Nimmo Isabel C.

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Isabel C.

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  • Article
    Heat production and tidally driven fluid flow in the permeable core of Enceladus
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-07-28) Liao, Yang ; Nimmo, Francis ; Neufeld, Jerome A.
    Saturn's moon Enceladus has a global subsurface ocean and a porous rocky core in which water‐rock reactions likely occur; it is thus regarded as a potentially habitable environment. For icy moons like Enceladus, tidal heating is considered to be the main heating mechanism, which has generally been modeled using viscoelastic solid rheologies in existing studies. Here we provide a new framework for calculating tidal heating based on a poroviscoelastic model in which the porous solid and interstitial fluid deformation are coupled. We show that the total heating rate predicted for a poroviscoelastic core is significantly larger than that predicted using a classical viscoelastic model for intermediate to large (>1014 Pa·s) rock viscosities. The periodic deformation of the porous rock matrix is accompanied by interstitial pore fluid flow, and the combined effects through viscous dissipation result in high heat fluxes particularly at the poles. The heat generated in the rock matrix is also enhanced due to the high compressibility of the porous matrix structure. For a sufficiently compressible core and high permeability, the total heat production can exceed 10 GW—a large fraction of the moon's total heat budget—without requiring unrealistically low solid viscosities. The partitioning of heating between rock and fluid constituents depends most sensitively on the viscosity of the rock matrix. As the core of Enceladus warms and weakens over time, pore fluid motion likely shifts from pressure‐driven local oscillations to buoyancy‐driven global hydrothermal convection, and the core transitions from fluid‐dominated to rock‐dominated heating.
  • Article
    Genetic tool development in marine protists: emerging model organisms for experimental cell biology
    (Nature Research, 2020-04-06) Faktorová, Drahomíra ; Nisbet, R. Ellen R. ; Fernández Robledo, José A. ; Casacuberta, Elena ; Sudek, Lisa ; Allen, Andrew E. ; Ares, Manuel, Jr. ; Aresté, Cristina ; Balestreri, Cecilia ; Barbrook, Adrian C. ; Beardslee, Patrick ; Bender, Sara J. ; Booth, David S. ; Bouget, François-Yves ; Bowler, Chris ; Breglia, Susana A. ; Brownlee, Colin ; Burger, Gertraud ; Cerutti, Heriberto ; Cesaroni, Rachele ; Chiurillo, Miguel A. ; Clemente, Thomas ; Coles, Duncan B. ; Collier, Jackie L. ; Cooney, Elizabeth C. ; Coyne, Kathryn J. ; Docampo, Roberto ; Dupont, Christopher L. ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Einarsso, Elin ; Elustondo, Pía A. ; Federici, Fernan ; Freire-Beneitez, Veronica ; Freyria, Nastasia J. ; Fukuda, Kodai ; García, Paulo A. ; Girguis, Peter R. ; Gomaa, Fatma ; Gornik, Sebastian G. ; Guo, Jian ; Hampl, Vladimír ; Hanawa, Yutaka ; Haro-Contreras, Esteban R. ; Hehenberger, Elisabeth ; Highfield, Andrea ; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa ; Hopes, Amanda ; Howe, Christopher J. ; Hu, Ian ; Ibañez, Jorge ; Irwin, Nicholas A. T. ; Ishii, Yuu ; Janowicz, Natalia Ewa ; Jones, Adam C. ; Kachale, Ambar ; Fujimura-Kamada, Konomi ; Kaur, Binnypreet ; Kaye, Jonathan Z. ; Kazana, Eleanna ; Keeling, Patrick J. ; King, Nicole ; Klobutcher, Lawrence A. ; Lander, Noelia ; Lassadi, Imen ; Li, Zhuhong ; Lin, Senjie ; Lozano, Jean-Claude ; Luan, Fulei ; Maruyama, Shinichiro ; Matute, Tamara ; Miceli, Cristina ; Minagawa, Jun ; Moosburner, Mark ; Najle, Sebastián R. ; Nanjappa, Deepak ; Nimmo, Isabel C. ; Noble, Luke ; Novák Vanclová, Anna M. G. ; Nowacki, Mariusz ; Nuñez, Isaac ; Pain, Arnab ; Piersanti, Angela ; Pucciarelli, Sandra ; Pyrih, Jan ; Rest, Joshua S. ; Rius, Mariana ; Robertson, Deborah ; Ruaud, Albane ; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki ; Sigg, Monika A. ; Silver, Pamela A. ; Slamovits, Claudio H. ; Smith, G. Jason ; Sprecher, Brittany N. ; Stern, Rowena ; Swart, Estienne C. ; Tsaousis, Anastasios D. ; Tsypin, Lev ; Turkewitz, Aaron ; Turnšek, Jernej ; Valach, Matus ; Vergé, Valérie ; von Dassow, Peter ; von der Haar, Tobias ; Waller, Ross F. ; Wang, Lu ; Wen, Xiaoxue ; Wheeler, Glen L. ; Woods, April ; Zhang, Huan ; Mock, Thomas ; Worden, Alexandra Z. ; Lukes, Julius
    Diverse microbial ecosystems underpin life in the sea. Among these microbes are many unicellular eukaryotes that span the diversity of the eukaryotic tree of life. However, genetic tractability has been limited to a few species, which do not represent eukaryotic diversity or environmentally relevant taxa. Here, we report on the development of genetic tools in a range of protists primarily from marine environments. We present evidence for foreign DNA delivery and expression in 13 species never before transformed and for advancement of tools for eight other species, as well as potential reasons for why transformation of yet another 17 species tested was not achieved. Our resource in genetic manipulation will provide insights into the ancestral eukaryotic lifeforms, general eukaryote cell biology, protein diversification and the evolution of cellular pathways.