Doney Scott C.

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Scott C.

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  • Article
    Evaluating Southern Ocean biological production in two ocean biogeochemical models on daily to seasonal timescales using satellite chlorophyll and O2 / Ar observations
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-02-04) Jonsson, Bror F. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Bender, Michael L.
    We assess the ability of ocean biogeochemical models to represent seasonal structures in biomass and net community production (NCP) in the Southern Ocean. Two models are compared to observations on daily to seasonal timescales in four different sections of the region. We use daily satellite fields of chlorophyll (Chl) as a proxy for biomass and in situ observations of O2 and Ar supersaturation (ΔO2 / Ar) to estimate NCP. ΔO2 / Ar is converted to the flux of biologically generated O2 from sea to air (O2 bioflux). All data are aggregated to a climatological year with a daily resolution. To account for potential regional differences within the Southern Ocean, we conduct separate analyses of sections south of South Africa, around the Drake Passage, south of Australia, and south of New Zealand. We find that the models simulate the upper range of Chl concentrations well, underestimate spring levels significantly, and show differences in skill between early and late parts of the growing season. While there is a great deal of scatter in the bioflux observations in general, the four sectors each have distinct patterns that the models pick up. Neither model exhibits a significant distinction between the Australian and New Zealand sectors and between the Drake Passage and African sectors. South of 60° S, the models fail to predict the observed extent of biological O2 undersaturation. We suggest that this shortcoming may be due either to problems with the ecosystem dynamics or problems with the vertical transport of oxygen.
  • Article
    Response of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and ventilation to increasing carbon dioxide in CCSM3
    (American Meteorological Society, 2006-06-01) Bryan, Frank O. ; Danabasoglu, Gokhan ; Nakashiki, Norikazu ; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu ; Kim, Dong-Hoon ; Tsutsui, Junichi ; Doney, Scott C.
    The response of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation to idealized climate forcing of 1% per year compound increase in CO2 is examined in three configurations of the Community Climate System Model version 3 that differ in their component model resolutions. The strength of the Atlantic overturning circulation declines at a rate of 22%–26% of the corresponding control experiment maximum overturning per century in response to the increase in CO2. The mean meridional overturning and its variability on decadal time scales in the control experiments, the rate of decrease in the transient forcing experiments, and the rate of recovery in periods of CO2 stabilization all increase with increasing component model resolution. By examining the changes in ocean surface forcing with increasing CO2 in the framework of the water-mass transformation function, we show that the decline in the overturning is driven by decreasing density of the subpolar North Atlantic due to increasing surface heat fluxes. While there is an intensification of the hydrologic cycle in response to increasing CO2, the net effect of changes in surface freshwater fluxes on those density classes that are involved in deep-water formation is to increase their density; that is, changes in surface freshwater fluxes act to maintain a stronger overturning circulation. The differences in the control experiment overturning strength and the response to increasing CO2 are well predicted by the corresponding differences in the water-mass transformation rate. Reduction of meridional heat transport and enhancement of meridional salt transport from mid- to high latitudes with increasing CO2 also act to strengthen the overturning circulation. Analysis of the trends in an ideal age tracer provides a direct measure of changes in ocean ventilation time scale in response to increasing CO2. In the subpolar North Atlantic south of the Greenland–Scotland ridge system, there is a significant increase in subsurface ages as open-ocean deep convection is diminished and ventilation switches to a predominance of overflow waters. In middle and low latitudes there is a decrease in age within and just below the thermocline in response to a decrease in the upwelling of old deep waters. However, when considering ventilation within isopycnal layers, age increases for layers in and below the thermocline due to the deepening of isopycnals in response to global warming.
  • Article
    West Antarctic Peninsula : an ice-dependent coastal marine ecosystem in transition
    (The Oceanography Society, 2013-09) Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Fraser, William R. ; Meredith, Michael P. ; Stammerjohn, Sharon E. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Martinson, Douglas G. ; Sailley, Sevrine F. ; Schofield, Oscar M. E. ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Venables, Hugh J. ; Amsler, Charles D.
    The extent, duration, and seasonality of sea ice and glacial discharge strongly influence Antarctic marine ecosystems. Most organisms' life cycles in this region are attuned to ice seasonality. The annual retreat and melting of sea ice in the austral spring stratifies the upper ocean, triggering large phytoplankton blooms. The magnitude of the blooms is proportional to the winter extent of ice cover, which can act as a barrier to wind mixing. Antarctic krill, one of the most abundant metazoan populations on Earth, consume phytoplankton blooms dominated by large diatoms. Krill, in turn, support a large biomass of predators, including penguins, seals, and whales. Human activity has altered even these remote ecosystems. The western Antarctic Peninsula region has warmed by 7°C over the past 50 years, and sea ice duration has declined by almost 100 days since 1978, causing a decrease in phytoplankton productivity in the northern peninsula region. Besides climate change, Antarctic marine systems have been greatly altered by harvesting of the great whales and now krill. It is unclear to what extent the ecosystems we observe today differ from the pristine state.
  • Article
    Remote sensing observations of ocean physical and biological properties in the region of the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-06-17) Moore, J. Keith ; Doney, Scott C.
    Satellite remote sensing estimates of surface chlorophyll, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice cover are examined in the region of the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Our objectives are to place SOFeX into a regional context and highlight regional mesoscale spatial and monthly temporal variability. SOFeX fertilized two patches with iron, one south of the Antarctic Polar front (PF) and one north of the PF but south of the Subantarctic Front (SAF). Satellite observable phytoplankton blooms developed in both patches. The spring sea-ice retreat near the south patch site was delayed in the 2001-2002 season, in turn delaying the naturally occurring, modest spring bloom in this region. Ambient surface chlorophyll concentrations for the area surrounding the southern patch during January 2002 are low (mean 0.26 mg/m3) compared with climatological January values (0.42 mg/m3). Regions east and west at similar latitudes exhibited higher mean chlorophyll concentrations (0.79 and 0.74 mg/m3, respectively). These modest phytoplankton blooms were likely stimulated by melting sea-ice via changes in the light-mixing regime and release of iron, and were smaller in magnitude than the iron-induced bloom within the SOFeX southern patch (> 3 mg/m3). Iron inputs from melting ice may drive much of the natural spatial and temporal variability within the seasonal ice zone. Mean chlorophyll concentrations surrounding the SOFeX northern patch site were similar to climatological values during the SOFeX season. The northern patch was stretched into a long, thin filament along the southern boundary of the SAF, likely increasing the mixing/dilution rate with surrounding waters.
  • Article
    Correction to “Recent western South Atlantic bottom water warming”
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-11-04) Johnson, Gregory C. ; Doney, Scott C.
  • Article
    Quantifying the effects of nutrient enrichment and freshwater mixing on coastal ocean acidification
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-07) Rheuban, Jennie E. ; Doney, Scott C. ; McCorkle, Daniel C. ; Jakuba, Rachel W.
    The U.S. Northeast is vulnerable to ocean and coastal acidification because of low alkalinity freshwater discharge that naturally acidifies the region, and high anthropogenic nutrient loads that lead to eutrophication in many estuaries. This study describes a combined nutrient and carbonate chemistry monitoring program in five embayments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts to quantify the effects of nutrient loading and freshwater discharge on aragonite saturation state (Ω). Monitoring occurred monthly from June 2015 to September 2017 with higher frequency at two embayments (Quissett and West Falmouth Harbors) and across nitrogen loading and freshwater discharge gradients. The more eutrophic stations experienced seasonal aragonite undersaturation, and at one site, nearly every measurement collected was undersaturated. We present an analytical framework to decompose variability in aragonite Ω into components driven by temperature, salinity, freshwater endmember mixing, and biogeochemical processes. We observed strong correlations between apparent oxygen utilization and the portion of aragonite Ω variation that we attribute to biogeochemistry. The regression slopes were consistent with Redfield ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity to dissolved oxygen. Total nitrogen and the contribution of biogeochemical processes to aragonite Ω were highly correlated, and this relationship was used to estimate the likely effects of nitrogen loading improvements on aragonite Ω. Under nitrogen loading reduction scenarios, aragonite Ω in the most eutrophic estuaries could be raised by nearly 0.6 units, potentially increasing several stations above the critical threshold of 1. This analysis provides a quantitative framework for incorporating ocean and coastal acidification impacts into regulatory and management discussions.
  • Article
    Correction to “Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements”
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-12-09) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
  • Article
    Drivers and uncertainties of future global marine primary production in marine ecosystem models
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-12-07) Laufkötter, Charlotte ; Vogt, Meike ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Aita-Noguchi, M. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Hashioka, Taketo ; Hauck, Judith ; Hirata, Takafumi ; John, Jasmin G. ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Nakano, Hideyuki ; Seferian, Roland ; Totterdell, Ian J. ; Vichi, Marcello ; Volker, Chrisoph
    Past model studies have projected a global decrease in marine net primary production (NPP) over the 21st century, but these studies focused on the multi-model mean rather than on the large inter-model differences. Here, we analyze model-simulated changes in NPP for the 21st century under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. We use a suite of nine coupled carbon–climate Earth system models with embedded marine ecosystem models and focus on the spread between the different models and the underlying reasons. Globally, NPP decreases in five out of the nine models over the course of the 21st century, while three show no significant trend and one even simulates an increase. The largest model spread occurs in the low latitudes (between 30° S and 30° N), with individual models simulating relative changes between −25 and +40 %. Of the seven models diagnosing a net decrease in NPP in the low latitudes, only three simulate this to be a consequence of the classical interpretation, i.e., a stronger nutrient limitation due to increased stratification leading to reduced phytoplankton growth. In the other four, warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the stronger nutrient limitation. However, temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in phytoplankton biomass and reduce NPP despite higher growth rates. One model projects a strong increase in NPP in the low latitudes, caused by an intensification of the microbial loop, while NPP in the remaining model changes by less than 0.5 %. While models consistently project increases NPP in the Southern Ocean, the regional inter-model range is also very substantial. In most models, this increase in NPP is driven by temperature, but it is also modulated by changes in light, macronutrients and iron as well as grazing. Overall, current projections of future changes in global marine NPP are subject to large uncertainties and necessitate a dedicated and sustained effort to improve the models and the concepts and data that guide their development.
  • Article
    The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2008-03-18) Jin, X. ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Frenzel, H. ; Doney, Scott C. ; McWilliams, James C.
    Using numerical simulations, we quantify the impact of changes in the ocean's biological pump on the air-sea balance of CO2 by fertilizing a small surface patch in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll region of the eastern tropical Pacific with iron. Decade-long fertilization experiments are conducted in a basin-scale, eddy-permitting coupled physical/biogeochemical/ecological model. In contrast to previous studies, we find that most of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) removed from the euphotic zone by the enhanced biological export is replaced by uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. Atmospheric uptake efficiencies, the ratio of the perturbation in air-sea CO2 flux to the perturbation in export flux across 100 m, integrated over 10 years, are 0.75 to 0.93 in our patch size-scale experiments. The atmospheric uptake efficiency is insensitive to the duration of the experiment. The primary factor controlling the atmospheric uptake efficiency is the vertical distribution of the enhanced biological production and export. Iron fertilization at the surface tends to induce production anomalies primarily near the surface, leading to high efficiencies. In contrast, mechanisms that induce deep production anomalies (e.g. altered light availability) tend to have a low uptake efficiency, since most of the removed DIC is replaced by lateral and vertical transport and mixing. Despite high atmospheric uptake efficiencies, patch-scale iron fertilization of the ocean's biological pump tends to remove little CO2 from the atmosphere over the decadal timescale considered here.
  • Article
    Satellite remote sensing and the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network: current science and future steps
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-11-09) Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Bell, Tom W. ; Catlett, Dylan ; Cimino, Megan A. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Klajbor, Willem ; Messie, Monique ; Montes, Enrique ; Muller-Karger, Frank E. ; Otis, Daniel ; Santora, Jarrod A ; Schroeder, Isaac D. ; Trinanes, Joaquin ; Siegel, David A.
    Coastal ecosystems are rapidly changing due to human-caused global warming, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, sea ice loss, and acidification that in turn alter the productivity and composition of marine biological communities. In addition, regional pressures associated with growing human populations and economies result in changes in infrastructure, land use, and other development; greater extraction of fisheries and other natural resources; alteration of benthic seascapes; increased pollution; and eutrophication. Understanding biodiversity is fundamental to assessing and managing human activities that sustain ecosystem health and services and mitigate humankind’s indiscretions. Remote-sensing observations provide rapid and synoptic data for assessing biophysical interactions at multiple spatial and temporal scales and thus are useful for monitoring biodiversity in critical coastal zones. However, many challenges remain because of complex bio-optical signals, poor signal retrieval, and suboptimal algorithms. Here, we highlight four approaches in remote sensing that complement the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON). MBON observations help quantify plankton community composition, foundation species, and unique species habitat relationships, as well as inform species distribution models. In concert with in situ observations across multiple platforms, these efforts contribute to monitoring biodiversity changes in complex coastal regions by providing oceanographic context, contributing to algorithm and indicator development, and creating linkages between long-term ecological studies, the next generations of satellite sensors, and marine ecosystem management.
  • Article
    Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models : role of multiple planktonic groups
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-08-02) Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Dusenberry, Jeffrey A. ; Anderson, Laurence A. ; Armstrong, Robert A. ; Chai, Fei ; Christian, James R. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Fujii, Masahiko ; Hood, Raleigh R. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Moore, J. Keith ; Schartau, Markus ; Spitz, Yvette H. ; Wiggert, Jerry D.
    Application of biogeochemical models to the study of marine ecosystems is pervasive, yet objective quantification of these models' performance is rare. Here, 12 lower trophic level models of varying complexity are objectively assessed in two distinct regions (equatorial Pacific and Arabian Sea). Each model was run within an identical one-dimensional physical framework. A consistent variational adjoint implementation assimilating chlorophyll-a, nitrate, export, and primary productivity was applied and the same metrics were used to assess model skill. Experiments were performed in which data were assimilated from each site individually and from both sites simultaneously. A cross-validation experiment was also conducted whereby data were assimilated from one site and the resulting optimal parameters were used to generate a simulation for the second site. When a single pelagic regime is considered, the simplest models fit the data as well as those with multiple phytoplankton functional groups. However, those with multiple phytoplankton functional groups produced lower misfits when the models are required to simulate both regimes using identical parameter values. The cross-validation experiments revealed that as long as only a few key biogeochemical parameters were optimized, the models with greater phytoplankton complexity were generally more portable. Furthermore, models with multiple zooplankton compartments did not necessarily outperform models with single zooplankton compartments, even when zooplankton biomass data are assimilated. Finally, even when different models produced similar least squares model-data misfits, they often did so via very different element flow pathways, highlighting the need for more comprehensive data sets that uniquely constrain these pathways.
  • Article
    Preindustrial-control and twentieth-century carbon cycle experiments with the Earth System Model CESM1(BGC)
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-12-15) Lindsay, Keith ; Bonan, Gordon B. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Hoffman, Forrest M. ; Lawrence, David M. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Mahowald, Natalie M. ; Moore, J. Keith ; Randerson, James T. ; Thornton, Peter E.
    Version 1 of the Community Earth System Model, in the configuration where its full carbon cycle is enabled, is introduced and documented. In this configuration, the terrestrial biogeochemical model, which includes carbon–nitrogen dynamics and is present in earlier model versions, is coupled to an ocean biogeochemical model and atmospheric CO2 tracers. The authors provide a description of the model, detail how preindustrial-control and twentieth-century experiments were initialized and forced, and examine the behavior of the carbon cycle in those experiments. They examine how sea- and land-to-air CO2 fluxes contribute to the increase of atmospheric CO2 in the twentieth century, analyze how atmospheric CO2 and its surface fluxes vary on interannual time scales, including how they respond to ENSO, and describe the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 and its surface fluxes. While the model broadly reproduces observed aspects of the carbon cycle, there are several notable biases, including having too large of an increase in atmospheric CO2 over the twentieth century and too small of a seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 in the Northern Hemisphere. The biases are related to a weak response of the carbon cycle to climatic variations on interannual and seasonal time scales and to twentieth-century anthropogenic forcings, including rising CO2, land-use change, and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen.
  • Article
    Prediction of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production : the EXPORTS Science Plan
    (Frontiers Media, 2016-03-08) Siegel, David A. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Burd, Adrian B. ; Carlson, Craig A. ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Perry, Mary J. ; Stanley, Rachel H. R. ; Steinberg, Deborah K.
    Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth's carbon cycle and the quantification of their impacts for both present conditions and for predictions into the future remains one of the greatest challenges in oceanography. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) Science Plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production (NPP) and its implications for present and future climates. The achievement of this goal requires a quantification of the mechanisms that control the export of carbon from the euphotic zone as well as its fate in the underlying “twilight zone” where some fraction of exported carbon will be sequestered in the ocean's interior on time scales of months to millennia. Here we present a measurement/synthesis/modeling framework aimed at quantifying the fates of upper ocean NPP and its impacts on the global carbon cycle based upon the EXPORTS Science Plan. The proposed approach will diagnose relationships among the ecological, biogeochemical, and physical oceanographic processes that control carbon cycling across a range of ecosystem and carbon cycling states leading to advances in satellite diagnostic and numerical prognostic models. To collect these data, a combination of ship and robotic field sampling, satellite remote sensing, and numerical modeling is proposed which enables the sampling of the many pathways of NPP export and fates. This coordinated, process-oriented approach has the potential to foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that maximizes its societal relevance through the achievement of research goals of many international research agencies and will be a key step toward our understanding of the Earth as an integrated system.
  • Article
    Comparing food web structures and dynamics across a suite of global marine ecosystem models
    (Elsevier, 2013-05-16) Sailley, Sevrine F. ; Vogt, Meike ; Doney, Scott C. ; Aita, M. N. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Hashioka, Taketo ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Le Quere, Corinne ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
    Dynamic Green Ocean Models (DGOMs) include different sets of Plankton Functional Types (PFTs) and equations, thus different interactions and food webs. Using four DGOMs (CCSM-BEC, PISCES, NEMURO and PlankTOM5) we explore how predator–prey interactions influence food web dynamics. Using each model's equations and biomass output, interaction strengths (direct and specific) were calculated and the role of zooplankton in modeled food webs examined. In CCSM-BEC the single size-class adaptive zooplankton preys on different phytoplankton groups according to prey availability and food preferences, resulting in a strong top-down control. In PISCES the micro- and meso-zooplankton groups compete for food resources, grazing phytoplankton depending on their availability in a mixture of bottom-up and top-down control. In NEMURO macrozooplankton controls the biomass of other zooplankton PFTs and defines the structure of the food web with a strong top-down control within the zooplankton. In PlankTOM5, competition and predation between micro- and meso-zooplankton along with strong preferences for nanophytoplankton and diatoms, respectively, leads to their mutual exclusion with a mixture of bottom-up and top-down control of the plankton community composition. In each model, the grazing pressure of the zooplankton PFTs and the way it is exerted on their preys may result in the food web dynamics and structure of the model to diverge from the one that was intended when designing the model. Our approach shows that the food web dynamics, in particular the strength of the predator–prey interactions, are driven by the choice of parameters and more specifically the food preferences. Consequently, our findings stress the importance of equation and parameter choice as they define interactions between PFTs and overall food web dynamics (competition, bottom-up or top-down effects). Also, the differences in the simulated food-webs between different models highlight the gap of knowledge for zooplankton rates and predator–prey interactions. In particular, concerted effort is needed to identify the key growth and loss parameters and interactions and quantify them with targeted laboratory experiments in order to bring our understanding of zooplankton at a similar level to phytoplankton.
  • Article
    Global carbon budget 2013
    (Copernicus Publications., 2014-06-17) Le Quere, Corinne ; Peters, Glen P. ; Andres, Robert J. ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Marland, G. ; Moriarty, Roisin ; Sitch, Stephen ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Arneth, Almut ; Arvanitis, A. ; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Chini, Louise Parsons ; Doney, Scott C. ; Harper, Anna B. ; Harris, Ian ; House, Jo I. ; Jain, Atul K. ; Jones, S. D. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Kortzinger, A. ; Koven, Charles ; Lefevre, N. ; Maignan, F. ; Omar, A. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Park, Geun-Ha ; Pfeil, Benjamin ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Raupach, Michael R. ; Regnier, P. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Saito, Shu ; Schwinger, Jorg ; Segschneider, J. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; van Heuven, Steven ; Viovy, Nicolas ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sonke
    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003–2012), EFF was 8.6 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 2.8 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1. For year 2012 alone, EFF grew to 9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued growing trend in these emissions, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and assuming an ELUC of 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (based on the 2001–2010 average), SLAND was 2.7 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003–2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1–3.1%) to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 535 ± 55 GtC for 1870–2013, about 70% from EFF (390 ± 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (145 ± 50 GtC).
  • Article
    Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks : results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2009-10-08) Thornton, Peter E. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Lindsay, Keith ; Moore, J. Keith ; Mahowald, Natalie M. ; Randerson, James T. ; Fung, Inez Y. ; Lamarque, J.-F. ; Feddema, J. J. ; Lee, Y.-H.
    Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated with CO2 fertilization, and increased carbon uptake associated with warming of the climate system. The balance of these two opposing effects is to reduce the fraction of anthropogenic CO2 predicted to be sequestered in land ecosystems. The primary mechanism responsible for increased land carbon storage under radiatively forced climate change is shown to be fertilization of plant growth by increased mineralization of nitrogen directly associated with increased decomposition of soil organic matter under a warming climate, which in this particular model results in a negative gain for the climate-carbon feedback. Estimates for the land and ocean sink fractions of recent anthropogenic emissions are individually within the range of observational estimates, but the combined land plus ocean sink fractions produce an airborne fraction which is too high compared to observations. This bias is likely due in part to an underestimation of the ocean sink fraction. Our results show a significant growth in the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the coming century, attributable in part to a steady decline in the ocean sink fraction. Comparison to experimental studies on the fate of radio-labeled nitrogen tracers in temperate forests indicates that the model representation of competition between plants and microbes for new mineral nitrogen resources is reasonable. Our results suggest a weaker dependence of net land carbon flux on soil moisture changes in tropical regions, and a stronger positive growth response to warming in those regions, than predicted by a similar AOGCM implemented without land carbon-nitrogen interactions. We expect that the between-model uncertainty in predictions of future atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated anthropogenic climate change will be reduced as additional climate models introduce carbon-nitrogen cycle interactions in their land components.
  • Article
    Reply to a comment by Stephen M. Chiswell on: “Annual cycles of ecological disturbance and recovery underlying the subarctic Atlantic spring plankton bloom” by M. J. Behrenfeld et al. (2013)
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-12-12) Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; Siegel, David A.
  • Preprint
    Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data
    ( 2008-03-04) Doney, Scott C. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Moore, J. Keith ; Lindsay, Keith ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Mahowald, Natalie M. ; Glover, David M. ; Takahashi, Taro
    We present a generalized framework for assessing the skill of global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemical models against in-situ field data and satellite observations. We illustrate the approach utilizing a multi-decade (1979-2004) hindcast experiment conducted with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM-3) ocean carbon model. The CCSM-3 ocean carbon model incorporates a multi-nutrient, multi-phytoplankton functional group ecosystem module coupled with a carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and iron biogeochemistry module embedded in a global, threedimensional ocean general circulation model. The model is forced with physical climate forcing from atmospheric reanalysis and satellite data products and time-varying atmospheric dust deposition. Data-based skill metrics are used to evaluate the simulated time-mean spatial patterns, seasonal cycle amplitude and phase, and subannual to interannual variability. Evaluation data include: sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth; satellite derived surface ocean chlorophyll, primary productivity, phytoplankton growth rate and carbon biomass; large-scale climatologies of surface nutrients, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 and O2 flux; and time-series data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). Where the data is sufficient, we construct quantitative skill metrics using: model-data residuals, time-space correlation, root mean square error, and Taylor diagrams.
  • Article
    Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2009-05-08) Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Boss, Emmanuel S. ; O'Malley, Robert T. ; Siegel, David A. ; Wiggert, Jerry D. ; Franz, Bryan A. ; McClain, Charles R. ; Feldman, G. C. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Moore, J. Keith ; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio ; Milligan, A. J. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Mahowald, Natalie M.
    Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.
  • Article
    Mechanisms controlling dissolved iron distribution in the North Pacific : a model study
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-07-22) Misumi, Kazuhiro ; Tsumune, Daisuke ; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu ; Uchimoto, K. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nishioka, Jun ; Mitsudera, Humio ; Bryan, Frank O. ; Lindsay, Keith ; Moore, J. Keith ; Doney, Scott C.
    Mechanisms controlling the dissolved iron distribution in the North Pacific are investigated using the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) model with a resolution of approximately 1° in latitude and longitude and 60 vertical levels. The model is able to reproduce the general distribution of iron as revealed in available field data: surface concentrations are generally below 0.2 nM; concentrations increase with depth; and values in the lower pycnocline are especially high in the northwestern Pacific and off the coast of California. Sensitivity experiments changing scavenging regimes and external iron sources indicate that lateral transport of sedimentary iron from continental margins into the open ocean causes the high concentrations in these regions. This offshore penetration only appears under a scavenging regime where iron has a relatively long residence time at high concentrations, namely, the order of years. Sedimentary iron is intensively supplied around continental margins, resulting in locally high concentrations; the residence time with respect to scavenging determines the horizontal scale of elevated iron concentrations. Budget analysis for iron reveals the processes by which sedimentary iron is transported to the open ocean. Horizontal mixing transports sedimentary iron from the boundary into alongshore currents, which then carry high iron concentrations into the open ocean in regions where the alongshore currents separate from the coast, most prominently in the northwestern Pacific and off of California.