Perez Fiz F.

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Fiz F.

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  • Article
    Correction to “Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements”
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-12-09) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
  • Article
    The Ra-226–Ba relationship in the North Atlantic during GEOTRACES-GA01
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2018-05-17) Le Roy, Emilie ; Sanial, Virginie ; Charette, Matthew A. ; van Beek, Pieter ; Lacan, Francois ; Jacquet, Stéphanie H. M. ; Henderson, Paul B. ; Souhaut, Marc ; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I. ; Jeandel, Catherine ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Sarthou, Geraldine
    We report detailed sections of radium-226 (226Ra, T1∕2 =  1602 years) activities and barium (Ba) concentrations determined in the North Atlantic (Portugal–Greenland–Canada) in the framework of the international GEOTRACES program (GA01 section – GEOVIDE project, May–July 2014). Dissolved 226Ra and Ba are strongly correlated along the section, a pattern that may reflect their similar chemical behavior. Because 226Ra and Ba have been widely used as tracers of water masses and ocean mixing, we investigated their behavior more thoroughly in this crucial region for thermohaline circulation, taking advantage of the contrasting biogeochemical patterns existing along the GA01 section. We used an optimum multiparameter (OMP) analysis to distinguish the relative importance of physical transport (water mass mixing) from nonconservative processes (sedimentary, river or hydrothermal inputs, uptake by particles and dissolved–particulate dynamics) on the 226Ra and Ba distributions in the North Atlantic. Results show that the measured 226Ra and Ba concentrations can be explained by conservative mixing for 58 and 65 % of the samples, respectively, notably at intermediate depth, away from the ocean interfaces. 226Ra and Ba can thus be considered conservative tracers of water mass transport in the ocean interior on the space scales considered here, namely, on the order of a few thousand kilometers. However, regions in which 226Ra and Ba displayed nonconservative behavior and in some cases decoupled behaviors were also identified, mostly at the ocean boundaries (seafloor, continental margins and surface waters). Elevated 226Ra and Ba concentrations found in deepwater in the West European Basin suggest that lower Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADWl) accumulates 226Ra and Ba from sediment diffusion and/or particle dissolution during transport. In the upper 1500 m of the West European Basin, deficiencies in 226Ra and Ba are likely explained by their incorporation in planktonic calcareous and siliceous shells, or in barite (BaSO4) by substitution or adsorption mechanisms. Finally, because Ba and 226Ra display different source terms (mostly deep-sea sediments for 226Ra and rivers for Ba), strong decoupling between 226Ra and Ba were observed at the land–ocean boundaries. This is especially true in the shallow stations near the coasts of Greenland and Newfoundland where high 226Ra ∕ Ba ratios at depth reflect the diffusion of 226Ra from sediment and low 226Ra ∕ Ba ratios in the upper water column reflect the input of Ba associated with meteoric waters.
  • Article
    Global Carbon Budget 2015
    (Copernicus Publications, 2015-12-07) Le Quere, Corinne ; Moriarty, Roisin ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Sitch, Stephen ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Peters, Glen P. ; Andres, Robert J. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Houghton, Richard A. ; House, Jo I. ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Arneth, Almut ; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chang, J. ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise Parsons ; Ciais, Philippe ; Fader, Marianela ; Feely, Richard A. ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Kitidis, Vassilis ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Koven, Charles ; Landschutzer, Peter ; Lauvset, Siv K. ; Lefevre, N. ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank J. ; Munro, David R. ; Murata, Akihiko ; Nabel, Julia E. M. S. ; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Olsen, Are ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Pfeil, Benjamin ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rehder, Gregor ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Saito, Shu ; Schuster, Ute ; Schwinger, Jorg ; Seferian, Roland ; Steinhoff, Tobias ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T. ; van der Werf, Guido R. ; van Heuven, Steven ; Vandemark, Douglas ; Viovy, Nicolas ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sonke ; Zeng, Ning
    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr−1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of −0.6 [range of −1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).
  • Article
    Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-09-18) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
    Here we use observations and ocean models to identify mechanisms driving large seasonal to interannual variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (O2) in the upper ocean. We begin with observations linking variations in upper ocean DIC and O2 inventories with changes in the physical state of the ocean. Models are subsequently used to address the extent to which the relationships derived from short-timescale (6 months to 2 years) repeat measurements are representative of variations over larger spatial and temporal scales. The main new result is that convergence and divergence (column stretching) attributed to baroclinic Rossby waves can make a first-order contribution to DIC and O2 variability in the upper ocean. This results in a close correspondence between natural variations in DIC and O2 column inventory variations and sea surface height (SSH) variations over much of the ocean. Oceanic Rossby wave activity is an intrinsic part of the natural variability in the climate system and is elevated even in the absence of significant interannual variability in climate mode indices. The close correspondence between SSH and both DIC and O2 column inventories for many regions suggests that SSH changes (inferred from satellite altimetry) may prove useful in reducing uncertainty in separating natural and anthropogenic DIC signals (using measurements from Climate Variability and Predictability's CO2/Repeat Hydrography program).
  • Article
    Best practice data standards for discrete chemical oceanographic observations
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-01-21) Jiang, Li-Qing ; Pierrot, Denis ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Feely, Richard A. ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Alin, Simone R. ; Barbero, Leticia ; Byrne, Robert H. ; Carter, Brendan ; Dickson, Andrew G. ; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre ; Greeley, Dana ; Hoppema, Mario ; Humphreys, Matthew P. ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Lange, Nico ; Lauvset, Siv K. ; Lewis, Ernie R. ; Olsen, Are ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Sabine, Christopher ; Sharp, Jonathan D. ; Tanhua, Toste ; Trull, Thomas W. ; Velo, Anton ; Allegra, Andrew J. ; Barker, Paul M. ; Burger, Eugene ; Cai, Wei-Jun ; Chen, Chen-Tung A. ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Garcia, Hernan E. ; Hernandez-Ayon, Jose Martin ; Hu, Xinping ; Kozyr, Alex ; Langdon, Chris ; Lee, Kitack ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck ; Xue, Liang
    Effective data management plays a key role in oceanographic research as cruise-based data, collected from different laboratories and expeditions, are commonly compiled to investigate regional to global oceanographic processes. Here we describe new and updated best practice data standards for discrete chemical oceanographic observations, specifically those dealing with column header abbreviations, quality control flags, missing value indicators, and standardized calculation of certain properties. These data standards have been developed with the goals of improving the current practices of the scientific community and promoting their international usage. These guidelines are intended to standardize data files for data sharing and submission into permanent archives. They will facilitate future quality control and synthesis efforts and lead to better data interpretation. In turn, this will promote research in ocean biogeochemistry, such as studies of carbon cycling and ocean acidification, on regional to global scales. These best practice standards are not mandatory. Agencies, institutes, universities, or research vessels can continue using different data standards if it is important for them to maintain historical consistency. However, it is hoped that they will be adopted as widely as possible to facilitate consistency and to achieve the goals stated above.