigaud, Sylvain ; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A. ; Rintoul, Stephen R. ; Robinson, Laura F. ; Roca-Martí, Montserrat ; Rodellas, Valenti ; Roeske, Tobias ; Rolison, John M. ; Rosenberg, Mark ; Roshan, Saeed ; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M. ; Ryabenko, Evgenia ; Saito, Mak A. ; Salt, Lesley ; Sanial, Virginie ; Sarthou, Geraldine ; Schallenberg, Christina ; Schauer, Ursula ; Scher, Howie ; Schlosser, Christian ; Schnetger, Bernhard ; Scott, Peter M. ; Sedwick, Peter N. ; Semiletov, Igor P. ; Shelley, Rachel U. ; Sherrell, Robert M. ; Shiller, Alan M. ; Sigman, Daniel M. ; Singh, Sunil Kumar ; Slagter, Hans ; Slater, Emma ; Smethie, William M. ; Snaith, Helen ; Sohrin, Yoshiki ; Sohst, Bettina M. ; Sonke, Jeroen E. ; Speich, Sabrina ; Steinfeldt, Reiner ; Stewart, Gillian ; Stichel, Torben ; Stirling, Claudine H. ; Stutsman, Johnny ; Swarr, Gretchen J. ; Swift, James H. ; Thomas, Alexander ; Thorne, Kay ; Till, Claire P. ; Till, Ralph ; Townsend, Ashley T. ; Townsend, Emily ; Tuerena, Robyn ; Twining, Benjamin S. ; Vance, Derek ; Velazquez, Sue ; Venchiarutti, Celia ; Villa-Alfageme, Maria ; Vivancos, Sebastian M. ; Voelker, Antje H. L. ; Wake, Bronwyn ; Warner, Mark J. ; Watson, Ros ; van Weerlee, Evaline ; Weigand, M. Alexandra ; Weinstein, Yishai ; Weiss, Dominik ; Wisotzki, Andreas ; Woodward, E. Malcolm S. ; Wu, Jingfeng ; Wu, Yingzhe ; Wuttig, Kathrin ; Wyatt, Neil ; Xiang, Yang ; Xie, Ruifang C. ; Xue, Zichen ; Yoshikawa, Hisayuki ; Zhang, Jing ; Zhang, Pu ; Zhao, Ye ; Zheng, Linjie ; Zheng, Xin-Yuan ; Zieringer, Moritz ; Zimmer, Louise A. ; Ziveri, Patrizia ; Zunino, Patricia ; Zurbrick, Cheryl
    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.