Aumont Olivier

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Last Name
Aumont
First Name
Olivier
ORCID
0000-0003-3954-506X

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Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
  • Article
    Correction to “Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements”
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-12-09) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
  • Article
    Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-12-07) Laufkötter, Charlotte ; Vogt, Meike ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Aita-Noguchi, M. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Hashioka, Taketo ; Hauck, Judith ; Hirata, Takafumi ; John, Jasmin G. ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Nakano, Hideyuki ; Seferian, Roland ; Totterdell, Ian J. ; Vichi, Marcello ; Volker, Chrisoph
    Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the large inter-model differences. Here, we analyze model-simulated changes in NPP for the 21st century under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. We use a suite of nine coupled carbon–climate Earth system models with embedded marine ecosystem models and focus on the spread between the different models and the underlying reasons. Globally, NPP decreases in five out of the nine models over the course of the 21st century, while three show no significant trend and one even simulates an increase. The largest model spread occurs in the low latitudes (between 30° S and 30° N), with individual models simulating relative changes between −25 and +40 %. Of the seven models diagnosing a net decrease in NPP in the low latitudes, only three simulate this to be a consequence of the classical interpretation, i.e., a stronger nutrient limitation due to increased stratification leading to reduced phytoplankton growth. In the other four, warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the stronger nutrient limitation. However, temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in phytoplankton biomass and reduce NPP despite higher growth rates. One model projects a strong increase in NPP in the low latitudes, caused by an intensification of the microbial loop, while NPP in the remaining model changes by less than 0.5 %. While models consistently project increases NPP in the Southern Ocean, the regional inter-model range is also very substantial. In most models, this increase in NPP is driven by temperature, but it is also modulated by changes in light, macronutrients and iron as well as grazing. Overall, current projections of future changes in global marine NPP are subject to large uncertainties and necessitate a dedicated and sustained effort to improve the models and the concepts and data that guide their development.
  • Article
    On the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and the role of the biological carbon pump in the 21st century
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-09-23) Hauck, Judith ; Volker, Chrisoph ; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A. ; Laufkötter, Charlotte ; Vogt, Meike ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Hashioka, Taketo ; John, Jasmin G. ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Nakano, Hideyuki ; Seferian, Roland ; Totterdell, Ian J.
    We use a suite of eight ocean biogeochemical/ecological general circulation models from the Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to explore the relative roles of changes in winds (positive trend of Southern Annular Mode, SAM) and in warming- and freshening-driven trends of upper ocean stratification in altering export production and CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean at the end of the 21st century. The investigated models simulate a broad range of responses to climate change, with no agreement on a dominance of either the SAM or the warming signal south of 44°S. In the southernmost zone, i.e., south of 58°S, they concur on an increase of biological export production, while between 44 and 58°S the models lack consensus on the sign of change in export. Yet in both regions, the models show an enhanced CO2 uptake during spring and summer. This is due to a larger CO2(aq) drawdown by the same amount of summer export production at a higher Revelle factor at the end of the 21st century. This strongly increases the importance of the biological carbon pump in the entire Southern Ocean. In the temperate zone, between 30 and 44°S, all models show a predominance of the warming signal and a nutrient-driven reduction of export production. As a consequence, the share of the regions south of 44°S to the total uptake of the Southern Ocean south of 30°S is projected to increase at the end of the 21st century from 47 to 66% with a commensurable decrease to the north. Despite this major reorganization of the meridional distribution of the major regions of uptake, the total uptake increases largely in line with the rising atmospheric CO2. Simulations with the MITgcm-REcoM2 model show that this is mostly driven by the strong increase of atmospheric CO2, with the climate-driven changes of natural CO2 exchange offsetting that trend only to a limited degree (∼10%) and with negligible impact of climate effects on anthropogenic CO2 uptake when integrated over a full annual cycle south of 30°S.
  • Article
    Air-sea CO2 flux in the Pacific Ocean for the period 1990–2009
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-02-06) Ishii, Masao ; Feely, Richard A. ; Rodgers, Keith B. ; Park, Geun-Ha ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Sasano, D. ; Sugimoto, H. ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro ; Telszewski, Maciej ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E. ; Niwa, Y. ; Patra, Prabir K. ; Valsala, V. ; Nakano, Hideyuki ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Dunne, John P. ; Lenton, Andrew ; Takahashi, Taro
    Air–sea CO2 fluxes over the Pacific Ocean are known to be characterized by coherent large-scale structures that reflect not only ocean subduction and upwelling patterns, but also the combined effects of wind-driven gas exchange and biology. On the largest scales, a large net CO2 influx into the extratropics is associated with a robust seasonal cycle, and a large net CO2 efflux from the tropics is associated with substantial interannual variability. In this work, we have synthesized estimates of the net air–sea CO2 flux from a variety of products, drawing upon a variety of approaches in three sub-basins of the Pacific Ocean, i.e., the North Pacific extratropics (18–66° N), the tropical Pacific (18° S–18° N), and the South Pacific extratropics (44.5–18° S). These approaches include those based on the measurements of CO2 partial pressure in surface seawater (pCO2sw), inversions of ocean-interior CO2 data, forward ocean biogeochemistry models embedded in the ocean general circulation models (OBGCMs), a model with assimilation of pCO2sw data, and inversions of atmospheric CO2 measurements. Long-term means, interannual variations and mean seasonal variations of the regionally integrated fluxes were compared in each of the sub-basins over the last two decades, spanning the period from 1990 through 2009. A simple average of the long-term mean fluxes obtained with surface water pCO2 diagnostics and those obtained with ocean-interior CO2 inversions are −0.47 ± 0.13 Pg C yr−1 in the North Pacific extratropics, +0.44 ± 0.14 Pg C yr−1 in the tropical Pacific, and −0.37 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1 in the South Pacific extratropics, where positive fluxes are into the atmosphere. This suggests that approximately half of the CO2 taken up over the North and South Pacific extratropics is released back to the atmosphere from the tropical Pacific. These estimates of the regional fluxes are also supported by the estimates from OBGCMs after adding the riverine CO2 flux, i.e., −0.49 ± 0.02 Pg C yr−1 in the North Pacific extratropics, +0.41 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1 in the tropical Pacific, and −0.39 ± 0.11 Pg C yr−1 in the South Pacific extratropics. The estimates from the atmospheric CO2 inversions show large variations amongst different inversion systems, but their median fluxes are consistent with the estimates from climatological pCO2sw data and pCO2sw diagnostics. In the South Pacific extratropics, where CO2 variations in the surface and ocean interior are severely undersampled, the difference in the air–sea CO2 flux estimates between the diagnostic models and ocean-interior CO2 inversions is larger (0.18 Pg C yr−1). The range of estimates from forward OBGCMs is also large (−0.19 to −0.72 Pg C yr−1). Regarding interannual variability of air–sea CO2 fluxes, positive and negative anomalies are evident in the tropical Pacific during the cold and warm events of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in the estimates from pCO2sw diagnostic models and from OBGCMs. They are consistent in phase with the Southern Oscillation Index, but the peak-to-peak amplitudes tend to be higher in OBGCMs (0.40 ± 0.09 Pg C yr−1) than in the diagnostic models (0.27 ± 0.07 Pg C yr−1).
  • Article
    Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades : a case study at BATS and HOT
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-09-15) Saba, Vincent S. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Carr, Mary-Elena ; Antoine, David ; Armstrong, Robert A. ; Asanuma, Ichio ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Bennington, Val ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bruggeman, Jorn ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Church, Matthew J. ; Ciotti, Aurea M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dowell, Mark ; Dunne, John P. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Gregg, Watson ; Hoepffner, Nicolas ; Hyde, Kimberly J. W. ; Ishizaka, Joji ; Kameda, Takahiko ; Karl, David M. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Lomas, Michael W. ; Marra, John F. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Melin, Frederic ; Moore, J. Keith ; Morel, Andre ; O'Reilly, John ; Salihoglu, Baris ; Scardi, Michele ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Tang, Shilin ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Uitz, Julia ; Vichi, Marcello ; Waters, Kirk ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Yool, Andrew
    The performance of 36 models (22 ocean color models and 14 biogeochemical ocean circulation models (BOGCMs)) that estimate depth-integrated marine net primary productivity (NPP) was assessed by comparing their output to in situ 14C data at the Bermuda Atlantic Time series Study (BATS) and the Hawaii Ocean Time series (HOT) over nearly two decades. Specifically, skill was assessed based on the models' ability to estimate the observed mean, variability, and trends of NPP. At both sites, more than 90% of the models underestimated mean NPP, with the average bias of the BOGCMs being nearly twice that of the ocean color models. However, the difference in overall skill between the best BOGCM and the best ocean color model at each site was not significant. Between 1989 and 2007, in situ NPP at BATS and HOT increased by an average of nearly 2% per year and was positively correlated to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation index. The majority of ocean color models produced in situ NPP trends that were closer to the observed trends when chlorophyll-a was derived from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rather than fluorometric or SeaWiFS data. However, this was a function of time such that average trend magnitude was more accurately estimated over longer time periods. Among BOGCMs, only two individual models successfully produced an increasing NPP trend (one model at each site). We caution against the use of models to assess multiannual changes in NPP over short time periods. Ocean color model estimates of NPP trends could improve if more high quality HPLC chlorophyll-a time series were available.
  • Preprint
    Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms
    ( 2005-07-29) Orr, James C. ; Fabry, Victoria J. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Ishida, Akio ; Joos, Fortunat ; Key, Robert M. ; Lindsay, Keith ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Matear, Richard J. ; Monfray, Patrick ; Mouchet, Anne ; Najjar, Raymond G. ; Plattner, Gian-Kasper ; Rodgers, Keith B. ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Schlitzer, Reiner ; Slater, Richard D. ; Totterdell, Ian J. ; Weirig, Marie-France ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro ; Yool, Andrew
    The surface ocean is everywhere saturated with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Yet increasing atmospheric CO2 reduces ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations [CO32−] and thus the level of saturation. Reduced saturation states are expected to affect marine calcifiers even though it has been estimated that all surface waters will remain saturated for centuries. Here we show, however, that some surface waters will become undersaturated within decades. When atmospheric CO2 reaches 550 ppmv, in year 2050 under the IS92a business-as-usual scenario, Southern Ocean surface waters begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of CaCO3. By 2100 as atmospheric CO2 reaches 788 ppmv, undersaturation extends throughout the entire Southern Ocean (< 60°S) and into the subarctic Pacific. These changes will threaten high-latitude aragonite secreting organisms including cold-water corals, which provide essential fish habitat, and shelled pteropods, an abundant food source for marine predators.
  • Article
    An atmospheric constraint on the seasonal Air-Sea exchange of oxygen and heat in the extratropics
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-07-22) Morgan, Eric J. ; Manizza, Manfredi ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Resplandy, Laure ; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E. ; Nevison, Cynthia D. ; Jin, Yuming ; Bent, Jonathan D. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; John, Jasmin G. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Rodgers, Keith B.
    The air-sea exchange of oxygen (O2) is driven by changes in solubility, biological activity, and circulation. The total air-sea exchange of O2 has been shown to be closely related to the air-sea exchange of heat on seasonal timescales, with the ratio of the seasonal flux of O2 to heat varying with latitude, being higher in the extratropics and lower in the subtropics. This O2/heat ratio is both a fundamental biogeochemical property of air-sea exchange and a convenient metric for testing earth system models. Current estimates of the O2/heat flux ratio rely on sparse observations of dissolved O2, leaving it fairly unconstrained. From a model ensemble we show that the ratio of the seasonal amplitude of two atmospheric tracers, atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) and the argon-to-nitrogen ratio (Ar/O2), exhibits a close relationship to the O2/heat ratio of the extratropics (40–70°). The amplitude ratio, A APO/A ArN2, is relatively constant within the extratropics of each hemisphere due to the zonal mixing of the atmosphere. A APO/A ArN2 is not sensitive to atmospheric transport, as most of the observed spatial variability in the seasonal amplitude of δAPO is compensated by similar variations in δ(Ar/N2). From the relationship between O2/heat and A APO/A ArN2 in the model ensemble, we determine that the atmospheric observations suggest hemispherically distinct O2/heat flux ratios of 3.3 ± 0.3 and 4.7 ± 0.8 nmol J-1 between 40 and 70° in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively, providing a useful constraint for O2 and heat air-sea fluxes in earth system models and observation-based data products.
  • Article
    Biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP)
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2017-06-09) Orr, James C. ; Najjar, Raymond G. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bullister, John L. ; Danabasoglu, Gokhan ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Dutay, Jean-Claude ; Graven, Heather ; Griffies, Stephen M. ; John, Jasmin G. ; Joos, Fortunat ; Levin, Ingeborg ; Lindsay, Keith ; Matear, Richard J. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Mouchet, Anne ; Oschlies, Andreas ; Romanou, Anastasia ; Schlitzer, Reiner ; Tagliabue, Alessandro ; Tanhua, Toste ; Yool, Andrew
    The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) focuses on the physics and biogeochemistry of the ocean component of Earth system models participating in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). OMIP aims to provide standard protocols and diagnostics for ocean models, while offering a forum to promote their common assessment and improvement. It also offers to compare solutions of the same ocean models when forced with reanalysis data (OMIP simulations) vs. when integrated within fully coupled Earth system models (CMIP6). Here we detail simulation protocols and diagnostics for OMIP's biogeochemical and inert chemical tracers. These passive-tracer simulations will be coupled to ocean circulation models, initialized with observational data or output from a model spin-up, and forced by repeating the 1948–2009 surface fluxes of heat, fresh water, and momentum. These so-called OMIP-BGC simulations include three inert chemical tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6) and biogeochemical tracers (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon isotopes, alkalinity, nutrients, and oxygen). Modelers will use their preferred prognostic BGC model but should follow common guidelines for gas exchange and carbonate chemistry. Simulations include both natural and total carbon tracers. The required forced simulation (omip1) will be initialized with gridded observational climatologies. An optional forced simulation (omip1-spunup) will be initialized instead with BGC fields from a long model spin-up, preferably for 2000 years or more, and forced by repeating the same 62-year meteorological forcing. That optional run will also include abiotic tracers of total dissolved inorganic carbon and radiocarbon, CTabio and 14CTabio, to assess deep-ocean ventilation and distinguish the role of physics vs. biology. These simulations will be forced by observed atmospheric histories of the three inert gases and CO2 as well as carbon isotope ratios of CO2. OMIP-BGC simulation protocols are founded on those from previous phases of the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project. They have been merged and updated to reflect improvements concerning gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and new data for initial conditions and atmospheric gas histories. Code is provided to facilitate their implementation.
  • Article
    Evaluation of ocean carbon cycle models with data-based metrics
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-04-02) Matsumoto, K. ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Key, Robert M. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bullister, John L. ; Caldeira, Ken ; Campin, J.-M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Drange, Helge ; Dutay, J.-C. ; Follows, Michael J. ; Gao, Y. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Ishida, Akio ; Joos, Fortunat ; Lindsay, Keith ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Marshall, John C. ; Matear, Richard J. ; Monfray, Patrick ; Mouchet, Anne ; Najjar, Raymond G. ; Plattner, Gian-Kasper ; Schlitzer, Reiner ; Slater, Richard D. ; Swathi, P. S. ; Totterdell, Ian J. ; Weirig, Marie-France ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro ; Yool, Andrew ; Orr, James C.
    New radiocarbon and chlorofluorocarbon-11 data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment are used to assess a suite of 19 ocean carbon cycle models. We use the distributions and inventories of these tracers as quantitative metrics of model skill and find that only about a quarter of the suite is consistent with the new data-based metrics. This should serve as a warning bell to the larger community that not all is well with current generation of ocean carbon cycle models. At the same time, this highlights the danger in simply using the available models to represent the state-of-the-art modeling without considering the credibility of each model.
  • Article
    Inconsistent strategies to spin up models in CMIP5 : implications for ocean biogeochemical model performance assessment
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-05-12) Seferian, Roland ; Gehlen, Marion ; Bopp, Laurent ; Resplandy, Laure ; Orr, James ; Marti, Olivier ; Dunne, John P. ; Christian, James R. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Lindsay, Keith ; Halloran, Paul R. ; Heinze, Christoph ; Segschneider, Joachim ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Aumont, Olivier ; Romanou, Anastasia
    During the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) substantial efforts were made to systematically assess the skill of Earth system models. One goal was to check how realistically representative marine biogeochemical tracer distributions could be reproduced by models. In routine assessments model historical hindcasts were compared with available modern biogeochemical observations. However, these assessments considered neither how close modeled biogeochemical reservoirs were to equilibrium nor the sensitivity of model performance to initial conditions or to the spin-up protocols. Here, we explore how the large diversity in spin-up protocols used for marine biogeochemistry in CMIP5 Earth system models (ESMs) contributes to model-to-model differences in the simulated fields. We take advantage of a 500-year spin-up simulation of IPSL-CM5A-LR to quantify the influence of the spin-up protocol on model ability to reproduce relevant data fields. Amplification of biases in selected biogeochemical fields (O2, NO3, Alk-DIC) is assessed as a function of spin-up duration. We demonstrate that a relationship between spin-up duration and assessment metrics emerges from our model results and holds when confronted with a larger ensemble of CMIP5 models. This shows that drift has implications for performance assessment in addition to possibly aliasing estimates of climate change impact. Our study suggests that differences in spin-up protocols could explain a substantial part of model disparities, constituting a source of model-to-model uncertainty. This requires more attention in future model intercomparison exercises in order to provide quantitatively more correct ESM results on marine biogeochemistry and carbon cycle feedbacks.
  • Article
    Projected decreases in future marine export production : the role of the carbon flux through the upper ocean ecosystem
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-07-14) Laufkötter, Charlotte ; Vogt, Meike ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Hauck, Judith ; John, Jasmin G. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Seferian, Roland ; Völker, Christoph
    Accurate projections of marine particle export production (EP) are crucial for predicting the response of the marine carbon cycle to climate change, yet models show a wide range in both global EP and their responses to climate change. This is, in part, due to EP being the net result of a series of processes, starting with net primary production (NPP) in the sunlit upper ocean, followed by the formation of particulate organic matter and the subsequent sinking and remineralisation of these particles, with each of these processes responding differently to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we compare future projections in EP over the 21st century, generated by four marine ecosystem models under the high emission scenario Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and determine the processes driving these changes. The models simulate small to modest decreases in global EP between −1 and −12 %. Models differ greatly with regard to the drivers causing these changes. Among them, the formation of particles is the most uncertain process with models not agreeing on either magnitude or the direction of change. The removal of the sinking particles by remineralisation is simulated to increase in the low and intermediate latitudes in three models, driven by either warming-induced increases in remineralisation or slower particle sinking, and show insignificant changes in the remaining model. Changes in ecosystem structure, particularly the relative role of diatoms matters as well, as diatoms produce larger and denser particles that sink faster and are partly protected from remineralisation. Also this controlling factor is afflicted with high uncertainties, particularly since the models differ already substantially with regard to both the initial (present-day) distribution of diatoms (between 11–94 % in the Southern Ocean) and the diatom contribution to particle formation (0.6–3.8 times higher than their contribution to biomass). As a consequence, changes in diatom concentration are a strong driver for EP changes in some models but of low significance in others. Observational and experimental constraints on ecosystem structure and how the fixed carbon is routed through the ecosystem to produce export production are urgently needed in order to improve current generation ecosystem models and their ability to project future changes.
  • Article
    Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-09-18) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
    Here we use observations and ocean models to identify mechanisms driving large seasonal to interannual variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (O2) in the upper ocean. We begin with observations linking variations in upper ocean DIC and O2 inventories with changes in the physical state of the ocean. Models are subsequently used to address the extent to which the relationships derived from short-timescale (6 months to 2 years) repeat measurements are representative of variations over larger spatial and temporal scales. The main new result is that convergence and divergence (column stretching) attributed to baroclinic Rossby waves can make a first-order contribution to DIC and O2 variability in the upper ocean. This results in a close correspondence between natural variations in DIC and O2 column inventory variations and sea surface height (SSH) variations over much of the ocean. Oceanic Rossby wave activity is an intrinsic part of the natural variability in the climate system and is elevated even in the absence of significant interannual variability in climate mode indices. The close correspondence between SSH and both DIC and O2 column inventories for many regions suggests that SSH changes (inferred from satellite altimetry) may prove useful in reducing uncertainty in separating natural and anthropogenic DIC signals (using measurements from Climate Variability and Predictability's CO2/Repeat Hydrography program).
  • Article
    Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen in the ocean : results from Phase II of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-08-08) Najjar, Raymond G. ; Jin, X. ; Louanchi, F. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Caldeira, Ken ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dutay, J.-C. ; Follows, Michael J. ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Joos, Fortunat ; Lindsay, Keith ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Matear, Richard J. ; Matsumoto, K. ; Monfray, Patrick ; Mouchet, Anne ; Orr, James C. ; Plattner, Gian-Kasper ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Schlitzer, Reiner ; Slater, Richard D. ; Weirig, Marie-France ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro ; Yool, Andrew
    Results are presented of export production, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and dissolved oxygen simulated by 12 global ocean models participating in the second phase of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project. A common, simple biogeochemical model is utilized in different coarse-resolution ocean circulation models. The model mean (±1σ) downward flux of organic matter across 75 m depth is 17 ± 6 Pg C yr−1. Model means of globally averaged particle export, the fraction of total export in dissolved form, surface semilabile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and seasonal net outgassing (SNO) of oxygen are in good agreement with observation-based estimates, but particle export and surface DOC are too high in the tropics. There is a high sensitivity of the results to circulation, as evidenced by (1) the correlation of surface DOC and export with circulation metrics, including chlorofluorocarbon inventory and deep-ocean radiocarbon, (2) very large intermodel differences in Southern Ocean export, and (3) greater export production, fraction of export as DOM, and SNO in models with explicit mixed layer physics. However, deep-ocean oxygen, which varies widely among the models, is poorly correlated with other model indices. Cross-model means of several biogeochemical metrics show better agreement with observation-based estimates when restricted to those models that best simulate deep-ocean radiocarbon. Overall, the results emphasize the importance of physical processes in marine biogeochemical modeling and suggest that the development of circulation models can be accelerated by evaluating them with marine biogeochemical metrics.