Tang Jianwu

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  • Article
    Enhanced carbon uptake and reduced methane emissions in a newly restored wetland
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-01-04) Yang, Hualei ; Tang, Jianwu ; Zhang, Chunsong ; Dai, Yuhang ; Zhou, Cheng ; Xu, Ping ; Perry, Danielle C. ; Chen, Xuechu
    Wetlands play an important role in reducing global warming potential in response to global climate change. Unfortunately, due to the effects of human disturbance and natural erosion, wetlands are facing global extinction. It is essential to implement engineering measures to restore damaged wetlands. However, the carbon sink capacity of restored wetlands is unclear. We examined the seasonal change of greenhouse gas emissions in both restored wetland and natural wetland and then evaluated the carbon sequestration capacity of the restored wetland. We found that (1) the carbon sink capacity of the restored wetland showed clear daily and seasonal change, which was affected by light intensity, air temperature, and vegetation growth, and (2) the annual daytime (8–18 hr) sustained‐flux global warming potential was −11.23 ± 4.34 kg CO2 m−2 y−1, representing a much larger carbon sink than natural wetland (−5.04 ± 3.73 kg CO2 m−2 y−1) from April to December. In addition, the results showed that appropriate tidal flow management may help to reduce CH4 emission in wetland restoration. Thus, we proposed that the restored coastal wetland, via effective engineering measures, reliably acted as a large net carbon sink and has the potential to help mitigate climate change.
  • Article
    Looking deeper into the soil : biophysical controls and seasonal lags of soil CO2 production and efflux
    (Ecological Society of America, 2010-09) Vargas, Rodrigo ; Baldocchi, Dennis D. ; Allen, Michael F. ; Bahn, Michael ; Black, T. Andrew ; Collins, Scott L. ; Yuste, Jorge Curiel ; Hirano, Takashi ; Jassal, Rachhpal S. ; Pumpanen, Jukka ; Tang, Jianwu
    We seek to understand how biophysical factors such as soil temperature (Ts), soil moisture (θ), and gross primary production (GPP) influence CO2 fluxes across terrestrial ecosystems. Recent advancements in automated measurements and remote-sensing approaches have provided time series in which lags and relationships among variables can be explored. The purpose of this study is to present new applications of continuous measurements of soil CO2 efflux (F0) and soil CO2 concentrations measurements. Here we explore how variation in Ts, θ, and GPP (derived from NASA's moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer [MODIS]) influence F0 and soil CO2 production (Ps). We focused on seasonal variation and used continuous measurements at a daily timescale across four vegetation types at 13 study sites to quantify: (1) differences in seasonal lags between soil CO2 fluxes and Ts, θ, and GPP and (2) interactions and relationships between CO2 fluxes with Ts, θ, and GPP. Mean annual Ts did not explain annual F0 and Ps among vegetation types, but GPP explained 73% and 30% of the variation, respectively. We found evidence that lags between soil CO2 fluxes and Ts or GPP provide insights into the role of plant phenology and information relevant about possible timing of controls of autotrophic and heterotrophic processes. The influences of biophysical factors that regulate daily F0 and Ps are different among vegetation types, but GPP is a dominant variable for explaining soil CO2 fluxes. The emergence of long-term automated soil CO2 flux measurement networks provides a unique opportunity for extended investigations into F0 and Ps processes in the near future.
  • Preprint
    Seasonal variability of multiple leaf traits captured by leaf spectroscopy at two temperate deciduous forests
    ( 2015-08) Yang, Xi ; Tang, Jianwu ; Mustard, John F. ; Wu, Jin ; Zhao, Kaiguang ; Serbin, Shawn ; Lee, Jung-Eun
    Understanding the temporal patterns of leaf traits is critical in determining the seasonality and magnitude of terrestrial carbon and water fluxes. However, robust and efficient ways to monitor the temporal dynamics of leaf traits are lacking. Here we assessed the potential of using leaf spectroscopy to predict leaf traits across their entire life cycle, forest sites, and light environments (sunlit vs. shaded) using a weekly sampled dataset across the entire growing season at two temperate deciduous forests. The dataset includes field measured leaf-level directional-hemispherical reflectance/transmittance together with seven important leaf traits [total chlorophyll (chlorophyll a and b), carotenoids, mass-based nitrogen concentration (Nmass), mass-based carbon concentration (Cmass), and leaf mass per area (LMA)]. All leaf properties, including leaf traits and spectra, varied significantly throughout the growing season, and displayed trait-specific temporal patterns. We used a Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) analysis to estimate leaf traits from spectra, and found a significant capability of PLSR to capture the variability across time, sites, and light environment of all leaf traits investigated (R2=0.6~0.8 for temporal variability; R2=0.3~0.7 for cross-site variability; R2=0.4~0.8 for variability from light environments). We also tested alternative field sampling designs and found that for most leaf traits, biweekly leaf sampling throughout the growing season enabled accurate characterization of the leaf trait seasonal patterns. Increasing the sampling frequency improved in the estimation of Nmass, Cmass and LMA comparing with foliar pigments. Our results, based on the comprehensive analysis of spectra-trait relationships across time, sites and light environments, highlight the capacity and potential limitations to use leaf spectra to estimate leaf traits with strong seasonal variability, as an alternative to time-consuming traditional wet lab approaches.
  • Article
    Landscape genomics provides evidence of ecotypic adaptation and a barrier to gene flow at treeline for the arctic foundation species Eriophorum vaginatum0
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-03-24) Stunz, Elizabeth ; Fetcher, Ned ; Lavretsky, Philip ; Mohl, Jonathon E. ; Tang, Jianwu ; Moody, Michael L.
    Global climate change has resulted in geographic range shifts of flora and fauna at a global scale. Extreme environments, like the Arctic, are seeing some of the most pronounced changes. This region covers 14% of the Earth’s land area, and while many arctic species are widespread, understanding ecotypic variation at the genomic level will be important for elucidating how range shifts will affect ecological processes. Tussock cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum L.) is a foundation species of the moist acidic tundra, whose potential decline due to competition from shrubs may affect ecosystem stability in the Arctic. We used double-digest Restriction Site-Associated DNA sequencing to identify genomic variation in 273 individuals of E. vaginatum from 17 sites along a latitudinal gradient in north central Alaska. These sites have been part of 30 + years of ecological research and are inclusive of a region that was part of the Beringian refugium. The data analyses included genomic population structure, demographic models, and genotype by environment association. Genome-wide SNP investigation revealed environmentally associated variation and population structure across the sampled range of E. vaginatum, including a genetic break between populations north and south of treeline. This structure is likely the result of subrefugial isolation, contemporary isolation by resistance, and adaptation. Forty-five candidate loci were identified with genotype-environment association (GEA) analyses, with most identified genes related to abiotic stress. Our results support a hypothesis of limited gene flow based on spatial and environmental factors for E. vaginatum, which in combination with life history traits could limit range expansion of southern ecotypes northward as the tundra warms. This has implications for lower competitive attributes of northern plants of this foundation species likely resulting in changes in ecosystem productivity.
  • Article
    Contributions of photosynthetic organs to the seed yield of hybrid rice: The effects of gibberellin application examined by carbon isotope technology
    (Zheng et al., 2018-12-01) Zheng, Huabin ; Wang, Xiaomin ; Li, Yunxia ; Huang, Zhanwen ; Tang, Qiyuan ; Tang, Jianwu
    Changes in the structure and quality of a hybrid combination population have been observed after the application of gibberellins. Such changes would affect the accumulation and distribution of photosynthetic products, which would subsequently affect the yield during hybrid rice seed production. In this study, photosynthetic physiological characteristics and the distribution of photosynthetic products were evaluated in a field experiment. The transport of panicle photosynthetic products to grain was demonstrated using a 14C isotope tracer technique.The contribution ratios of the panicle and leaf to yield in the hybrid rice seed production were 32.3 and 42.1%, respectively. Through isotope tracing technology, it was determined that about 90% of the photosynthetic products of the panicle and 50% of those of the leaf were delivered to the panicle. During the filling period, the contribution of panicle to yield was concentrated in the early period (0–10 days after pollination), and the contribution of leaf to yield was more significant in the late period (10 days after pollination to maturity). These results suggest that the panicle makes an important photosynthetic contribution (equivalent to that of the flag leaf) during the process of grain filling, especially at 0–5 days after the heading stage.
  • Article
    Soil warming accelerates biogeochemical silica cycling in a temperate forest.
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-09-11) Gewirtzman, Jonathan ; Tang, Jianwu ; Melillo, Jerry M. ; Werner, William J. ; Kurtz, Andrew C. ; Fulweiler, Robinson W. ; Carey, Joanna C.
    Biological cycling of silica plays an important role in terrestrial primary production. Soil warming stemming from climate change can alter the cycling of elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, in forested ecosystems. However, the effects of soil warming on the biogeochemical cycle of silica in forested ecosystems remain unexplored. Here we examine long-term forest silica cycling under ambient and warmed conditions over a 15-year period of experimental soil warming at Harvard Forest (Petersham, MA). Specifically, we measured silica concentrations in organic and mineral soils, and in the foliage and litter of two dominant species (Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra), in a large (30 × 30 m) heated plot and an adjacent control plot (30 × 30 m). In 2016, we also examined effects of heating on dissolved silica in the soil solution, and conducted a litter decomposition experiment using four tree species (Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Betula lenta, Tsuga canadensis) to examine effects of warming on the release of biogenic silica (BSi) from plants to soils. We find that tree foliage maintained constant silica concentrations in the control and warmed plots, which, coupled with productivity enhancements under warming, led to an increase in total plant silica uptake. We also find that warming drove an acceleration in the release of silica from decaying litter in three of the four species we examined, and a substantial increase in the silica dissolved in soil solution. However, we observe no changes in soil BSi stocks with warming. Together, our data indicate that warming increases the magnitude of silica uptake by vegetation and accelerates the internal cycling of silica in in temperate forests, with possible, and yet unresolved, effects on the delivery of silica from terrestrial to marine systems.
  • Article
    Water salinity and inundation control soil carbon decomposition during salt marsh restoration: An incubation experiment.
    (Wiley Open Access, 2019-02-10) Wang, Faming ; Kroeger, Kevin D. ; Gonneea, Meagan E. ; Pohlman, John W. ; Tang, Jianwu
    Coastal wetlands are a significant carbon (C) sink since they store carbon in anoxic soils. This ecosystem service is impacted by hydrologic alteration and management of these coastal habitats. Efforts to restore tidal flow to former salt marshes have increased in recent decades and are generally associated with alteration of water inundation levels and salinity. This study examined the effect of water level and salinity changes on soil organic matter decomposition during a 60‐day incubation period. Intact soil cores from impounded fresh water marsh and salt marsh were incubated after addition of either sea water or fresh water under flooded and drained water levels. Elevating fresh water marsh salinity to 6 to 9 ppt enhanced CO2 emission by 50%−80% and most typically decreased CH4 emissions, whereas, decreasing the salinity from 26 ppt to 19 ppt in salt marsh soils had no effect on CO2 or CH4 fluxes. The effect from altering water levels was more pronounced with drained soil cores emitting ~10‐fold more CO2 than the flooded treatment in both marsh sediments. Draining soil cores also increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Stable carbon isotope analysis of CO2 generated during the incubations of fresh water marsh cores in drained soils demonstrates that relict peat OC that accumulated when the marsh was saline was preferentially oxidized when sea water was introduced. This study suggests that restoration of tidal flow that raises the water level from drained conditions would decrease aerobic decomposition and enhance C sequestration. It is also possible that the restoration would increase soil C decomposition of deeper deposits by anaerobic oxidation, however this impact would be minimal compared to lower emissions expected due to the return of flooding conditions.
  • Article
    Heterotrophic respiration in disturbed forests : a review with examples from North America
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-05-14) Harmon, Mark E. ; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin ; Tang, Jianwu ; Vargas, Rodrigo
    Heterotrophic respiration (RH) is a major process releasing carbon to the atmosphere and is essential to understanding carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we review what is known about this flux as related to forest disturbance using examples from North America. The global RH flux from soils has been estimated at 53–57 Pg C yr−1, but this does not include contributions from other sources (i.e., dead wood, heart-rots). Disturbance-related inputs likely account for 20–50% of all RH losses in forests, and disturbances lead to a reorganization of ecosystem carbon pools that influences how RH changes over succession. Multiple controls on RH related to climate, the material being decomposed, and the decomposers involved have been identified, but how each potentially interacts with disturbance remains an open question. An emerging paradigm of carbon dynamics suggests the possibility of multiple periods of carbon sinks and sources following disturbance; a large contributing factor is the possibility that postdisturbance RH does not always follow the monotonic decline assumed in the classic theory. Without a better understanding and modeling of RH and its controlling factors, it will be difficult to estimate, forecast, understand, and manage carbon balances of regions in which disturbance frequency and severity are changing. Meeting this challenge will require (1) improved field data on processes and stores, (2) an improved understanding of the physiological and environmental controls of RH, and (3) a more formal analysis of how model structure influences the RH responses that can be predicted.
  • Preprint
    Root standing crop and chemistry after six years of soil warming in a temperate forest
    ( 2010-02) Zhou, Yumei ; Tang, Jianwu ; Melillo, Jerry M. ; Butler, Sarah M. ; Mohan, Jacqueline E.
    Examining the responses of root standing crop (biomass and necromass) and chemistry to soil warming is crucial for understanding root dynamics and functioning in the face of global climate change. We assessed the standing crop, total nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) compounds in tree roots and soil net N mineralization over the growing season after six years of experimental soil warming in a temperate deciduous forest in 2008. Roots were sorted into four different categories: live and dead fine roots (≤ 1 mm in diameter) and live and dead coarse roots (1-4 mm in diameter). Total root standing crop (live plus dead) in the top 10 cm of soil in the warmed area was 42.5% (378.4 vs. 658.5 g m-2) lower than in the control area, while the live root standing crops in the warmed area was 62% lower than in the control area. Soil net N mineralization over the growing season increased by 79.4% in the warmed relative to the control area. Soil warming did not significantly change the concentrations of C and carbon compounds (sugar, starch, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) in the four root categories. However, total N concentration in the live fine roots in the warmed area was 10.5% (13.7 vs. 12.4 mg g-1) higher and C:N ratio was 8.6% (38.5 vs. 42.1) lower than in the control area. The increase in N concentration in the live fine roots could be attributed to the increase in soil N availability due to soil warming. Net N mineralization was negatively correlated to both live and dead fine roots in the mineral soil that is home to the majority of roots, suggesting that soil warming increases N mineralization, decreases fine root biomass, and thus decreases carbon allocation belowground.
  • Article
    Short-term drought response of N2O and CO2 emissions from mesic agricultural soils in the US Midwest
    (Elsevier, 2015-07-17) Gelfand, Ilya ; Cui, Mengdi ; Tang, Jianwu ; Robertson, G. Philip
    Climate change is causing the intensification of both rainfall and droughts in temperate climatic zones, which will affect soil drying and rewetting cycles and associated processes such as soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We investigated the effect of soil rewetting following a prolonged natural drought on soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in an agricultural field recently converted from 22 years in the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). We compared responses to those in a similarly managed field with no CRP history and to a CRP reference field. We additionally compared soil GHG emissions measured by static flux chambers with off-site laboratory analysis versus in situ analysis using a portable quantum cascade laser and infrared gas analyzer. Under growing season drought conditions, average soil N2O fluxes ranged between 0.2 and 0.8 μg N m−2 min−1 and were higher in former CRP soils and unaffected by nitrogen (N) fertilization. After 18 days of drought, a 50 mm rewetting event increased N2O fluxes by 34 and 24 fold respectively in the former CRP and non-CRP soils. Average soil CO2 emissions during drought ranged from 1.1 to 3.1 mg C m−2 min−1 for the three systems. CO2 emissions increased ∼2 fold after the rewetting and were higher from soils with higher C contents. Observations are consistent with the hypothesis that during drought soil N2O emissions are controlled by available C and following rewetting additionally influenced by N availability, whereas soil CO2 emissions are independent of short-term N availability. Finally, soil GHG emissions estimated by off-site and in situ methods were statistically identical.
  • Preprint
    Seasonal patterns of canopy photosynthesis captured by remotely sensed sun-induced fluorescence and vegetation indexes in mid-to-high latitude forests : a cross-platform comparison
    ( 2018-06) Lu, Xinchen ; Cheng, Xiao ; Li, Xianglan ; Chen, Jiquan ; Sun, Minmin ; Ji, Ming ; He, Hong ; Wang, Siyu ; Li, Sen ; Tang, Jianwu
    Characterized by the noticeable seasonal patterns of photosynthesis, mid-to-high latitude forests are sensitive to climate change and crucial for understanding the global carbon cycle. To monitor the seasonal cycle of the canopy photosynthesis from space, several remote sensing based indexes, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and leaf area index (LAI), have been implemented within the past decades. Recently, satellite-derived sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) has shown great potentials of providing retrievals that are more related to photosynthesis process. However, the potentials of different canopy measurements have not been thoroughly assessed in the context of recent advances of new satellites and proposals of improved indexes. Here, we present a cross-site intercomparison of one emerging remote sensing based index of phenological index (PI) and two SIF datasets against the conventional indexes of NDVI, EVI and LAI to capture the seasonal cycles of canopy photosynthesis. NDVI, EVI, LAI and PI were calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements, while SIF were evaluated from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) observations. Results indicated that GOME-2 SIF was highly correlated with gross primary productivity (GPP) and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) during the growing seasons. Key phenological metrics captured by SIF from GOME-2 and OCO-2 matched closely with photosynthesis phenology as inferred by GPP. However, the applications of OCO-2 SIF for phenological studies may be limited only for a small range of sites (at site-level) due to a limited spatial sampling. Among the MODIS estimations, PI and NDVI provided most reliable predictions of start of growing seasons, while no indexes accurately captured the end of growing seasons.
  • Article
    Regional-scale phenology modeling based on meteorological records and remote sensing observations
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-09-14) Yang, Xi ; Mustard, John F. ; Tang, Jianwu ; Hong, Xu
    Changes of vegetation phenology in response to climate change in the temperate forests have been well documented recently and have important implications on the regional and global carbon and water cycles. Predicting the impact of changing phenology on terrestrial ecosystems requires an accurate phenology model. Although species-level phenology models have been tested using a small number of vegetation species, they are rarely examined at the regional level. In this study, we used remotely sensed phenology and meteorological data to parameterize the species-level phenology models. We used a remotely sensed vegetation index (Two-band Enhanced Vegetation Index, EVI2) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day reflectance product from 2000 to 2010 of New England, United States to calculate remotely sensed vegetation phenology (start/end of season, or SOS/EOS). The SOS/EOS and the daily mean air temperature data from weather stations were used to parameterize three budburst models and one senescence model. We compared the relative strengths of the models to predict vegetation phenology and selected the best model to reconstruct the “landscape phenology” in New England from year 1960 to 2010. Of the three budburst models tested, the spring warming model showed the best performance with an averaged Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of 4.59 days. The Akaike Information Criterion supported the spring warming model in all the weather stations. For senescence modeling, the Delpierre model was better than a null model (the averaged phenology of each weather station, averaged model efficiency = 0.33) and has a RMSD of 8.05 days. A retrospective analysis using the spring warming model suggests a statistically significant advance of SOS in New England from 1960 to 2010 averaged as 0.143 days per year (p = 0.015). EOS calculated using the Delpierre model and growing season length showed no statistically significant advance or delay between 1960 and 2010 in this region. These results suggest the applicability of species-level phenology models at the regional level (and potentially terrestrial biosphere models) and the feasibility of using these models in reconstructing and predicting vegetation phenology.
  • Article
    Carbon dioxide fluxes reflect plant zonation and belowground biomass in a coastal marsh
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-11-15) Moseman-Valtierra, Serena M. ; Abdul-Aziz, Omar I. ; Tang, Jianwu ; Ishtiaq, Khandker S. ; Morkeski, Kate ; Mora, Jordan ; Quinn, Ryan K. ; Martin, Rose M. ; Egan, Katherine E. ; Brannon, Elizabeth Q. ; Carey, Joanna C. ; Kroeger, Kevin D.
    Coastal wetlands are major global carbon sinks; however, they are heterogeneous and dynamic ecosystems. To characterize spatial and temporal variability in a New England salt marsh, greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes were compared among major plant-defined zones during growing seasons. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes were compared in two mensurative experiments during summer months (2012–2014) that included low marsh (Spartina alterniflora), high marsh (Distichlis spicata and Juncus gerardii-dominated), invasive Phragmites australis zones, and unvegetated ponds. Day- and nighttime fluxes were also contrasted in the native marsh zones. N2O fluxes were measured in parallel with CO2 and CH4 fluxes, but were not found to be significant. To test the relationships of CO2 and CH4 fluxes with several native plant metrics, a multivariate nonlinear model was used. Invasive P. australis zones (−7 to −15 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1) and S. alterniflora low marsh zones (up to −14 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1) displayed highest average CO2 uptake rates, while those in the native high marsh zone (less than −2 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1) were much lower. Unvegetated ponds were typically small sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (<0.5 μmol CO2·m−2·s−1). Nighttime emissions of CO2 averaged only 35% of daytime uptake in the low marsh zone, but they exceeded daytime CO2 uptake by up to threefold in the native high marsh zone. Based on modeling, belowground biomass was the plant metric most strongly correlated with CO2 fluxes in native marsh zones, while none of the plant variables correlated significantly with CH4 fluxes. Methane fluxes did not vary between day and night and did not significantly offset CO2 uptake in any vegetated marsh zones based on sustained global warming potential calculations. These findings suggest that attention to spatial zonation as well as expanded measurements and modeling of GHG emissions across greater temporal scales will help to improve accuracy of carbon accounting in coastal marshes.
  • Preprint
    Soil carbon fluxes and stocks in a Great Lakes forest chronosequence
    ( 2008-07) Tang, Jianwu ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Martin, Jonathan G.
    We measured soil respiration and soil carbon stocks, as well as micrometeorological variables in a chronosequence of deciduous forests in Wisconsin and Michigan. The chronosequence consisted of (1) four recently disturbed stands, including a clearcut and repeatedly burned stand (burn), a blowdown and partial salvage stand (blowdown), a clearcut with sparse residual overstory (residual), and a regenerated stand from a complete clearcut (regenerated); (2) four young aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands in average age of 10 years; (3) four intermediate aspen stands in average age of 26 years; (4) four mature northern hardwood stands in average age of 73 years; and (5) an old-growth stand approximately 350 years old. We fitted site-based models and used continuous measurements of soil temperature to estimate cumulative soil respiration for the growing season of 2005 (days 133 to 295). Cumulative soil respiration in the growing season was estimated to be 513, 680, 747, 747, 794, 802, 690, and 571 gC m-2 in the burn, blowdown, residual, regenerated, young, intermediate, mature, and old-growth stands, respectively. The measured apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was the highest in the regenerated stand, and declined from the young stands to the old-growth. Both cumulative soil respiration and basal soil respiration at 10˚C increased during stand establishment, peaked at intermediate age, and then decreased with age. Total soil carbon at 0-60 cm initially decreased after harvest, and increased after stands established. The old-growth stand accumulated carbon in deep layers of soils, but not in the surface soils. Our study suggests a complexity of long-term soil carbon dynamics, both in vertical depth and temporal scale.
  • Article
    Higher Temperature Sensitivity of Ecosystem Respiration in Low Marsh Compared to High Elevation Marsh Ecosystems
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-10-22) Carey, Joanna C. ; Kroeger, Kevin D. ; Tang, Jianwu
    Salt marsh habitats contain some of the highest quantities of soil organic carbon (C) per unit area, but increasing anthropogenic stressors threaten their ability to maintain themselves as large C reservoirs in some regions. We quantify rates of C gas exchange (methane [CH4] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) monthly across a 16‐month period from a low nitrogen “reference” salt marsh on Cape Cod in New England using static chambers. While the summer period is the most dynamic period of marsh C gas exchange, we observed substantial fluxes in the early summer through late fall, highlighting the importance of including shoulder seasons in studies of marsh C exchange. We estimate annual ecosystem respiration between 108 and 252 g C m−2 yr−1, which varied based on temperature and elevation. This flux is lower than in other nearby marshes, which we attribute to the frequently inundated, microtidal nature of the site, resulting in the majority of respired CO2 being exported via lateral, not vertical, fluxes from this marsh. We observed significantly higher temperature sensitivity from the low elevation of the marsh compared to the high marsh. Recent acceleration in the rate of sea level rise is leading to a well‐documented expansion of low marsh into high marsh vegetation zones in this marsh system and others in the region. While rates of C burial are higher in the low marsh compared to the high marsh, the higher temperature sensitivity of respiration in the low marsh may diminish the longevity of marsh C stocks with climate warming.
  • Article
    Effect of growth temperature on photosynthetic capacity and respiration in three ecotypes of Eriophorum vaginatum
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-03-06) Schedlbauer, Jessica L. ; Fetcher, Ned ; Hood, Katherine ; Moody, Michael L. ; Tang, Jianwu
    Ecotypic differentiation in the tussock‐forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum has led to the development of populations that are locally adapted to climate in Alaska's moist tussock tundra. As a foundation species, E. vaginatum plays a central role in providing topographic and microclimatic variation essential to these ecosystems, but a changing climate could diminish the importance of this species. As Arctic temperatures have increased, there is evidence of adaptational lag in E. vaginatum, as locally adapted ecotypes now exhibit reduced population growth rates. Whether there is a physiological underpinning to adaptational lag is unknown. Accordingly, this possibility was investigated in reciprocal transplant gardens. Tussocks of E. vaginatum from sites separated by ~1° latitude (Coldfoot: 67°15′N, Toolik Lake: 68°37′, Sagwon: 69°25′) were transplanted into the Toolik Lake and Sagwon sites and exposed to either an ambient or an experimental warming treatment. Five tussocks pertreatment combination were measured at each garden to determine photosynthetic capacity (i.e., Vcmax and Jmax) and dark respiration rate (Rd) at measurement temperatures of 15, 20, and 25°C. Photosynthetic enhancements or homeostasis were observed for all ecotypes at both gardens under increased growth temperature, indicating no negative effect of elevated temperature on photosynthetic capacity. Further, no evidence of thermal acclimation in Rd was observed for any ecotype, and there was little evidence of ecotypic variation in Rd. As such, no physiological contribution to adaptational lag was observed given the increase in growth temperature (up to ~2°C) provided by this study. Despite neutral to positive effects of increased growth temperature on photosynthesis in E. vaginatum, it appears to confer no lasting advantage to the species.
  • Article
    A robust calibration method for continental-scale soil water content measurements
    (American Society of Agronomy, 2018-05-24) Roberti, Joshua A. ; Ayres, Edward ; Loescher, Henry W. ; Tang, Jianwu ; Starr, Gregory ; Durden, David J. ; Smith, Derek E. ; de la Reguera, Elizabeth ; Morkeski, Kate ; McKlveen, Margot ; Benstead, Heidi ; SanClements, Michael D. ; Lee, Robert H. ; Gebremedhin, Gebremedhin ; Zulueta, Rommel C.
    Technological advances have allowed in situ monitoring of soil water content in an automated manner. These advances, along with an increase in large-scale networks monitoring soil water content, stress the need for a robust calibration framework that ensures that soil water content measurements are accurate and reliable. We have developed an approach to make consistent and comparable soil water content sensor calibrations across a continental-scale network in a production framework that incorporates a thorough accounting of uncertainties. More than 150 soil blocks of varying characteristics from 33 locations across the United States were used to generate soil-specific calibration coefficients for a capacitance sensor. We found that the manufacturer’s nominal calibration coefficients poorly fit the data for nearly all soil types. This resulted in negative (91% of samples) and positive (5% of samples) biases and a mean root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.123 cm3 cm−3 (1σ) relative to reference standard measurements. We derived soil-specific coefficients, and when used with the manufacturer’s nominal function, the biases were corrected and the mean RMSE dropped to ±0.017 cm3 cm−3 (±1σ). A logistic calibration function further reduced the mean RMSE to ±0.016 cm3 cm−3 (±1σ) and increased the range of soil moistures to which the calibration applied by 18% compared with the manufacturer’s function. However, the uncertainty of the reference standard was notable (±0.022 cm3 cm−3), and when propagated in quadrature with RMSE estimates, the combined uncertainty of the calibrated volumetric soil water content values increased to ±0.028 cm3 cm−3 regardless of the calibration function used.
  • Article
    Cover crops and chicken grazing in a winter fallow field improve soil carbon and nitrogen contents and decrease methane emissions
    (Nature Research, 2020-07-28) Zheng, Huabin ; Zhou, Linhong ; Wei, Jiabing ; Tang, Qiyuan ; Zou, Yingbin ; Tang, Jianwu ; Xu, Huaqin
    Using symbiotic farming methods [cover crops and chicken grazing (+ C)] in a winter fallow field, we found that the soil organic matter and total nitrogen of the + C treatment were 5.2% and 26.6% higher, respectively, than those of a treatment with cover crops and no chicken grazing (− C). The annual rice grain yield of the + C treatment was 3.8% higher than that of the − C treatment and 12.3% higher than that of the bare fallow field (CK), while the annual CH4 emissions of the + C treatment were 26.9% lower than those of the − C treatment and 10.6% lower than those of the CK treatment. The 100-year global warming potential of the + C treatment was 6.2% lower than that of the − C treatment. Therefore, the use of winter cover crops and chicken grazing in a winter fallow field was effective at reducing CH4 emissions and significantly improving soil nutrients and rice yield.
  • Preprint
    Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing
    ( 2014-12) Chen, Xuechu ; He, Shengbing ; Zhang, Yueping ; Huang, Xiaobo ; Huang, Yingying ; Chen, Danyue ; Huang, Xiaochen ; Tang, Jianwu
    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment–water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3--N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m-2 d-1. The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3--N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m-2 d-1 at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d-1.
  • Article
    Ecosystem fluxes of hydrogen : a comparison of flux-gradient methods
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2014-09-03) Meredith, Laura K. ; Commane, R. ; Munger, J. William ; Dunn, A. ; Tang, Jianwu ; Wofsy, Steven C. ; Prinn, Ronald G.
    Our understanding of biosphere–atmosphere exchange has been considerably enhanced by eddy covariance measurements. However, there remain many trace gases, such as molecular hydrogen (H2), that lack suitable analytical methods to measure their fluxes by eddy covariance. In such cases, flux-gradient methods can be used to calculate ecosystem-scale fluxes from vertical concentration gradients. The budget of atmospheric H2 is poorly constrained by the limited available observations, and thus the ability to quantify and characterize the sources and sinks of H2 by flux-gradient methods in various ecosystems is important. We developed an approach to make nonintrusive, automated measurements of ecosystem-scale H2 fluxes both above and below the forest canopy at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, for over a year. We used three flux-gradient methods to calculate the fluxes: two similarity methods that do not rely on a micrometeorological determination of the eddy diffusivity, K, based on (1) trace gases or (2) sensible heat, and one flux-gradient method that (3) parameterizes K. We quantitatively assessed the flux-gradient methods using CO2 and H2O by comparison to their simultaneous independent flux measurements via eddy covariance and soil chambers. All three flux-gradient methods performed well in certain locations, seasons, and times of day, and the best methods were trace gas similarity for above the canopy and K parameterization below it. Sensible heat similarity required several independent measurements, and the results were more variable, in part because those data were only available in the winter, when heat fluxes and temperature gradients were small and difficult to measure. Biases were often observed between flux-gradient methods and the independent flux measurements, and there was at least a 26% difference in nocturnal eddy-derived net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and chamber measurements. H2 fluxes calculated in a summer period agreed within their uncertainty and pointed to soil uptake as the main driver of H2 exchange at Harvard Forest, with H2 deposition velocities ranging from 0.04 to 0.10 cm s−1.