Loose Brice

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  • Article
    Sea ice biogeochemistry and material transport across the frozen interface
    (Oceanography Society, 2011-09) Loose, Brice ; Miller, Lisa A. ; Elliott, Scott ; Papakyriakou, Tim
    The porous nature of sea ice not only provides a habitat for ice algae but also opens a pathway for exchanges of organic matter, nutrients, and gases with the seawater below and the atmosphere above. These constituents permeate the ice cover through air-ice gas exchange, brine drainage, seawater entrainment into the ice, and air-sea gas exchange within leads and polynyas. The central goal in sea ice biogeochemistry since the 1980s has been to discover the physical, biological, and chemical rates and pathways by which sea ice affects the distribution and storage of biogenic gases (namely CO2, O2, and dimethyl sulfide) between the ocean and the atmosphere. Historically, sea ice held the fascination of scientists for its role in the ocean heat budget, and the resulting view of sea ice as a barrier to heat and mass transport became its canonical representation. However, the recognition that sea ice contains a vibrant community of ice-tolerant organisms and strategic reserves of carbon has brought forward a more nuanced view of the "barrier" as an active participant in polar biogeochemical cycles. In this context, the organisms and their habitat of brine and salt crystals drive material fluxes into and out of the ice, regulated by liquid and gas permeability. Today, scientists who study sea ice are acutely focused on determining the flux pathways of inorganic carbon, particulate organics, climate-active gases, excess carbonate alkalinity, and ultimately, the role of all of these constituents in the climate system. Thomas and Dieckmann (2010) recently reviewed sea ice biogeochemistry, and so we do not attempt a comprehensive review here. Instead, our goal is to provide a historical perspective, along with some recent discoveries and observations to highlight the most outstanding questions and possibly useful avenues for future research.
  • Article
    Changes in gross oxygen production, net oxygen production, and air-water gas exchange during seasonal ice melt in Whycocomagh Bay, a Canadian estuary in the Bras d'or Lake system
    (European Geosciences Union, 2019-09-05) Manning, Cara C. ; Stanley, Rachel H. R. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Loose, Brice ; Lovely, Ann ; Schlosser, Peter ; Hatcher, Bruce G.
    Sea ice is an important control on gas exchange and primary production in polar regions. We measured net oxygen production (NOP) and gross oxygen production (GOP) using near-continuous measurements of the O2∕Ar gas ratio and discrete measurements of the triple isotopic composition of O2, during the transition from ice-covered to ice-free conditions, in Whycocomagh Bay, an estuary in the Bras d'Or Lake system in Nova Scotia, Canada. The volumetric gross oxygen production was 5.4+2.8−1.6 mmol O2 m−3 d−1, similar at the beginning and end of the time series, and likely peaked at the end of the ice melt period. Net oxygen production displayed more temporal variability and the system was on average net autotrophic during ice melt and net heterotrophic following the ice melt. We performed the first field-based dual tracer release experiment in ice-covered water to quantify air–water gas exchange. The gas transfer velocity at >90 % ice cover was 6 % of the rate for nearly ice-free conditions. Published studies have shown a wide range of results for gas transfer velocity in the presence of ice, and this study indicates that gas transfer through ice is much slower than the rate of gas transfer through open water. The results also indicate that both primary producers and heterotrophs are active in Whycocomagh Bay during spring while it is covered in ice.
  • Article
    Sea ice and its effect on CO2 flux between the atmosphere and the Southern Ocean interior
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-11-15) Loose, Brice ; Schlosser, Peter
    The advance and retreat of sea ice produces seasonal convection and stratification, dampens surface waves and creates a separation between the ocean and atmosphere. These are all phenomena that can affect the air-sea gas transfer velocity (k660), and therefore it is not straightforward to determine how sea ice cover modulates air-sea flux. In this study we use field estimates k660 to examine how sea ice affects the net gas flux between the ocean and atmosphere. An inventory of salinity, 3He, and CFC-11 in the mixed layer is used to infer k660 during the drift of Ice Station Weddell in 1992. The average of k660 is 0.11 m d−1 across nearly 100% ice cover. In comparison, the only prior field estimates of k660 are disproportionately larger, with average values of 2.4 m d−1 across 90% sea ice cover, and 3.2 m d−1 across approximately 70% sea ice cover. We use these values to formulate two scenarios for the modulation of k660 by the fraction of sea ice cover in a 1-D transport model for the Southern Ocean seasonal ice zone. Results show the net CO2 flux through sea ice cover represents 14–46% of the net annual air-sea flux, depending on the relationship between sea ice cover and k660. The model also indicates that as much as 68% of net annual CO2 flux in the sea ice zone occurs in the springtime marginal ice zone, which demonstrates the need for accurate parameterizations of gas flux and primary productivity under partially ice-covered conditions.
  • Article
    Overview of the MOSAiC expedition: physical oceanography
    (University of California Press, 2022-02-07) Rabe, Benjamin ; Heuzé, Céline ; Regnery, Julia ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Allerholt, Jacob ; Athanase, Marylou ; Bai, Youcheng ; Basque, Chris R. ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Baumann, Till M. ; Chen, Dake ; Cole, Sylvia T. ; Craw, Lisa ; Davies, Andrew ; Damm, Ellen ; Dethloff, Klaus ; Divine, Dmitry V. ; Doglioni, Francesca ; Ebert, Falk ; Fang, Ying-Chih ; Fer, Ilker ; Fong, Allison A. ; Gradinger, Rolf ; Granskog, Mats A. ; Graupner, Rainer ; Haas, Christian ; He, Hailun ; Hoppmann, Mario ; Janout, Markus A. ; Kadko, David ; Kanzow, Torsten C. ; Karam, Salar ; Kawaguchi, Yusuke ; Koenig, Zoe ; Kong, Bin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Krumpen, Thomas ; Kuhlmey, David ; Kuznetsov, Ivan ; Lan, Musheng ; Laukert, Georgi ; Lei, Ruibo ; Li, Tao ; Torres-Valdes, Sinhue ; Lin, Lina ; Lin, Long ; Liu, Hailong ; Liu, Na ; Loose, Brice ; Ma, Xiaobing ; McKay, Rosalie ; Mallet, Maria ; Mallett, Robbie ; Maslowski, Wieslaw ; Mertens, Christian ; Mohrholz, Volker ; Muilwijk, Morven ; Nicolaus, Marcel ; O’Brien, Jeffrey K. ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Ren, Jian ; Rex, Markus ; Ribeiro, Natalia ; Rinke, Annette ; Schaffer, Janin ; Schuffenhauer, Ingo ; Schulz, Kirstin ; Shupe, Matthew ; Shaw, William J. ; Sokolov, Vladimir T. ; Sommerfeld, Anja ; Spreen, Gunnar ; Stanton, Timothy P. ; Stephens, Mark ; Su, Jie ; Sukhikh, Natalia ; Sundfjord, Arild ; Thomisch, Karolin ; Tippenhauer, Sandra ; Toole, John M. ; Vredenborg, Myriel ; Walter, Maren ; Wang, Hangzhou ; Wang, Lei ; Wang, Yuntao ; Wendisch, Manfred ; Zhao, Jinping ; Zhou, Meng ; Zhu, Jialiang
    Arctic Ocean properties and processes are highly relevant to the regional and global coupled climate system, yet still scarcely observed, especially in winter. Team OCEAN conducted a full year of physical oceanography observations as part of the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), a drift with the Arctic sea ice from October 2019 to September 2020. An international team designed and implemented the program to characterize the Arctic Ocean system in unprecedented detail, from the seafloor to the air-sea ice-ocean interface, from sub-mesoscales to pan-Arctic. The oceanographic measurements were coordinated with the other teams to explore the ocean physics and linkages to the climate and ecosystem. This paper introduces the major components of the physical oceanography program and complements the other team overviews of the MOSAiC observational program. Team OCEAN’s sampling strategy was designed around hydrographic ship-, ice- and autonomous platform-based measurements to improve the understanding of regional circulation and mixing processes. Measurements were carried out both routinely, with a regular schedule, and in response to storms or opening leads. Here we present along-drift time series of hydrographic properties, allowing insights into the seasonal and regional evolution of the water column from winter in the Laptev Sea to early summer in Fram Strait: freshening of the surface, deepening of the mixed layer, increase in temperature and salinity of the Atlantic Water. We also highlight the presence of Canada Basin deep water intrusions and a surface meltwater layer in leads. MOSAiC most likely was the most comprehensive program ever conducted over the ice-covered Arctic Ocean. While data analysis and interpretation are ongoing, the acquired datasets will support a wide range of physical oceanography and multi-disciplinary research. They will provide a significant foundation for assessing and advancing modeling capabilities in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Dataset
    CTD and underwater mass spectrometer data acquired in 2017 aboard the RV/Endeavor (cruise EN602) in the the subtropical Atlantic using a Triaxus tow vehicle.
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-03-16) Loose, Brice ; Short, R. Timothy ; Toler, Strawn ; Agnich, Jason ; Gruebel, Erich ; Ricketts, Richard D.
    CTD and underwater mass spectrometer data acquired in 2017 aboard the RV/Endeavor (cruise EN602) in the the subtropical Atlantic using a Triaxus tow vehicle. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/828767
  • Article
    Numerical investigation of the Arctic ice–ocean boundary layer and implications for air–sea gas fluxes
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2017-01-23) Bigdeli, Arash ; Loose, Brice ; Nguyen, An T. ; Cole, Sylvia T.
    In ice-covered regions it is challenging to determine constituent budgets – for heat and momentum, but also for biologically and climatically active gases like carbon dioxide and methane. The harsh environment and relative data scarcity make it difficult to characterize even the physical properties of the ocean surface. Here, we sought to evaluate if numerical model output helps us to better estimate the physical forcing that drives the air–sea gas exchange rate (k) in sea ice zones. We used the budget of radioactive 222Rn in the mixed layer to illustrate the effect that sea ice forcing has on gas budgets and air–sea gas exchange. Appropriate constraint of the 222Rn budget requires estimates of sea ice velocity, concentration, mixed-layer depth, and water velocities, as well as their evolution in time and space along the Lagrangian drift track of a mixed-layer water parcel. We used 36, 9 and 2 km horizontal resolution of regional Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) configuration with fine vertical spacing to evaluate the capability of the model to reproduce these parameters. We then compared the model results to existing field data including satellite, moorings and ice-tethered profilers. We found that mode sea ice coverage agrees with satellite-derived observation 88 to 98 % of the time when averaged over the Beaufort Gyre, and model sea ice speeds have 82 % correlation with observations. The model demonstrated the capacity to capture the broad trends in the mixed layer, although with a significant bias. Model water velocities showed only 29 % correlation with point-wise in situ data. This correlation remained low in all three model resolution simulations and we argued that is largely due to the quality of the input atmospheric forcing. Overall, we found that even the coarse-resolution model can make a modest contribution to gas exchange parameterization, by resolving the time variation of parameters that drive the 222Rn budget, including rate of mixed-layer change and sea ice forcings.
  • Article
    Productivity of a coral reef using boundary layer and enclosure methods
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-02-15) McGillis, Wade R. ; Langdon, Chris ; Loose, Brice ; Yates, Kimberly K. ; Corredor, Jorge
    The metabolism of Cayo Enrique Reef, Puerto Rico, was studied using in situ methods during March 2009. Benthic O2 fluxes were used to calculate net community production using both the boundary layer gradient and enclosure techniques. The boundary layer O2 gradient and the drag coefficients were used to calculate productivity ranging from −12.3 to 13.7 mmol O2 m−2 h−1. Productivity measurements from the enclosure method ranged from −11.0 to 12.9 mmol O2 m−2 h−1. During the study, the mean hourly difference between the methods was 0.65 mmol O2 m−2 h−1 (r2 = 0.92), resulting in well-reconciled estimates of net community production between the boundary layer (−33.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and enclosure (−46.3 mmol m−2 d−1) techniques. The results of these independent approaches corroborate quantified rates of metabolism at Cayo Enrique Reef. Close agreement between methods demonstrates that boundary layer measurements can provide near real-time assessments of coral reef health.
  • Article
    Evidence of an active volcanic heat source beneath the Pine Island Glacier
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-06-22) Loose, Brice ; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. ; Schlosser, Peter ; Jenkins, William J. ; Vaughan, David ; Heywood, Karen J.
    Tectonic landforms reveal that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) lies atop a major volcanic rift system. However, identifying subglacial volcanism is challenging. Here we show geochemical evidence of a volcanic heat source upstream of the fast-melting Pine Island Ice Shelf, documented by seawater helium isotope ratios at the front of the Ice Shelf cavity. The localization of mantle helium to glacial meltwater reveals that volcanic heat induces melt beneath the grounded glacier and feeds the subglacial hydrological network crossing the grounding line. The observed transport of mantle helium out of the Ice Shelf cavity indicates that volcanic heat is supplied to the grounded glacier at a rate of ~ 2500 ± 1700 MW, which is ca. half as large as the active Grimsvötn volcano on Iceland. Our finding of a substantial volcanic heat source beneath a major WAIS glacier highlights the need to understand subglacial volcanism, its hydrologic interaction with the marine margins, and its potential role in the future stability of the WAIS.
  • Article
    Estimating the recharge properties of the deep ocean using noble gases and helium isotopes
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-08-18) Loose, Brice ; Jenkins, William J. ; Moriarty, Roisin ; Brown, Peter ; Jullion, Loic ; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. ; Valdes, Sinhue Torres ; Hoppema, Mario ; Ballentine, Christopher J. ; Meredith, Michael P.
    The distribution of noble gases and helium isotopes in the dense shelf waters of Antarctica reflects the boundary conditions near the ocean surface: air-sea exchange, sea ice formation, and subsurface ice melt. We use a nonlinear least squares solution to determine the value of the recharge temperature and salinity, as well as the excess air injection and glacial meltwater content throughout the water column and in the precursor to Antarctic Bottom Water. The noble gas-derived recharge temperature and salinity in the Weddell Gyre are −1.95°C and 34.95 psu near 5500 m; these cold, salty recharge values are a result of surface cooling as well as brine rejection during sea ice formation in Antarctic polynyas. In comparison, the global value for deep water recharge temperature is −0.44°C at 5500 m, which is 1.5°C warmer than the southern hemisphere deep water recharge temperature, reflecting a distinct contribution from the north Atlantic. The contrast between northern and southern hemisphere recharge properties highlights the impact of sea ice formation on setting the gas properties in southern sourced deep water. Below 1000 m, glacial meltwater averages 3.5‰ by volume and represents greater than 50% of the excess neon and argon found in the water column. These results indicate glacial melt has a nonnegligible impact on the atmospheric gas content of Antarctic Bottom Water.
  • Article
    Sea-ice production and air/ice/ocean/biogeochemistry interactions in the Ross Sea during the PIPERS 2017 autumn field campaign
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-06-11) Ackley, Stephen ; Stammerjohn, Sharon E. ; Maksym, Ted ; Smith, Madison M. ; Cassano, John ; Guest, Peter ; Tison, Jean-Louis ; Delille, Bruno ; Loose, Brice ; Sedwick, Peter N. ; De Pace, Lisa ; Roach, Lettie ; Parno, Julie
    The Ross Sea is known for showing the greatest sea-ice increase, as observed globally, particularly from 1979 to 2015. However, corresponding changes in sea-ice thickness and production in the Ross Sea are not known, nor how these changes have impacted water masses, carbon fluxes, biogeochemical processes and availability of micronutrients. The PIPERS project sought to address these questions during an autumn ship campaign in 2017 and two spring airborne campaigns in 2016 and 2017. PIPERS used a multidisciplinary approach of manned and autonomous platforms to study the coupled air/ice/ocean/biogeochemical interactions during autumn and related those to spring conditions. Unexpectedly, the Ross Sea experienced record low sea ice in spring 2016 and autumn 2017. The delayed ice advance in 2017 contributed to (1) increased ice production and export in coastal polynyas, (2) thinner snow and ice cover in the central pack, (3) lower sea-ice Chl-a burdens and differences in sympagic communities, (4) sustained ocean heat flux delaying ice thickening and (5) a melting, anomalously southward ice edge persisting into winter. Despite these impacts, airborne observations in spring 2017 suggest that winter ice production over the continental shelf was likely not anomalous.
  • Article
    The contribution of the Weddell Gyre to the lower limb of the Global Overturning Circulation
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-06-05) Jullion, Loic ; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. ; Bacon, Sheldon ; Meredith, Michael P. ; Brown, Peter J. ; Torres-Valdes, Sinhue ; Speer, Kevin G. ; Holland, Paul R. ; Dong, Jun ; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. ; Hoppema, Mario ; Loose, Brice ; Venables, Hugh J. ; Jenkins, William J. ; Messias, Marie-Jose ; Fahrbach, Eberhard
    The horizontal and vertical circulation of the Weddell Gyre is diagnosed using a box inverse model constructed with recent hydrographic sections and including mobile sea ice and eddy transports. The gyre is found to convey 42 ± 8 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s–1) across the central Weddell Sea and to intensify to 54 ± 15 Sv further offshore. This circulation injects 36 ± 13 TW of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to the gyre, and exports 51 ± 23 mSv of freshwater, including 13 ± 1 mSv as sea ice to the midlatitude Southern Ocean. The gyre's overturning circulation has an asymmetric double-cell structure, in which 13 ± 4 Sv of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and relatively light Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are transformed into upper-ocean water masses by midgyre upwelling (at a rate of 2 ± 2 Sv) and into denser AABW by downwelling focussed at the western boundary (8 ± 2 Sv). The gyre circulation exhibits a substantial throughflow component, by which CDW and AABW enter the gyre from the Indian sector, undergo ventilation and densification within the gyre, and are exported to the South Atlantic across the gyre's northern rim. The relatively modest net production of AABW in the Weddell Gyre (6 ± 2 Sv) suggests that the gyre's prominence in the closure of the lower limb of global oceanic overturning stems largely from the recycling and equatorward export of Indian-sourced AABW.
  • Article
    How well does wind speed predict air-sea gas transfer in the sea ice zone? A synthesis of radon deficit profiles in the upper water column of the Arctic Ocean
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-05-05) Loose, Brice ; Kelly, Roger P. ; Bigdeli, Arash ; Williams, W. ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M. ; Moran, S. Bradley
    We present 34 profiles of radon-deficit from the ice-ocean boundary layer of the Beaufort Sea. Including these 34, there are presently 58 published radon-deficit estimates of air-sea gas transfer velocity (k) in the Arctic Ocean; 52 of these estimates were derived from water covered by 10% sea ice or more. The average value of k collected since 2011 is 4.0 ± 1.2 m d−1. This exceeds the quadratic wind speed prediction of weighted kws = 2.85 m d−1 with mean-weighted wind speed of 6.4 m s−1. We show how ice cover changes the mixed-layer radon budget, and yields an “effective gas transfer velocity.” We use these 58 estimates to statistically evaluate the suitability of a wind speed parameterization for k, when the ocean surface is ice covered. Whereas the six profiles taken from the open ocean indicate a statistically good fit to wind speed parameterizations, the same parameterizations could not reproduce k from the sea ice zone. We conclude that techniques for estimating k in the open ocean cannot be similarly applied to determine k in the presence of sea ice. The magnitude of k through gaps in the ice may reach high values as ice cover increases, possibly as a result of focused turbulence dissipation at openings in the free surface. These 58 profiles are presently the most complete set of estimates of k across seasons and variable ice cover; as dissolved tracer budgets they reflect air-sea gas exchange with no impact from air-ice gas exchange.
  • Article
    The five stable noble gases are sensitive unambiguous tracers of glacial meltwater
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-04-16) Loose, Brice ; Jenkins, William J.
    The five inert noble gases—He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe—exhibit a unique dissolved gas saturation pattern resulting from the formation and addition of glacial meltwater to seawater. He and Ne become oversaturated, and Ar, Kr, and Xe become undersaturated to varying percentages. For example, addition of 10‰ glacial meltwater to seawater results in a saturation anomaly of ΔHe = 12.8%, ΔNe = 8.9%, ΔAr = −0.5%, ΔKr = −2.2%, and ΔXe = −3.3%. This pattern in noble gas saturation reflects a unique meltwater signature that is distinct from the other major physical processes that modify the gas concentration and saturation, namely, seasonal changes in temperature at the ocean surface and bubble mediated gas exchange. We use Optimum Multiparameter analysis to illustrate how all five noble gases can help distinguish glacial meltwater from wind-driven bubble injection, making them a potentially valuable suite of tracers for glacial melt and its concentration in the deep waters of the world ocean.
  • Dataset
    CTD and underwater mass spectrometer data acquired in 2016 aboard the RV/Endeavor (cruise EN575) in the the subtropical Atlantic using a Triaxus tow vehicle.
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu, 2021-03-16) Loose, Brice ; Short, R. Timothy ; Toler, Strawn ; Agnich, Jason ; Gruebel, Erich ; Ricketts, Richard D.
    CTD and underwater mass spectrometer data acquired in 2016 aboard the RV/Endeavor (cruise EN575) in the the subtropical Atlantic using a Triaxus tow vehicle. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/843222