Oppo Delia W.

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Delia W.

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  • Article
    Coordinated hydrological regimes in the Indo-Pacific region during the past two millennia
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-03-05) Tierney, Jessica E. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Rosenthal, Yair ; Russell, James M. ; Linsley, Braddock K.
    Instrumental data suggest that major shifts in tropical Pacific atmospheric dynamics and hydrology have occurred within the past century, potentially in response to anthropogenic warming. To better understand these trends, we use the hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial higher plant leaf waxes (δDwax) in marine sediments from southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia, to compile a detailed reconstruction of central Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) hydrologic variability spanning most of the last two millennia. Our paleodata are highly correlated with a monsoon reconstruction from Southeast Asia, indicating that intervals of strong East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) activity are associated with a weaker Indonesian monsoon (IM). Furthermore, the centennial-scale oscillations in our data follow known changes in Northern Hemisphere climate (e.g., the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period) implying a dynamic link between Northern Hemisphere temperatures and IPWP hydrology. The inverse relationship between the EASM and IM suggests that migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated changes in monsoon strength caused synoptic hydrologic shifts in the IPWP throughout most of the past two millennia.
  • Article
    The influence of Indian Ocean atmospheric circulation on Warm Pool hydroclimate during the Holocene epoch
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-10-04) Tierney, Jessica E. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; LeGrande, Allegra N. ; Huang, Yongsong ; Rosenthal, Yair ; Linsley, Braddock K.
    Existing paleoclimate data suggest a complex evolution of hydroclimate within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) during the Holocene epoch. Here we introduce a new leaf wax isotope record from Sulawesi, Indonesia and compare proxy water isotope data with ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) simulations to identify mechanisms influencing Holocene IPWP hydroclimate. Modeling simulations suggest that orbital forcing causes heterogenous changes in precipitation across the IPWP on a seasonal basis that may account for the differences in time-evolution of the proxy data at respective sites. Both the proxies and simulations suggest that precipitation variability during the September–November (SON) season is important for hydroclimate in Borneo. The preëminence of the SON season suggests that a seasonally lagged relationship between the Indian
  • Article
    Interpreting sea surface temperature from strontium/calcium ratios in Montastrea corals : link with growth rate and implications for proxy reconstructions
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-07-31) Saenger, Casey P. ; Cohen, Anne L. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Hubbard, Dennis
    We analyzed strontium/calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) in four colonies of the Atlantic coral genus Montastrea with growth rates ranging from 2.3 to 12.6 mm a−1. Derived Sr/Ca–sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations exhibit significant differences among the four colonies that cannot be explained by variations in SST or seawater Sr/Ca. For a single coral Sr/Ca ratio of 8.8 mmol mol−1, the four calibrations predict SSTs ranging from 24.0° to 30.9°C. We find that differences in the Sr/Ca–SST relationships are correlated systematically with the average annual extension rate (ext) of each colony such that Sr/Ca (mmol mol−1) = 11.82 (±0.13) – 0.058 (±0.004) × ext (mm a−1) – 0.092 (±0.005) × SST (°C). This observation is consistent with previous reports of a link between coral Sr/Ca and growth rate. Verification of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration using a coral excluded from the calibration reconstructs the mean and seasonal amplitude of the actual recorded SST to within 0.3°C. Applying a traditional, nongrowth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration derived from a modern Montastrea to the Sr/Ca ratios of a conspecific coral that grew during the early Little Ice Age (LIA) (400 years B.P.) suggests that Caribbean SSTs were >5°C cooler than today. Conversely, application of our growth-dependent Sr/Ca–SST calibration to Sr/Ca ratios derived from the LIA coral indicates that SSTs during the 5-year period analyzed were within error (±1.4°C) of modern values.
  • Article
    Ocean climate variability in the eastern North Atlantic during interglacial marine isotope stage 11 : a partial analogue to the Holocene?
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-08-30) de Abreu, Lucia ; Abrantes, Fatima G. ; Shackleton, Nicholas J. ; Tzedakis, Polychronis C. ; McManus, Jerry F. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Hall, Michael A.
    Similar orbital geometry and greenhouse gas concentrations during marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11) and the Holocene make stage 11 perhaps the best geological analogue period for the natural development of the present interglacial climate. Results of a detailed study of core MD01-2443 from the Iberian margin suggest that sea surface conditions during stage 11 were not significantly different from those observed during the elapsed portion of the Holocene. Peak interglacial conditions during stage 11 lasted nearly 18 kyr, indicating a Holocene unperturbed by human activity might last an additional 6–7 kyr. A comparison of sea surface temperatures (SST) derived from planktonic foraminifera for all interglacial intervals of the last million years reveals that warm temperatures during peak interglacials MIS 1, 5e, and 11 were higher on the Iberian margin than during substage 7e and most of 9e. The SST results are supported by heavier δ18O values, particularly during 7e, indicating colder SSTs and a larger residual ice volume. Benthic δ13C results provide evidence of a strong influence of North Atlantic Deep Water at greater depths than present during MIS 11. The progressive ocean climate deterioration into the following glaciation is associated with an increase in local upwelling intensity, interspersed by periodic cold episodes due to ice-rafting events occurring in the North Atlantic.
  • Article
    Sea surface temperature pattern reconstructions in the Arabian Sea
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-03-28) Dahl, Kristina A. ; Oppo, Delia W.
    Sea surface temperature (SST) and seawater δ18O (δ18Ow) were reconstructed in a suite of sediment cores from throughout the Arabian Sea for four distinct time intervals (0 ka, 8 ka, 15 ka, and 20 ka) with the aim of understanding the history of the Indian Monsoon and the climate of the Arabian Sea region. This was accomplished through the use of paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber. By analyzing basin-wide changes and changes in cross-basinal gradients, we assess both monsoonal and regional-scale climate changes. SST was colder than present for the majority of sites within all three paleotime slices. Furthermore, both the Indian Monsoon and the regional Arabian Sea mean climate have varied substantially over the past 20 kyr. The 20 ka and 15 ka time slices exhibit average negative temperature anomalies of 2.5°–3.5°C attributable, in part, to the influences of glacial atmospheric CO2 concentrations and large continental ice sheets. The elimination of the cross-basinal SST gradient during these two time slices likely reflects a decrease in summer monsoon and an increase in winter monsoon strength. Changes in δ18Ow that are smaller than the δ18O signal due to global ice volume reflect decreased evaporation and increased winter monsoon mixing. SSTs throughout the Arabian Sea were still cooler than present by an average of 1.4°C in the 8 ka time slice. These cool SSTs, along with lower δ18Ow throughout the basin, are attributed to stronger than modern summer and winter monsoons and increased runoff and precipitation. The results of this study underscore the importance of taking a spatial approach to the reconstruction of processes such as monsoon upwelling.
  • Article
    Mid-Holocene, coral-based sea surface temperatures in the western tropical Atlantic
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-05-31) Rodriguez, Luis G. ; Cohen, Anne L. ; Ramirez, Wilson ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Pourmand, Ali ; Edwards, R. Lawrence ; Alpert, Alice ; Mollica, Nathaniel R.
    The Holocene is considered a period of relative climatic stability, but significant proxy data‐model discrepancies exist that preclude consensus regarding the postglacial global temperature trajectory. In particular, a mid‐Holocene Climatic Optimum, ~9,000 to ~5,000 years BP, is evident in Northern Hemisphere marine sediment records, but its absence from model simulations raises key questions about the ability of the models to accurately simulate climate and seasonal biases that may be present in the proxy records. Here we present new mid‐Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) data from the western tropical Atlantic, where twentieth‐century temperature variability and amplitude of warming track the twentieth‐century global ocean. Using a new coral thermometer Sr‐U, we first developed a temporal Sr‐U SST calibration from three modern Atlantic corals and validated the calibration against Sr‐U time series from a fourth modern coral. Two fossil corals from the Enriquillo Valley, Dominican Republic, were screened for diagenesis, U‐series dated to 5,199 ± 26 and 6,427 ± 81 years BP, respectively, and analyzed for Sr/Ca and U/Ca, generating two annually resolved Sr‐U SST records, 27 and 17 years long, respectively. Average SSTs from both corals were significantly cooler than in early instrumental (1870–1920) and late instrumental (1965–2016) periods at this site, by ~0.5 and ~0.75 °C, respectively, a result inconsistent with the extended mid‐Holocene warm period inferred from sediment records. A more complete sampling of Atlantic Holocene corals can resolve this issue with confidence and address questions related to multidecadal and longer‐term variability in Holocene Atlantic climate.
  • Article
    Long-term variations in Iceland–Scotland overflow strength during the Holocene
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-09-03) Thornalley, David J. R. ; Blaschek, Michael ; Davies, F. J. ; Praetorius, S. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; McManus, Jerry F. ; Hall, Ian R. ; Kleiven, Helga F. ; Renssen, Hans ; McCave, I. Nick
    The overflow of deep water from the Nordic seas into the North Atlantic plays a critical role in global ocean circulation and climate. Approximately half of this overflow occurs via the Iceland–Scotland (I–S) overflow, yet the history of its strength throughout the Holocene (~ 0–11 700 yr ago, ka) is poorly constrained, with previous studies presenting apparently contradictory evidence regarding its long-term variability. Here, we provide a comprehensive reconstruction of I–S overflow strength throughout the Holocene using sediment grain size data from a depth transect of 13 cores from the Iceland Basin. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the main axis of the I–S overflow on the Iceland slope was shallower during the early Holocene, deepening to its present depth by ~ 7 ka. Our results also reveal weaker I–S overflow during the early and late Holocene, with maximum overflow strength occurring at ~ 7 ka, the time of a regional climate thermal maximum. Climate model simulations suggest a shoaling of deep convection in the Nordic seas during the early and late Holocene, consistent with our evidence for weaker I–S overflow during these intervals. Whereas the reduction in I–S overflow strength during the early Holocene likely resulted from melting remnant glacial ice sheets, the decline throughout the last 7000 yr was caused by an orbitally induced increase in the amount of Arctic sea ice entering the Nordic seas. Although the flux of Arctic sea ice to the Nordic seas is expected to decrease throughout the next century, model simulations predict that under high emissions scenarios, competing effects, such as warmer sea surface temperatures in the Nordic seas, will result in reduced deep convection, likely driving a weaker I–S overflow.
  • Article
    Temperature calibration of Mg/Ca ratios in the intermediate water benthic foraminifer Hyalinea balthica
    (American Geophysical Union and the Geochemical Society, 2011-04-01) Rosenthal, Yair ; Morley, Audrey ; Barras, Christine ; Katz, Miriam E. ; Jorissen, Frans ; Reichart, Gert-Jan ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Linsley, Braddock K.
    Core top samples from Indonesian and northeast Atlantic depth transects were used to calibrate Mg/Ca and δ18O in tests of the calcitic benthic foraminifer Hyalinea balthica to bottom water temperature between 4°C and 13°C. This shallow infaunal species is primarily abundant in neritic to upper bathyal sediments (<600 m). Both linear and exponential calibrations suggest a temperature sensitivity of ~12% per °C that is ~4 times higher than observed in other species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Culture experiments support the core top calibration. We find no discernible effect of salinity and saturation on Mg/Ca. Comparison between the measured benthic foraminiferal δ18O and predicted equilibrium values suggests that on average H. balthica δ18O is 0.64‰ ± 0.13‰ lower than predicted from the equilibrium composition. To test the reliability of using paired H. balthica Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements for reconstructing seawater δ18Osw and salinity, we apply this calibration to another depth transect from Cape Ghir off NW Africa, which was not included in the calibration. Based on error analysis of the calibration data and this validation test, we show that the uncertainty of reconstructing bottom water temperature and salinity from paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements of H. balthica is better than ±0.7°C and ±0.69 practical salinity scale, respectively. The small uncertainties allow for the reconstruction of seawater density to better than 0.3σθ units, which is precise enough for the identification of specific water masses and reconstruction of changes in their properties. We propose that the relatively high Mg content and temperature sensitivity of H. balthica might be due to minor, biologically mediated contribution of high-Mg calcite to the primarily low Mg calcite test, which is influenced by the ambient temperature. This hypothesis, if correct, suggests that benthic species with relatively high Mg/Ca may be better suited for deepwater temperature reconstructions than species that have thus far been more commonly used.
  • Article
    Decreased influence of Antarctic intermediate water in the tropical Atlantic during North Atlantic cold events
    (Elsevier, 2014-01-15) Huang, Kuo-Fang ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Curry, William B.
    Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is a key player in the global ocean circulation, contributing to the upper limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and influencing interhemispheric heat exchange and the distribution of salinity, nutrients and carbon. However, the deglacial history of AAIW flow into the North Atlantic is controversial. Here we present a multicore-top neodymium isotope calibration, which confirms the ability of unclean foraminifera to faithfully record bottom water neodymium isotopic composition (εNdεNd) values in their authigenic coatings. We then present the first foraminifera-based reconstruction of εNdεNd from three sediment cores retrieved from within modern AAIW, in the western tropical North Atlantic. Our records reveal similar glacial and interglacial contributions of AAIW, and a pronounced decrease in the AAIW fraction during North Atlantic deglacial cold episodes, Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and Younger Dryas (YD). Our results suggest two separate phases of reduced fraction of AAIW in the tropical Atlantic during HS1, with a greater reduction during early HS1. If a reduction in AAIW fraction also reflects reduced AMOC strength, this finding may explain why, in many regions, there are two phases of hydrologic change within HS1, and why atmospheric CO2 rose more rapidly during early than late HS1. Our result suggesting less flow of AAIW into the Atlantic during North Atlantic cold events contrasts with evidence from the Pacific, where intermediate-depth εNdεNd records may indicate increased flow of AAIW into the Pacific during the these same events. Antiphased εNdεNd behavior between intermediate depths of the North Atlantic and Pacific implies that the flow of AAIW into Atlantic and Pacific seesawed during the last deglaciation.
  • Preprint
    Processes controlling the geochemical composition of the South China Sea sediments during the last climatic cycle
    ( 2008-09) Sun, Youbin ; Wu, Feng ; Clemens, Steven C. ; Oppo, Delia W.
    Sediments of the upper 28.2 meters of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1145 from the northern South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed for their geochemical composition. Most of the major and trace elements exhibit significant fluctuations at glacial-interglacial scales, implying a close relation with regional and global climate change. Al-normalized elemental ratios can be subdivided into three principal components (PC). PC1 (e.g., Ca/Al, Ba/Al, Sr/Al) displays significant glacial-interglacial variation and is related to paleoproductivity in the northern SCS. PC2 (e.g., K/Al, Mg/Al, Rb/Al) is associated with the degree of chemical weathering in the source regions and shows little glacial-interglacial variation. PC3 (e.g., Ti/Al, Zr/Al) reflects the relative contribution of coarse- and fine-grained materials in the terrigenous components of the SCS sediments, likely associated with changes in sea level and monsoon-induced fluvial input. Spectral analyses indicate that paleoproductivity (i.e., Ba/Al) in the South China Sea lags Hulu/Sanbao speleothem δ18O record (a indicator of annual average meteoric precipitation) by 102° and Indian summer monsoon (multi-proxy stack) by 23° at the precession band, indicating a close relationship with the Indian summer monsoon. However, the chemical weathering degree in the source area (PC2) is not sensitive to monsoon-related changes at the precession band during the last climatic cycle.
  • Preprint
    Asynchronous warming and δ18O evolution of deep Atlantic water masses during the last deglaciation
    ( 2017-08-21) Zhang, Jiaxu ; Liu, Zhengyu ; Brady, Esther C. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Clark, Peter U. ; Jahn, Alexandra ; Marcott, Shaun A. ; Lindsay, Keith
    The large-scale reorganization of deep-ocean circulation in the Atlantic involving changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties are poorly constrained by marine records, including δ18O of benthic foraminiferal calcite (δ18Oc). Here we use an isotope-enabled ocean general circulation model with realistic geometry and forcing conditions to simulate the deglacial water mass and δ18O evolution. Model results suggest that in response to North Atlantic freshwater forcing during the early phase of the last deglaciation, NADW nearly collapses while AABW mildly weakens. Rather than reflecting changes in NADW or AABW properties due to freshwater input as suggested previously, the observed phasing difference of deep δ18Oc likely reflects early warming of the deep northern North Atlantic by ~1.4°C while deep Southern Ocean temperature remains largely unchanged. We propose a thermodynamic mechanism to explain the early warming in the North Atlantic, featuring a strong mid-depth warming and enhanced downward heat flux via vertical mixing. Our results emphasize that the way ocean circulation affects heat, a dynamic tracer, is considerably different than how it affects passive tracers like δ18O, and call for caution when inferring water mass changes from δ18Oc records while assuming uniform changes in deep temperatures.
  • Article
    Variations in mid-latitude North Atlantic surface water properties during the mid-Brunhes (MIS 9–14) and their implications for the thermohaline circulation
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2010-08-27) Voelker, Antje H. L. ; Rodrigues, T. ; Billups, K. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; McManus, Jerry F. ; Stein, R. ; Hefter, J. ; Grimalt, J. O.
    Stable isotope and ice-rafted debris records from three core sites in the mid-latitude North Atlantic (IODP Site U1313, MD01-2446, MD03-2699) are combined with records of ODP Sites 1056/1058 and 980 to reconstruct hydrographic conditions during the middle Pleistocene spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 9–14 (300–540 ka). Core MD03-2699 is the first high-resolution mid-Brunhes record from the North Atlantic's eastern boundary upwelling system covering the complete MIS 11c interval and MIS 13. The array of sites reflect western and eastern basin boundary current as well as north to south transect sampling of subpolar and transitional water masses and allow the reconstruction of transport pathways in the upper limb of the North Atlantic's circulation. Hydrographic conditions in the surface and deep ocean during peak interglacial MIS 9 and 11 were similar among all the sites with relative stable conditions and confirm prolonged warmth during MIS 11c also for the mid-latitudes. Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions further reveal that in the mid-latitude North Atlantic MIS 11c is associated with two plateaus, the younger one of which is slightly warmer. Enhanced subsurface northward heat transport in the eastern boundary current system, especially during early MIS 11c, is denoted by the presence of tropical planktic foraminifer species and raises the question how strongly it impacted the Portuguese upwelling system. Deep water ventilation at the onset of MIS 11c significantly preceded surface water ventilation. Although MIS 13 was generally colder and more variable than the younger interglacials the surface water circulation scheme was the same. The greatest differences between the sites existed during the glacial inceptions and glacials. Then a north – south trending hydrographic front separated the nearshore and offshore waters off Portugal. While offshore waters originated from the North Atlantic Current as indicated by the similarities between the records of IODP Site U1313, ODP Site 980 and MD01-2446, nearshore waters as recorded in core MD03-2699 derived from the Azores Current and thus the subtropical gyre. Except for MIS 12, Azores Current influence seems to be related to eastern boundary system dynamics and not to changes in the Atlantic overturning circulation.
  • Preprint
    Hydrographic changes in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic during the last deglaciation
    ( 2010-08) Benway, Heather M. ; McManus, Jerry F. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Cullen, James L.
    Millennial-scale climate fluctuations of the last deglaciation have been tied to abrupt changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). A key to understanding mechanisms of MOC collapse and recovery is the documentation of upper ocean hydrographic changes in the vicinity of North Atlantic deep convection sites. Here we present new high-resolution ocean temperature and δ18Osw records spanning the last deglaciation from an eastern subpolar North Atlantic site that lies along the flow path of the North Atlantic Current, approaching deep convection sites in the Labrador and Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN) Seas. High-resolution temperature and δ18Osw records from subpolar Site 980 help track the movement of the subpolar/subtropical front associated with temperature and Atlantic MOC changes throughout the last deglaciation. Distinct δ18Osw minima during Heinrich-1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD) correspond with peaks in ice-rafted debris and periods of reduced Atlantic MOC, indicating the presence of melt water in this region that could have contributed to MOC reductions during these intervals. Increased tropical and subtropical δ18Osw during these periods of apparent freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic suggest a buildup of salt at low latitudes that served as a negative feedback on reduced Atlantic MOC.
  • Article
    Calibration of the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of benthic foraminifera
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-06-03) Schmittner, Andreas ; Bostock, Helen ; Cartapanis, olivier ; Curry, William B. ; Filipsson, Helena L. ; Galbraith, Eric D. ; Gottschalk, Julia ; Herguera, Juan Carlos ; Hoogakker, Babette ; Jaccard, Samuel L. ; Lisiecki, Lorraine E. ; Lund, David C. ; Martínez Méndez, Gema ; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean ; Mackensen, Andreas ; Michel, Elisabeth ; Mix, Alan C. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Peterson, Carlye D. ; Repschläger, Janne ; Sikes, Elisabeth L. ; Spero, Howard J. ; Waelbroeck, Claire
    The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of seawater provides valuable insight on ocean circulation, air-sea exchange, the biological pump, and the global carbon cycle and is reflected by the δ13C of foraminifera tests. Here more than 1700 δ13C observations of the benthic foraminifera genus Cibicides from late Holocene sediments (δ13CCibnat) are compiled and compared with newly updated estimates of the natural (preindustrial) water column δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDICnat) as part of the international Ocean Circulation and Carbon Cycling (OC3) project. Using selection criteria based on the spatial distance between samples, we find high correlation between δ13CCibnat and δ13CDICnat, confirming earlier work. Regression analyses indicate significant carbonate ion (−2.6 ± 0.4) × 10−3‰/(μmol kg−1) [CO32−] and pressure (−4.9 ± 1.7) × 10−5‰ m−1 (depth) effects, which we use to propose a new global calibration for predicting δ13CDICnat from δ13CCibnat. This calibration is shown to remove some systematic regional biases and decrease errors compared with the one-to-one relationship (δ13CDICnat = δ13CCibnat). However, these effects and the error reductions are relatively small, which suggests that most conclusions from previous studies using a one-to-one relationship remain robust. The remaining standard error of the regression is generally σ ≅ 0.25‰, with larger values found in the southeast Atlantic and Antarctic (σ ≅ 0.4‰) and for species other than Cibicides wuellerstorfi. Discussion of species effects and possible sources of the remaining errors may aid future attempts to improve the use of the benthic δ13C record.
  • Article
    Remineralization dominating the δ13 C decrease in the mid-depth Atlantic during the last deglaciation
    (Elsevier, 2021-07-20) Gu, Sifan ; Liu, Zhengyu ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean ; Jahn, Alexandra ; Zhang, Jiaxu ; Lindsay, Keith ; Wu, Lixin
    δ 13 C records from the mid-depth Atlantic show a pronounced decrease during the Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), a deglacial episode of dramatically weakened Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC). Proposed explanations for this mid-depth decrease include a greater fraction of δ 13 C -depleted southern sourced water (SSW), a δ 13 C decrease in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) end-member, and accumulation of the respired organic carbon. However, the relative importance of these proposed mechanisms cannot be quantitatively constrained from current available observations alone. Here we diagnose the individual contributions to the deglacial Atlantic mid-depth δ 13 C change from these mechanisms using a transient simulation with carbon isotopes and idealized tracers. We find that although the fraction of the low- δ 13 C SSW increases in response to a weaker AMOC during HS1, the water mass mixture change only plays a minor role in the mid-depth Atlantic δ 13 C decrease. Instead, increased remineralization due to the AMOC-induced mid-depth ocean ventilation decrease is the dominant cause. In this study, we differentiate between the deep end-members, which are assigned to deep water regions used in previous paleoceanography studies, and the surface end-members, which are from the near-surface water defined from the physical origin of deep water masses. We find that the deep NADW end-member includes additional remineralized material accumulated when sinking from the surface (surface NADW end-member). Therefore, the surface end-members should be used in diagnosing mechanisms of changes. Furthermore, our results suggest that remineralization in the surface end-member is more critical than the remineralization along the transport pathway from the near-surface formation region to the deep ocean, especially during the early deglaciation.
  • Preprint
    Glacial to Holocene swings of the Australian–Indonesian monsoon
    ( 2011-06) Mohtadi, Mahyar ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Steinke, Stephan ; Stuut, Jan-Berend W. ; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo ; Hebbeln, Dierk ; Luckge, Andreas
    The Australian-Indonesian monsoon is an important component of the climate system in the tropical Indo-Pacific region. However, its past variability, relation with northern and southern high latitude climate and connection to the other Asian monsoon systems are poorly understood. Here we present high-resolution records of monsoon-controlled austral winter upwelling during the past 22,000 years, based on planktic foraminiferal oxygen isotope and faunal composition in a sedimentary archive collected offshore southern Java. We show that glacial-interglacial variations in the Australian-Indonesian winter monsoon were in phase with the Indian summer monsoon system, consistent with their modern linkage through cross-equatorial surface winds. Likewise, millennial-scale variability of upwelling shares similar sign and timing with upwelling variability in the Arabian Sea. On the basis of element composition and grain-size distribution as precipitation-sensitive proxies in the same archive, we infer that (austral) summer monsoon rainfall was highest during the Bølling-Allerød period and the past 2,500 years. Our results indicate drier conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 due to a southward shift of summer rainfall and a relatively weak Hadley Cell south of the Equator. We suggest that the Australian-Indonesian summer and winter monsoon variability were closely linked to summer insolation and abrupt climate changes in the northern hemisphere.
  • Preprint
    Terrigenous plant wax inputs to the Arabian Sea : implications for the reconstruction of winds associated with the Indian Monsoon
    ( 2005-01-04) Dahl, Kristina A. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Curry, William B. ; Sirocko, Frank
    We have determined the accumulation rates and carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of long-chain (C24–C32) terrigenous plant wax fatty acids in 19 surface sediment samples geographically distributed throughout the Arabian Sea in order to assess the relationship between plant wax inputs and the surrounding monsoon wind systems. Both the accumulation rate data and the δ13C data show that there are three primary eolian sources of plant waxes to the Arabian Sea: Africa, Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. These sources correspond to the three major wind systems in this region: the summer (Southwest) monsoon, the winter (Northeast) monsoon, and the summer northwesterlies that blow over the Arabian Peninsula. In addition, plant waxes are fluvially supplied to the Gulf of Oman and the Eastern African margin by nearby rivers. Plant wax δ13C values reflect the vegetation types of the continental source regions. Greater than 75% of the waxes from Africa and Asia are derived from C4 plants. Waxes delivered by northwesterly winds reflect a greater influence (25–40%) of C3 vegetation, likely derived from the Mesopotamian region. These data agree well with previously published studies of eolian dust deposition, particularly of dolomite derived from the Arabian Peninsula and the Mesopotamian region, in surface sediments of the Arabian Sea. The west-to-east gradient of plant wax δ13C and dolomite accumulation rates are separately useful indicators of the relationship between the northwesterly winds and the winds of the Southwest monsoon. Combined, however, these two proxies could provide a powerful tool for the reconstruction of both southwest monsoon strength as well as Mesopotamian aridity.
  • Preprint
    Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet
    ( 2008-07-24) Carlson, Anders E. ; LeGrande, Allegra N. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Came, Rosemarie E. ; Schmidt, Gavin A. ; Anslow, Faron S. ; Licciardi, Joseph M. ; Obbink, Elizabeth A.
    The early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) is the most recent and best constrained disappearance of a large Northern Hemisphere ice sheet. Its demise is a natural experiment for assessing rates of ice sheet decay and attendant contributions to sea level rise. Here we demonstrate with terrestrial and marine records that the final LIS demise occurred in two stages of rapid melting from ~9.0- 8.5 and 7.6-6.8 kyr BP with the LIS contributing ~1.3 and 0.7 cm yr-1 to sea level rise, respectively. Simulations using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model suggest that increased ablation from enhanced early Holocene boreal summer insolation may have been the predominant cause of the LIS contributions to sea level rise. Although the boreal summer surface radiative forcing of early Holocene LIS retreat is twice that of projections for 2100 C.E. greenhouse gas radiative forcing, the associated summer surface air temperature increase is the same. The geologic evidence for rapid LIS retreat under a comparable forcing provides a prehistoric precedent for a possible large negative mass balance response of the Greenland Ice Sheet by the end of the coming century.
  • Article
    Comparison of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature variability and trends with Sr/Ca records from multiple corals
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-02-06) Alpert, Alice ; Cohen, Anne L. ; Oppo, Delia W. ; DeCarlo, Thomas M. ; Gove, Jamison M. ; Young, Charles W.
    Coral Sr/Ca is widely used to reconstruct past ocean temperatures. However, some studies report different Sr/Ca-temperature relationships for conspecifics on the same reef, with profound implications for interpretation of reconstructed temperatures. We assess whether these differences are attributable to small-scale oceanographic variability or “vital effects” associated with coral calcification and quantify the effect of intercolony differences on temperature estimates and uncertainties. Sr/Ca records from four massive Porites colonies growing on the east and west sides of Jarvis Island, central equatorial Pacific, were compared with in situ logger temperatures spanning 2002–2012. In general, Sr/Ca captured the occurrence of interannual sea surface temperature events but their amplitude was not consistently recorded by any of the corals. No long-term trend was identified in the instrumental data, yet Sr/Ca of one coral implied a statistically significant cooling trend while that of its neighbor implied a warming trend. Slopes of Sr/Ca-temperature regressions from the four different colonies were within error, but offsets in mean Sr/Ca rendered the regressions statistically distinct. Assuming that these relationships represent the full range of Sr/Ca-temperature calibrations in Jarvis Porites, we assessed how well Sr/Ca of a nonliving coral with an unknown Sr/Ca-temperature relationship can constrain past temperatures. Our results indicate that standard error of prediction methods underestimate the actual error as we could not reliably reconstruct the amplitude or frequency of El Niño–Southern Oscillation events as large as ± 2°C. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing the full range of temperature-Sr/Ca relationships at each study site to estimate true error.
  • Article
    Rapid switches in subpolar North Atlantic hydrography and climate during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-05-12) Irvalı, Nil ; Ninnemann, Ulysses S. ; Galaasen, Eirik V. ; Rosenthal, Yair ; Kroon, Dick ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Kleiven, Helga F. ; Darling, Kate F. ; Kissel, Catherine
    At the peak of the previous interglacial period, North Atlantic and subpolar climate shared many features in common with projections of our future climate, including warmer-than-present conditions and a diminished Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Here we portray changes in North Atlantic hydrography linked with Greenland climate during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e using (sub)centennially sampled records of planktonic foraminiferal isotopes and assemblage counts and ice-rafted debris counts, as well as modern analog technique and Mg/Ca-based paleothermometry. We use the core MD03-2664 recovered from a high accumulation rate site (∼34 cm/kyr) on the Eirik sediment drift (57°26.34′N, 48°36.35′W). The results indicate that surface waters off southern Greenland were ∼3–5°C warmer than today during early MIS 5e. These anomalously warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) prevailed until the isotopic peak of MIS 5e when they were interrupted by a cooling event beginning at ∼126 kyr BP. This interglacial cooling event is followed by a gradual warming with SSTs subsequently plateauing just below early MIS 5e values. A planktonic δ18O minimum during the cooling event indicates that marked freshening of the surface waters accompanied the cooling. We suggest that switches in the subpolar gyre hydrography occurred during a warmer climate, involving regional changes in freshwater fluxes/balance and East Greenland Current influence in the study area. The nature of these hydrographic transitions suggests that they are most likely related to large-scale circulation dynamics, potentially amplified by GIS meltwater influences.