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ArticleExpanding Tara oceans protocols for underway, ecosystemic sampling of the ocean-atmosphere interface during Tara Pacific expedition (2016-2018)(Frontiers Media, 2019-12-11) Gorsky, Gabriel ; Bourdin, Guillaume ; Lombard, Fabien ; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza ; Audrain, Samuel ; Bin, Nicolas ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Bowler, Chris ; Cassar, Nicolas ; Caudan, Loic ; Chabot, Genevieve ; Cohen, Natalie R. ; Cron, Daniel ; De Vargas, Colomban ; Dolan, John R. ; Douville, Eric ; Elineau, Amanda ; Flores, J. Michel ; Ghiglione, Jean-Francois ; Haëntjens, Nils ; Hertau, Martin ; John, Seth G. ; Kelly, Rachel L. ; Koren, Ilan ; Lin, Yajuan ; Marie, Dominique ; Moulin, Clémentine ; Moucherie, Yohann ; Pesant, Stephane ; Picheral, Marc ; Poulain, Julie ; Pujo-Pay, Mireille ; Reverdin, Gilles ; Romac, Sarah ; Sullivan, Mathew B. ; Trainic, Miri ; Tressol, Marc ; Troublé, Romain ; Vardi, Assaf ; Voolstra, Christian R. ; Wincker, Patrick ; Agostini, Sylvain ; Banaigs, Bernard ; Boissin, Emilie ; Forcioli, Didier ; Furla, Paola ; Galand, Pierre E. ; Gilson, Eric ; Reynaud, Stephanie ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Thomas, Olivier P. ; Vega Thurber, Rebecca ; Zoccola, Didier ; Planes, Serge ; Allemand, Denis ; Karsenti, EricInteractions between the ocean and the atmosphere occur at the air-sea interface through the transfer of momentum, heat, gases and particulate matter, and through the impact of the upper-ocean biology on the composition and radiative properties of this boundary layer. The Tara Pacific expedition, launched in May 2016 aboard the schooner Tara, was a 29-month exploration with the dual goals to study the ecology of reef ecosystems along ecological gradients in the Pacific Ocean and to assess inter-island and open ocean surface plankton and neuston community structures. In addition, key atmospheric properties were measured to study links between the two boundary layer properties. A major challenge for the open ocean sampling was the lack of ship-time available for work at “stations”. The time constraint led us to develop new underway sampling approaches to optimize physical, chemical, optical, and genomic methods to capture the entire community structure of the surface layers, from viruses to metazoans in their oceanographic and atmospheric physicochemical context. An international scientific consortium was put together to analyze the samples, generate data, and develop datasets in coherence with the existing Tara Oceans database. Beyond adapting the extensive Tara Oceans sampling protocols for high-resolution underway sampling, the key novelties compared to Tara Oceans’ global assessment of plankton include the measurement of (i) surface plankton and neuston biogeography and functional diversity; (ii) bioactive trace metals distribution at the ocean surface and metal-dependent ecosystem structures; (iii) marine aerosols, including biological entities; (iv) geography, nature and colonization of microplastic; and (v) high-resolution underway assessment of net community production via equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. We are committed to share the data collected during this expedition, making it an important resource important resource to address a variety of scientific questions.
ArticleContrasting global, regional and local patterns of genetic structure in gray reef shark populations from the Indo-Pacific region(Nature Research, 2019-11-01) Boissin, Emilie ; Thorrold, Simon R. ; Braun, Camrin D. ; Zhou, Yuxiang ; Clua, Eric ; Planes, SergeHuman activities have resulted in the loss of over 90% of sharks in most ocean basins and one in four species of elasmobranch are now listed at risk of extinction by the IUCN. How this collapse will affect the ability of populations to recover in the face of continued exploitation and global climate change remains unknown. Indeed, important ecological and biological information are lacking for most shark species, particularly estimates of genetic diversity and population structure over a range of spatial scales. Using 15 microsatellite markers, we investigated genetic diversity and population structure in gray reef sharks over their Indo-Pacific range (407 specimens from 9 localities). Clear genetic differentiation was observed between the Indian and the Pacific Ocean specimens (FST = 0.145***). Further differentiation within the Pacific included a West and East cleavage as well as North-Central and South-Central Pacific clusters. No genetic differentiation was detected within archipelagos. These results highlight the legacy of past climate changes and the effects of large ocean expanses and circulation patterns on contrasting levels of connectivity at global, regional and local scales. Our results indicate a need for regional conservation units for gray reef sharks and pinpoint the isolation and vulnerability of their French Polynesian population.
ArticleThe Tara Pacific expedition-A pan-ecosystemic approach of the "-omics" complexity of coral reef holobionts across the Pacific Ocean(Public Library of Science, 2019-09-23) Planes, Serge ; Allemand, Denis ; Agostini, Sylvain ; Banaigs, Bernard ; Boissin, Emilie ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Bourdin, Guillaume ; Bowler, Chris ; Douville, Eric ; Flores, J. Michel ; Forcioli, Didier ; Furla, Paola ; Galand, Pierre E. ; Ghiglione, Jean-Francois ; Gilson, Eric ; Lombard, Fabien ; Moulin, Clémentine ; Pesant, Stephane ; Poulain, Julie ; Reynaud, Stephanie ; Romac, Sarah ; Sullivan, Matthew B. ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Thomas, Olivier P. ; Troublé, Romain ; de Vargas, Colomban ; Vega Thurber, Rebecca ; Voolstra, Christian R. ; Wincker, Patrick ; Tara Pacific ConsortiumCoral reefs are the most diverse habitats in the marine realm. Their productivity, structural complexity, and biodiversity critically depend on ecosystem services provided by corals that are threatened because of climate change effects—in particular, ocean warming and acidification. The coral holobiont is composed of the coral animal host, endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, associated viruses, bacteria, and other microeukaryotes. In particular, the mandatory photosymbiosis with microalgae of the family Symbiodiniaceae and its consequences on the evolution, physiology, and stress resilience of the coral holobiont have yet to be fully elucidated. The functioning of the holobiont as a whole is largely unknown, although bacteria and viruses are presumed to play roles in metabolic interactions, immunity, and stress tolerance. In the context of climate change and anthropogenic threats on coral reef ecosystems, the Tara Pacific project aims to provide a baseline of the “-omics” complexity of the coral holobiont and its ecosystem across the Pacific Ocean and for various oceanographically distinct defined areas. Inspired by the previous Tara Oceans expeditions, the Tara Pacific expedition (2016–2018) has applied a pan-ecosystemic approach on coral reefs throughout the Pacific Ocean, drawing an east–west transect from Panama to Papua New Guinea and a south–north transect from Australia to Japan, sampling corals throughout 32 island systems with local replicates. Tara Pacific has developed and applied state-of-the-art technologies in very-high-throughput genetic sequencing and molecular analysis to reveal the entire microbial and chemical diversity as well as functional traits associated with coral holobionts, together with various measures on environmental forcing. This ambitious project aims at revealing a massive amount of novel biodiversity, shedding light on the complex links between genomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes, organisms, and ecosystem functions in coral reefs and providing a reference of the biological state of modern coral reefs in the Anthropocene.
ArticleChaotic genetic structure and past demographic expansion of the invasive gastropod Tritia neritea in its native range, the Mediterranean Sea(Nature Research, 2020-12-10) Boissin, Emilie ; Neglia, Valentina ; Baksay, Sandra ; Micu, Dragos ; Bat, Levent ; Topaloglu, Bulent ; Todorova, Valentina ; Panayotova, Marina ; Kruschel, Claudia ; Milchakova, Nataliya ; Voutsinas, Emanuela ; Beqiraj, Sajmir ; Nasto, Ina ; Aglieri, Giorgio ; Taviani, Marco ; Zane, Lorenzo ; Planes, SergeTo better predict population evolution of invasive species in introduced areas it is critical to identify and understand the mechanisms driving genetic diversity and structure in their native range. Here, we combined analyses of the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 microsatellite markers to investigate both past demographic history and contemporaneous genetic structure in the native area of the gastropod Tritia neritea, using Bayesian skyline plots (BSP), multivariate analyses and Bayesian clustering. The BSP framework revealed population expansions, dated after the last glacial maximum. The haplotype network revealed a strong geographic clustering. Multivariate analyses and Bayesian clustering highlighted the strong genetic structure at all scales, between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, but also within basins. Within basins, a random pattern of genetic patchiness was observed, suggesting a superimposition of processes involving natural biological effects (no larval phase and thus limited larval dispersal) and putative anthropogenic transport of specimens. Contrary to the introduced area, no isolation-by-distance patterns were recovered in the Mediterranean or the Black Seas, highlighting different mechanisms at play on both native and introduced areas, triggering unknown consequences for species’ evolutionary trajectories. These results of Tritia neritea populations on its native range highlight a mixture of ancient and recent processes, with the effects of paleoclimates and life history traits likely tangled with the effects of human-mediated dispersal.