Hays Earl E.

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Earl E.

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  • Technical Report
    Bottom interaction of low-frequency acoustic signals at small grazing angles in the deep ocean
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1981-07) Frisk, George V. ; Doutt, James A. ; Hays, Earl E.
    The results of a deep-ocean bottom interaction experiment are presented in which the effects of both bottom refraction and subbottom reflection were observed. Data were obtained in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain using a deep towed 220-Hz pulsed cw source and two receivers anchored near the bottom. For ranges between 1 and 6 km, corresponding to bottom grazing angles less than 13°, the quadrature components of the received signals were recorded digitally. The observed amplitude shows a strong spatial interference pattern which is composed of the direct and bottom interacting arrivals. It is shown that for small source-receiver separations, the bottom return is dominated by a strong subbollom reflection. With increasing separation, this arrival evolves into a refracted arrival due to the presence of a positive sound-speed gradient in the sediment overlying the subbottom. Because of the gradient, a caustic is formed, and corresponding high intensity regions are observed in the data at the expected ranges. Values of sediment layer thickness, sound-speed gradient, and sound-speed drop at the water-bollom interface are obtained from best fits to the data using ray theory, normal mode theory, and the parabolic equation method. These values are consistent with those obtained in nearby locations by other workers. The success of the parabolic equation method indicates that at small grazing angles, the bottom interaction process may be modeled as a propagation process combined with the effect of a perfect, soft subbollom reflector. A value of sediment attenuation, 0.0015 dB/mat 220Hz, is also inferred from the data and is among the lowest values reported to date in the literature.
  • Technical Report
    Technical progress report : advanced marine technology 1 August 1973 - 31 January 1974
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1974-05-15) Ballard, Robert D. ; Hays, Earl E. ; Hess, Frederick R. ; Marquet, William M. ; McCamis, Marvin J. ; McElroy, Paul T. ; Winget, Clifford L.
    Contrary to the statement in the previous progress report (WHOI-73-92) we have decided to issue the final technical reports on Submerged navigation, Hydraulic Impact Hammer, Deep Sea Rock Drill and the Self Contained Ancillary Modular Package (SCAMP) as separate reports. These are underway in various stages and will be issued as completed. This six months has seen successful use of the navigation system in direct and surface bounce modes, testing of the "lock on" system of SCAMP to an ALVIN model and steady progress in the Modular Acoustic System.
  • Technical Report
    Technical progress report : advanced marine technology 1 February 1974 - 31 July 1974
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1974-12-15) Hosom, David S. ; Hays, Earl E. ; Hess, Frederick R. ; McElroy, Paul T. ; Marquet, William M. ; Porter, Robert P. ; Spindel, Robert C. ; Winget, Clifford L. ; Striffler, Foster L.
    The navigation system previously reported on is currently (July 1974) being used by ALVIN in a study of Mid-Atlantic Ridge as part of Project FAMOUS. According to all reports the system is a most important factor in making the project successful so far. Engineering design, construction and testing are the main efforts in the subjects summarized below with more detail later on.
  • Technical Report
    Preliminary report CHAIN #11 : 22 February - 22 March 1960
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1960-07) Hays, Earl E.
    The second half of CHAIN Cruise #11, 22 February until 22 March, 1960, is detailed as to type of measurements made with their specific locations. The cruise areas were in the St. Croix region, the Puerto' Rico Trench and the tracks from the Bahamas to Bermuda to Woods Hole. Camera lowerings, lowerings of the thermal probe and accompanying cores, dredging, sound velocimeter lowerings, and acoustic studies of the scattering layer were the special events undertaken while precision bathymetry and towing of the Continuous Temperature Recording Chain were on a watch standing basis.
  • Technical Report
    Technical report, ARPA Program final report : 1 February 1971-31 December 1975
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1976-02) Hays, Earl E.
    A program in Advanced Marine Technology was carried out at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, under ARPA sponsorship from February 1971 until December 1975. The program consisted of thirteen projects with a total funding of $1,993,000. Most of the projects improved in surveying, sampling, and measuring capabilities of deep submersibles using ALVIN as the test vehicle. The capabilities required to evaluate an area of the ocean bottom for deployment of large pieces of equipment or arrays included precise three dimensional navigation (page 12), photography (page 15), acoustic mapping (page 15), sampling of materials (page 12, 14), and magnetic and gravity field measurements (page 13). In addition to the submersible oriented projects there were projects on Handling and Transfer at Sea (page 11), Deep Sea Biological Equipment (page 13), and offshore Industrial Waste Monitoring (page 14). Submerged navigation, a Modular Acoustic Suite for ALVIN, and ALVIN operation expenses each accounted for about 20% of the total budget. Section II points out the relevance of the thirteen projects to future military requirements and the technical problems of each. Section III describes the history of the program and its relation to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and lists the project leaders. Section IV of this report gives a brief description of the results of each project, and in Section VII there is a listing of publications that have resulted from the program as well as a table of pertinent information about the diving schedule of ALVIN.
  • Technical Report
    YAMACRAW 11 Narrative
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1960-05) Hays, Earl E.
    USCGC YAMACRAW (W333) left Woods Hole the evening of 28 September 1958 on a three-week cruise. The plan of the cruise included several days of classified work in deep water south of Woods Hole (not reported here ), a short bathymetric survey on the Blake Plateau, a stop in Jacksonville, Florida for personnel exchange, and a five-day survey in the Tongue of the Ocean, with the cruise ending at Savannah, Georgia. The track of YAMACRA W is shown in Figure 1. This was to be the last cruise of YAMACRAW for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. All equipment was to be removed at Savannah, Georgia to be placed aboard USNS CHAIN (TARS 20). The scientific party leaving Woods Hole consisted of seven persons : Dr. William Richardson, Chief Scientist, Lee Davis, Paul Stimson, Richard Weller , and Charles Wilkins from WHO!; Dr. James Lafferty and Dr. George Gaines from the General Electric Company.
  • Technical Report
    Mortality of fish subjected to explosive shock as applied to oil well severance on Georges Bank
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-12) Baxter, Lincoln ; Hays, Earl E. ; Hampson, George R. ; Backus, Richard H.
    A very extensive bibliography of papers on underwater explosions and their effects on marine life has been collected and summarized. When exposed to blast effects, vertebrates with swim bladders or lungs that contain gas are at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than other life. Regression analysis of several different experiments on explosive damage to fish has been combined with reports of fish concentrations and explosives used in oil well severance in order to estimate the probable extent of damage to fish populations from a limited number of severance explosions. Damage per explosion should not be significant and is probably considerably less than that caused by a one hour tow of a bottom trawl net.