Krishfield Richard A.

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Richard A.

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  • Article
    Sea surface pCO2 and O2 dynamics in the partially ice-covered Arctic Ocean
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-02-25) Islam, Fakhrul ; DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Beatty, Cory ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Toole, John M. ; Laney, Samuel R.
    Understanding the physical and biogeochemical processes that control CO2 and dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics in the Arctic Ocean (AO) is crucial for predicting future air-sea CO2 fluxes and ocean acidification. Past studies have primarily been conducted on the AO continental shelves during low-ice periods and we lack information on gas dynamics in the deep AO basins where ice typically inhibits contact with the atmosphere. To study these gas dynamics, in situ time-series data have been collected in the Canada Basin during late summer to autumn of 2012. Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), DO concentration, temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll-a fluorescence (Chl-a) were measured in the upper ocean in a range of sea ice states by two drifting instrument systems. Although the two systems were on average only 222 km apart, they experienced considerably different ice cover and external forcings during the 40–50 day periods when data were collected. The pCO2 levels at both locations were well below atmospheric saturation whereas DO was almost always slightly supersaturated. Modeling results suggest that air-sea gas exchange, net community production (NCP), and horizontal gradients were the main sources of pCO2 and DO variability in the sparsely ice-covered AO. In areas more densely covered by sea ice, horizontal gradients were the dominant source of variability, with no significant NCP in the surface mixed layer. If the AO reaches equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 as ice cover continues to decrease, aragonite saturation will drop from a present mean of 1.00 ± 0.02 to 0.86 ± 0.01.
  • Article
    Insights into water mass origins in the central Arctic Ocean from in-situ dissolved organic matter fluorescence
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-06-27) Stedmon, Colin ; Amon, Rainer M. W. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Bracher, Astrid ; Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael ; Hoppmann, Mario ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Laney, Samuel R. ; Rabe, Benjamin ; Reader, Heather ; Granskog, Mats A.
    The Arctic Ocean receives a large supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from its catchment and shelf sediments, which can be traced across much of the basin's upper waters. This signature can potentially be used as a tracer. On the shelf, the combination of river discharge and sea-ice formation, modifies water densities and mixing considerably. These waters are a source of the halocline layer that covers much of the Arctic Ocean, but also contain elevated levels of DOM. Here we demonstrate how this can be used as a supplementary tracer and contribute to evaluating ocean circulation in the Arctic. A fraction of the organic compounds that DOM consists of fluoresce and can be measured using in-situ fluorometers. When deployed on autonomous platforms these provide high temporal and spatial resolution measurements over long periods. The results of an analysis of data derived from several Ice Tethered Profilers (ITPs) offer a unique spatial coverage of the distribution of DOM in the surface 800 m below Arctic sea-ice. Water mass analysis using temperature, salinity and DOM fluorescence, can clearly distinguish between the contribution of Siberian terrestrial DOM and marine DOM from the Chukchi shelf to the waters of the halocline. The findings offer a new approach to trace the distribution of Pacific waters and its export from the Arctic Ocean. Our results indicate the potential to extend the approach to separate freshwater contributions from, sea-ice melt, riverine discharge and the Pacific Ocean.
  • Article
    Changes in the arctic ocean carbon cycle with diminishing ice cover
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-05-24) DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Evans, Wiley ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Williams, William J. ; Steele, Michael
    Less than three decades ago only a small fraction of the Arctic Ocean (AO) was ice free and then only for short periods. The ice cover kept sea surface pCO2 at levels lower relative to other ocean basins that have been exposed year round to ever increasing atmospheric levels. In this study, we evaluate sea surface pCO2 measurements collected over a 6‐year period along a fixed cruise track in the Canada Basin. The measurements show that mean pCO2 levels are significantly higher during low ice years. The pCO2 increase is likely driven by ocean surface heating and uptake of atmospheric CO2 with large interannual variability in the contributions of these processes. These findings suggest that increased ice‐free periods will further increase sea surface pCO2, reducing the Canada Basin's current role as a net sink of atmospheric CO2.
  • Technical Report
    Design and operation of automated ice-tethered profilers for real-time seawater observations in the polar oceans
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2006-06) Krishfield, Richard A. ; Doherty, Kenneth W. ; Frye, Daniel E. ; Hammar, Terence R. ; Kemp, John N. ; Peters, Donald B. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Toole, John M. ; von der Heydt, Keith
    An automated, easily-deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) has been developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean temperature and salinity in all seasons. The ITP system consists of three components: a surface instrument that sits atop an ice floe, a weighted, plastic-jacketed wire-rope tether of arbitrary length (up to 800 m) suspended from the surface instrument, and an instrumented underwater unit that profiles up and down the wire tether. The profiling underwater unit is similar in shape and dimension to an ARGO float except that the float's variable-buoyancy system is replaced with a traction drive unit. Deployment of ITPs may be conducted either from ice caps or icebreakers, utilizing a self contained tripod/winch system that requires no power. Careful selection of an appropriate multiyear ice floe is needed to prolong the lifetime of the system (up to 3 years depending on the profiling schedule). Shortly after deployment, each ITP begins profiling the water column at its programmed sampling interval. After each acquired temperature and salinity profile, the underwater unit (PROCON) transfers the data and engineering files using an inductive modem to the surface controller (SURFCON). SURFCON also accumulates battery voltages, buoy temperature, and locations from GPS at specified intervals in status files, and queues that information for transmission at the start of each new day. At frequent intervals, an Iridium satellite transceiver in the surface package calls and transmits queued status and CTD data files onto a WHOI logger computer, which are subsequently processed and displayed in near-real time at In 2004 and 2005, three ITP prototypes were deployed in the Arctic Ocean. Each system was programmed with accelerated sampling schedules of multiple one-way traverses per day between 10 and 750-760 m depth in order to quickly evaluate endurance and component fatigue. Two of the ITPs are continuing to function after more than 10 months and 1200 profiles. Larger motor currents are observed at times of fast ice floe motion when larger wire angles develop and drag forces on the profiler are increased. The CTD profile data so far obtained document interesting spatial variations in the major water masses of the Beaufort Gyre, show the double-diffusive thermohaline staircase that lies above the warm, salty Atlantic layer, and many mesoscale eddys. Deployed together with CRREL Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoys, these ITP systems also operate as part of an Ice Based Observatory (IBO). Data returned from an array of IBOs within an Arctic Observing Network will provide valuable real time observations, support studies of ocean processes, and facilitate numerical model initialization and validation.
  • Article
    Atmospheric forcing validation for modeling the central Arctic
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-10-24) Makshtas, A. ; Atkinson, D. ; Kulakov, M. ; Shutilin, S. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    We compare daily data from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and National Centers for Environmental Prediction “Reanalysis 1” project with observational data obtained from the North Pole drifting stations in order to validate the atmospheric forcing data used in coupled ice-ocean models. This analysis is conducted to assess the role of errors associated with model forcing before performing model verifications against observed ocean variables. Our analysis shows an excellent agreement between observed and reanalysis sea level pressures and a relatively good correlation between observed and reanalysis surface winds. The observed temperature is in good agreement with reanalysis data only in winter. Specific air humidity and cloudiness are not reproduced well by reanalysis and are not recommended for model forcing. An example sensitivity study demonstrates that the equilibrium ice thickness obtained using NP forcing is two times thicker than using reanalysis forcing.
  • Article
    The euphotic zone under Arctic Ocean sea ice : vertical extents and seasonal trends
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-03-26) Laney, Samuel R. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Toole, John M.
    Eight Ice-Tethered Profilers were deployed in the Arctic Ocean between 2011 and 2013 to measure vertical distributions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and other bio-optical properties in ice-covered water columns, multiple times a day over periods of up to a year. With the radiometers used on these profilers, PAR could be measured to depths of only ∼20–40 m in the central Arctic in late summer under sea ice ∼1 m thick. At lower latitudes in the Beaufort Gyre, late summer PAR was measurable under ice to depths exceeding 125 m. The maximum depths of measurable PAR followed seasonal trends in insolation, with isolumes shoaling in the fall as solar elevation decreased and deepening in spring and early summer after insolation resumed and sea ice diminished. PAR intensities were often anomalously low above 20 m, likely due to a shading effect associated with local horizontal heterogeneity in light transmittance by the overlying sea ice. A model was developed to parameterize these complex vertical PAR distributions to improve estimates of the water column diffuse attenuation coefficient and other related parameters. Such a model is necessary to separate the effect of surface ice heterogeneity on under-ice PAR profiles from that of the water column itself, so that euphotic zone depth in ice-covered water columns can be computed using canonical metrics such as the 1% light level. Water column diffuse attenuation coefficients derived from such autonomously-collected PAR profile data, using this model, agreed favorably with values determined manually in complementary studies.
  • Article
    Inorganic carbon and pCO(2) variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin.
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-05-07) DeGrandpre, Michael D. ; Lai, Chun-Ze ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Torres, Daniel J.
    Solute exclusion during sea ice formation is a potentially important contributor to the Arctic Ocean inorganic carbon cycle that could increase as ice cover diminishes. When ice forms, solutes are excluded from the ice matrix, creating a brine that includes dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT). The brine sinks, potentially exporting DIC and AT to deeper water. This phenomenon has rarely been observed, however. In this manuscript, we examine a ~1 year pCO2 mooring time series where a ~35‐μatm increase in pCO2 was observed in the mixed layer during the ice formation period, corresponding to a simultaneous increase in salinity from 27.2 to 28.5. Using salinity and ice based mass balances, we show that most of the observed increases can be attributed to solute exclusion during ice formation. The resulting pCO2 is sensitive to the ratio of AT and DIC retained in the ice and the mixed layer depth, which controls dilution of the ice‐derived AT and DIC. In the Canada Basin, of the ~92 μmol/kg increase in DIC, 17 μmol/kg was taken up by biological production and the remainder was trapped between the halocline and the summer stratified surface layer. Although not observed before the mooring was recovered, this inorganic carbon was likely later entrained with surface water, increasing the pCO2 at the surface. It is probable that inorganic carbon exclusion during ice formation will have an increasingly important influence on DIC and pCO2 in the surface of the Arctic Ocean as seasonal ice production and wind‐driven mixing increase with diminishing ice cover.
  • Preprint
    Greater role for Atlantic inflows on sea-ice loss in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean
    ( 2017-03) Polyakov, Igor V. ; Pnyushkov, Andrey ; Alkire, Matthew ; Ashik, Igor M. ; Baumann, Till M. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; Goszczko, Ilona ; Guthrie, John D. ; Ivanov, Vladimir V. ; Kanzow, Torsten ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Kwok, Ron ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Morison, James H. ; Rember, Robert ; Yulin, Alexander
    Arctic sea-ice loss is a leading indicator of climate change and can be attributed, in large part, to atmospheric forcing. Here we show that recent ice reductions, weakening of the halocline, and shoaling of intermediate-depth Atlantic Water layer in the eastern Eurasian Basin have increased winter ventilation in the ocean interior, making this region structurally similar to that of the western Eurasian Basin. The associated enhanced release of oceanic heat has reduced winter sea-ice formation at a rate now comparable to losses from atmospheric thermodynamic forcing, thus explaining the recent reduction in sea-ice cover in the eastern Eurasian Basin. This encroaching “atlantification” of the Eurasian Basin represents an essential step toward a new Arctic climate state, with a substantially greater role for Atlantic inflows.
  • Article
    Influences of the ocean surface mixed layer and thermohaline stratification on Arctic Sea ice in the central Canada Basin
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-10-08) Toole, John M. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Richter-Menge, Jackie A.
    Variations in the Arctic central Canada Basin mixed layer properties are documented based on a subset of nearly 6500 temperature and salinity profiles acquired by Ice-Tethered Profilers during the period summer 2004 to summer 2009 and analyzed in conjunction with sea ice observations from ice mass balance buoys and atmosphere-ocean heat flux estimates. The July–August mean mixed layer depth based on the Ice-Tethered Profiler data averaged 16 m (an overestimate due to the Ice-Tethered Profiler sampling characteristics and present analysis procedures), while the average winter mixed layer depth was only 24 m, with individual observations rarely exceeding 40 m. Guidance interpreting the observations is provided by a 1-D ocean mixed layer model. The analysis focuses attention on the very strong density stratification at the base of the mixed layer in the Canada Basin that greatly impedes surface layer deepening and thus limits the flux of deep ocean heat to the surface that could influence sea ice growth/decay. The observations additionally suggest that efficient lateral mixed layer restratification processes are active in the Arctic, also impeding mixed layer deepening.
  • Article
    Secular sea level change in the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-03-25) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Ashik, Igor M. ; Dvorkin, E. N. ; Hakkinen, Sirpa M. A. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Peltier, W. R.
    Sea level is a natural integral indicator of climate variability. It reflects changes in practically all dynamic and thermodynamic processes of terrestrial, oceanic, atmospheric, and cryospheric origin. The use of estimates of sea level rise as an indicator of climate change therefore incurs the difficulty that the inferred sea level change is the net result of many individual effects of environmental forcing. Since some of these effects may offset others, the cause of the sea level response to climate change remains somewhat uncertain. This paper is focused on an attempt to provide first-order answers to two questions, namely, what is the rate of sea level change in the Arctic Ocean, and furthermore, what is the role of each of the individual contributing factors to observed Arctic Ocean sea level change? In seeking answers to these questions we have discovered that during the period 1954–1989 the observed sea level over the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean is rising at a rate of approximately 0.123 cm yr−1 and that after correction for the process of glacial isostatic adjustment this rate is approximately 0.185 cm yr−1. There are two major causes of this rise. The first is associated with the steric effect of ocean expansion. This effect is responsible for a contribution of approximately 0.064 cm yr−1 to the total rate of rise (35%). The second most important factor is related to the ongoing decrease of sea level atmospheric pressure over the Arctic Ocean, which contributes 0.056 cm yr−1, or approximately 30% of the net positive sea level trend. A third contribution to the sea level increase involves wind action and the increase of cyclonic winds over the Arctic Ocean, which leads to sea level rise at a rate of 0.018 cm yr−1 or approximately 10% of the total. The combined effect of the sea level rise due to an increase of river runoff and the sea level fall due to a negative trend in precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean is close to 0. For the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean it therefore appears that approximately 25% of the trend of 0.185 cm yr−1, a contribution of 0.048 cm yr−1, may be due to the effect of increasing Arctic Ocean mass.
  • Article
    Characterizing the eddy field in the Arctic Ocean halocline
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-22) Zhao, Mengnan ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Toole, John M.
    Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITP), deployed in the Arctic Ocean between 2004 and 2013, have provided detailed temperature and salinity measurements of an assortment of halocline eddies. A total of 127 mesoscale eddies have been detected, 95% of which were anticyclones, the majority of which had anomalously cold cores. These cold-core anticyclonic eddies were observed in the Beaufort Gyre region (Canadian water eddies) and the vicinity of the Transpolar Drift Stream (Eurasian water eddies). An Arctic-wide calculation of the first baroclinic Rossby deformation radius Rd has been made using ITP data coupled with climatology; Rd ∼ 13 km in the Canadian water and ∼8 km in the Eurasian water. The observed eddies are found to have scales comparable to Rd. Halocline eddies are in cyclogeostrophic balance and can be described by a Rankine vortex with maximum azimuthal speeds between 0.05 and 0.4 m/s. The relationship between radius and thickness for the eddies is consistent with adjustment to the ambient stratification. Eddies may be divided into four groups, each characterized by distinct core depths and core temperature and salinity properties, suggesting multiple source regions and enabling speculation of varying formation mechanisms.
  • Article
    Eddies in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, observed from ice-tethered profilers
    (American Meteorological Society, 2008-01) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Toole, John M. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Plueddemann, Albert J.
    Five ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2004 and 2006, have provided detailed potential temperature θ and salinity S profiles from 21 anticyclonic eddy encounters in the central Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The 12–35-m-thick eddies have center depths between 42 and 69 m in the Arctic halocline, and are shallower and less dense than the majority of eddies observed previously in the central Canada Basin. They are characterized by anomalously cold θ and low stratification, and have horizontal scales on the order of, or less than, the Rossby radius of deformation (about 10 km). Maximum azimuthal speeds estimated from dynamic heights (assuming cyclogeostrophic balance) are between 9 and 26 cm s−1, an order of magnitude larger than typical ambient flow speeds in the central basin. Eddy θ–S and potential vorticity properties, as well as horizontal and vertical scales, are consistent with their formation by instability of a surface front at about 80°N that appears in historical CTD and expendable CTD (XCTD) measurements. This would suggest eddy lifetimes longer than 6 months. While the baroclinic instability of boundary currents cannot be ruled out as a generation mechanism, it is less likely since deeper eddies that would originate from the deeper-reaching boundary flows are not observed in the survey region.
  • Article
    Ice-tethered profiler measurements of dissolved oxygen under permanent ice cover in the Arctic Ocean
    (American Meteorological Society, 2010-11) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Laney, Samuel R. ; Toole, John M.
    Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted with the permanent ice pack and returned 2 one-way profiles per day of temperature, salinity, and DO. Long-term calibration drift of the oxygen sensor can be characterized and removed by referencing to recently calibrated ship DO observations on deep isotherms. Observed changes in the water column time series are due to both drift of the ITP into different water masses and seasonal variability, driven by both physical and biological processes within the water column. Several scientific examples are highlighted that demonstrate the considerable potential for sustained ITP-based DO measurements to better understand the Arctic Ocean circulation patterns and biogeochemical processes beneath the sea ice.
  • Article
    The Ice-Tethered Profiler : Argo of the Arctic
    (Oceanography Society, 2011-09) Toole, John M. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITPs), first deployed in fall 2004, have significantly increased the number of high-quality upper-ocean water-property observations available from the central Arctic. This article reviews the instrument technology and provides a status report on performance, along with several examples of the science that ITPs and companion instrumentation support.
  • Technical Report
    Deployment operation procedures for the WHOI Ice-Tethered Profiler
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-07) Newhall, Kris ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Peters, Donald B. ; Kemp, John N.
    Deployed and fixed to a suitable multi-year ice floe, the Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) can sustain near-real time measurements of upper ocean temperature and salinity for up to three years. Incorporating a specifically designed winch system and deployment apparatus that is both light weight and easily assembled or disassembled on a ship or at a deployment site, the ITP can be deployed in less than four hours by either transporting the gear and field personnel to the deployment site via aircraft, or by lowering the gear over the side of a ship and hauling on the ice. Using daily satellite imagery (if available), visual reconnaissance flights, and ice surveying, the choice of an appropriate ice floe is a necessity to select a site that will sustain the system for a prolonged period of time (depending upon the instrument sampling rate). If available, the helicopter is the preferable method for surveying different sites and for deployment operations. Working from a ship typically limits the distance and selection of ice floes. Pre-deployment procedures include powering and configuring the ITP instruments and preparing the apparatus for transport to the deployment site. Specific deployment methods include the assembly and disassembly of the ITP winch, proper placement of the total ITP deployment apparatus, ‘Yale Grip’ braiding and slipping techniques, and testing the Iridium and Inductive communication links. The operations described here provide a safe and efficient manner to easily deploy the WHOI ITP.
  • Article
    Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: physical oceanography
    (University of California Press, 2022-02-07) Rabe, Benjamin ; Heuzé, Céline ; Regnery, Julia ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Allerholt, Jacob ; Athanase, Marylou ; Bai, Youcheng ; Basque, Chris R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Baumann, Till M. ; Chen, Dake ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Craw, Lisa ; Davies, Andrew ; Damm, Ellen ; Dethloff, Klaus ; Divine, Dmitry V. ; Doglioni, Francesca ; Ebert, Falk ; Fang, Ying-Chih ; Fer, Ilker ; Fong, Allison A. ; Gradinger, Rolf ; Granskog, Mats A. ; Graupner, Rainer ; Haas, Christian ; He, Hailun ; Hoppmann, Mario ; Janout, Markus A. ; Kadko, David ; Kanzow, Torsten C. ; Karam, Salar ; Kawaguchi, Yusuke ; Koenig, Zoe ; Kong, Bin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Krumpen, Thomas ; Kuhlmey, David ; Kuznetsov, Ivan ; Lan, Musheng ; Laukert, Georgi ; Lei, Ruibo ; Li, Tao ; Torres-Valdes, Sinhue ; Lin, Lina ; Lin, Long ; Liu, Hailong ; Liu, Na ; Loose, Brice ; Ma, Xiaobing ; McKay, Rosalie ; Mallet, Maria ; Mallett, Robbie ; Maslowski, Wieslaw ; Mertens, Christian ; Mohrholz, Volker ; Muilwijk, Morven ; Nicolaus, Marcel ; O’Brien, Jeffrey K. ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Ren, Jian ; Rex, Markus ; Ribeiro, Natalia ; Rinke, Annette ; Schaffer, Janin ; Schuffenhauer, Ingo ; Schulz, Kirstin ; Shupe, Matthew ; Shaw, William J. ; Sokolov, Vladimir T. ; Sommerfeld, Anja ; Spreen, Gunnar ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Stephens, Mark ; Su, Jie ; Sukhikh, Natalia ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Thomisch, Karolin ; Tippenhauer, Sandra ; Toole, John M. ; Vredenborg, Myriel ; Walter, Maren ; Wang, Hangzhou ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, Yuntao ; Wendisch, Manfred ; Zhao, Jinping ; Zhou, Meng ; Zhu, Jialiang
    Arctic Ocean properties and processes are highly relevant to the regional and global coupled climate system, yet still scarcely observed, especially in winter. Team OCEAN conducted a full year of physical oceanography observations as part of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), a drift with the Arctic sea ice from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the program to characterize the Arctic Ocean system in unprecedented detail, from the seafloor to the air-sea ice-ocean interface, from sub-mesoscales to pan-Arctic. The oceanographic measurements were coordinated with the other teams to explore the ocean physics and linkages to the climate and ecosystem. This paper introduces the major components of the physical oceanography program and complements the other team overviews of the MOSAiC observational program. Team OCEAN’s sampling strategy was designed around hydrographic ship-, ice- and autonomous platform-based measurements to improve the understanding of regional circulation and mixing processes. Measurements were carried out both routinely, with a regular schedule, and in response to storms or opening leads. Here we present along-drift time series of hydrographic properties, allowing insights into the seasonal and regional evolution of the water column from winter in the Laptev Sea to early summer in Fram Strait: freshening of the surface, deepening of the mixed layer, increase in temperature and salinity of the Atlantic Water. We also highlight the presence of Canada Basin deep water intrusions and a surface meltwater layer in leads. MOSAiC most likely was the most comprehensive program ever conducted over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. While data analysis and interpretation are ongoing, the acquired datasets will support a wide range of physical oceanography and multi-disciplinary research. They will provide a significant foundation for assessing and advancing modeling capabilities in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Technical Report
    The Arctic Environmental Drifting Buoy (AEDB) : report of field operations and results, August, 1987 - April 1988
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990-01) Honjo, Susumu ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Plueddemann, Albert J.
    There are strong reasons to gather data on polar oceanogrphy and climatology in real time using fully automated, unattended instrumentation systems for long periods; particularly during the inaccessible winter months when moving ice is extremely hazardous. We deployed an Artic Environmental Drifting Buoy (AEDB) on 4 August 1987 at 86°7'N, 22°3'E off of the FS Polarstern on a large 3.7 m thick ice island. The AEDB consisted of 2 major components: a 147 cm diameter surface float housing ARGOS transmitters and a data logger for ice-profiling thermistors, and a 125 m long mooring line attached to the sphere and fed though a 1m diameter ice hole. Along the mooring were deployed 2 fluorometers, conductivity and temperature loggers, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), a current meter, and a time-series sediment trap/micro-filter pump/transmissometer unit. The AEDB proceeded southwesterly with the Transpolar Drift at an average speed of 15.3 km/day, with a maximum speed of 88.8 km/day. On 2 January 1988, the AEDB dropped into the water while passing through the Fram Strait and for the remaining drift period was either free-floating on the water surface or underneath the sea ice. Throughout this period, the transmitters onboard successfully transmitted position, temperature, and strain caused by ice on the sphere. Although the sediment trap package was lost during the drift, valuable data was collected by the other instruments throughout the experiment. The ice thermistor data was used to determine oceanic heat flux, while continuous ADCP observations over the Yermak Plateau provided a wealth of information for understanding internal waves in the ice-covered ocean. The buoy was recovered by the Icelandic ship R/S Arni Fridriksson on 15 April 1988 at 65°17'N, 31°38'W, off southeatern Greenland, completing 3,900km of drift in 255 days. We are in the process of constructing the next automated stations which are planned for deployment in both the north and south polar regions in 1991-92.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial dependence of a yearlong record of sound propagation from the Canada Basin to the Chukchi Shelf
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-09-23) Ballard, Megan S. ; Badiey, Mohsen ; Sagers, Jason D. ; Colosi, John A. ; Turgut, Altan ; Pecknold, Sean ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Worcester, Peter F. ; Dzieciuch, Matthew A.
    The Pacific Arctic Region has experienced decadal changes in atmospheric conditions, seasonal sea-ice coverage, and thermohaline structure that have consequences for underwater sound propagation. To better understand Arctic acoustics, a set of experiments known as the deep-water Canada Basin acoustic propagation experiment and the shallow-water Canada Basin acoustic propagation experiment was conducted in the Canada Basin and on the Chukchi Shelf from summer 2016 to summer 2017. During the experiments, low-frequency signals from five tomographic sources located in the deep basin were recorded by an array of hydrophones located on the shelf. Over the course of the yearlong experiment, the surface conditions transitioned from completely open water to fully ice-covered. The propagation conditions in the deep basin were dominated by a subsurface duct; however, over the slope and shelf, the duct was seen to significantly weaken during the winter and spring. The combination of these surface and subsurface conditions led to changes in the received level of the sources that exceeded 60 dB and showed a distinct spacio-temporal dependence, which was correlated with the locations of the sources in the basin. This paper seeks to quantify the observed variability in the received signals through propagation modeling using spatially sparse environmental measurements.
  • Article
    Arctic circulation regimes
    (The Royal Society, 2015-09-07) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Bamber, Jonathan L.
    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability.
  • Article
    Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin : an apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-07-23) Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Richter-Menge, Jackie A. ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Toole, John M.
    Data collected by an autonomous ice-based observatory that drifted into the Eurasian Basin between April and November 2010 indicate that the upper ocean was appreciably fresher than in 2007 and 2008. Sea ice and snowmelt over the course of the 2010 drift amounted to an input of less than 0.5 m of liquid freshwater to the ocean (comparable to the freshening by melting estimated for those previous years), while the observed change in upper-ocean salinity over the melt period implies a freshwater gain of about 0.7 m. Results of a wind-driven ocean model corroborate the observations of freshening and suggest that unusually fresh surface waters observed in parts of the Eurasian Basin in 2010 may have been due to the spreading of anomalously fresh water previously residing in the Beaufort Gyre. This flux is likely associated with a 2009 shift in the large-scale atmospheric circulation to a significant reduction in strength of the anticyclonic Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift Stream.