Chereskin Teresa K.

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Teresa K.

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  • Article
    Subantarctic mode water in the southeast Pacific : effect of exchange across the Subantarctic Front
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-04-23) Holte, James W. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Chereskin, Teresa K. ; Sloyan, Bernadette M.
    This study considered cross-frontal exchange as a possible mechanism for the observed along-front freshening and cooling between the 27.0 and 27.3 kg m − 3 isopycnals north of the Subantarctic Front (SAF) in the southeast Pacific Ocean. This isopycnal range, which includes the densest Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) formed in this region, is mostly below the mixed layer, and so experiences little direct air-sea forcing. Data from two cruises in the southeast Pacific were examined for evidence of cross-frontal exchange; numerous eddies and intrusions containing Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) water were observed north of the SAF, as well as a fresh surface layer during the summer cruise that was likely due to Ekman transport. These features penetrated north of the SAF, even though the potential vorticity structure of the SAF should have acted as a barrier to exchange. An optimum multiparameter (OMP) analysis incorporating a range of observed properties was used to estimate the cumulative cross-frontal exchange. The OMP analysis revealed an along-front increase in PFZ water fractional content in the region north of the SAF between the 27.1 and 27.3 kg m − 3 isopycnals; the increase was approximately 0.13 for every 15° of longitude. Between the 27.0 and 27.1 kg m − 3 isopycnals, the increase was approximately 0.15 for every 15° of longitude. A simple bulk calculation revealed that this magnitude of cross-frontal exchange could have caused the downstream evolution of SAMW temperature and salinity properties observed by Argo profiling floats.
  • Article
    Four current meter models compared in strong currents in Drake Passage
    (American Meteorological Society, 2013-10) Watts, D. Randolph ; Kennelly, Maureen A. ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Tracey, Karen L. ; Chereskin, Teresa K. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Victoria, Ivan
    Seven current meters representing four models on a stiffly buoyed mooring were placed for an 11-month deployment to intercompare their velocity measurements: two vector-measuring current meters (VMCMs), two Aanderaa recording current meter (RCM) 11s, two Aanderaa SEAGUARDs, and a Nortek Aquadopp. The current meters were placed 6-m apart from each other at about 4000-m depth in an area of Drake Passage expected to have strong currents, nearly independent of depth near the bottom. Two high-current events occurred in bursts of semidiurnal pulses lasting several days, one with peak speeds up to 67 cm s−1 and the other above 35 cm s−1. The current-speed measurements all agreed within 7% of the median value when vector averaged over simultaneous time intervals. The VMCMs, chosen as the reference measurements, were found to measure the median of the mean-current magnitudes. The RCM11 and SEAGUARD current speeds agreed within 2% of the median at higher speeds (35–67 cm s−1), whereas in lower speed ranges (0–35 cm s−1) the vector-averaged speeds for the RCM11 and SEAGUARD were 4%–5% lower and 3%–5% higher than the median, respectively. The shorter-record Aquadopp current speeds were about 6% higher than the VMCMs over the range (0–40 cm s−1) encountered.
  • Article
    The role of air-sea fluxes in Subantarctic Mode Water formation
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-03-29) Holte, James W. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Chereskin, Teresa K. ; Sloyan, Bernadette M.
    Two hydrographic surveys and a one-dimensional mixed layer model are used to assess the role of air-sea fluxes in forming deep Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) mixed layers in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Forty-two SAMW mixed layers deeper than 400 m were observed north of the Subantarctic Front during the 2005 winter cruise, with the deepest mixed layers reaching 550 m. The densest, coldest, and freshest mixed layers were found in the cruise's eastern sections near 77°W. The deep SAMW mixed layers were observed concurrently with surface ocean heat loss of approximately −200 W m−2. The heat, momentum, and precipitation flux fields of five flux products are used to force a one-dimensional KPP mixed layer model initialized with profiles from the 2006 summer cruise. The simulated winter mixed layers generated by all of the forcing products resemble Argo observations of SAMW; this agreement also validates the flux products. Mixing driven by buoyancy loss and wind forcing is strong enough to deepen the SAMW layers. Wind-driven mixing is central to SAMW formation, as model runs forced with buoyancy forcing alone produce shallow mixed layers. Air-sea fluxes indirectly influence winter SAMW properties by controlling how deeply the profiles mix. The stratification and heat content of the initial profiles determine the properties of the SAMW and the likelihood of deep mixing. Summer profiles from just upstream of Drake Passage have less heat stored between 100 and 600 m than upstream profiles, and so, with sufficiently strong winter forcing, form a cold, dense variety of SAMW.
  • Article
    Characterizing the transition from balanced to unbalanced motions in the Southern California Current
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-02-21) Chereskin, Teresa K. ; Rocha, Cesar B. ; Gille, Sarah T. ; Menemenlis, Dimitris ; Passaro, Marcello
    As observations and models improve their resolution of oceanic motions at ever finer horizontal scales, interest has grown in characterizing the transition from the geostrophically balanced flows that dominate at large‐scale to submesoscale turbulence and waves that dominate at small scales. In this study we examine the mesoscale‐to‐submesoscale (100 to 10 km) transition in an eastern boundary current, the southern California Current System (CCS), using repeated acoustic Doppler current profiler transects, sea surface height from high‐resolution nadir altimetry and output from a (1/48)° global model simulation. In the CCS, the submesoscale is as energetic as in western boundary current regions, but the mesoscale is much weaker, and as a result the transition lacks the change in kinetic energy (KE) spectral slope observed for western boundary currents. Helmholtz and vortex‐wave decompositions of the KE spectra are used to identify balanced and unbalanced contributions. At horizontal scales greater than 70 km, we find that observed KE is dominated by balanced geostrophic motions. At scales from 40 to 10 km, unbalanced contributions such as inertia‐gravity waves contribute as much as balanced motions. The model KE transition occurs at longer scales, around 125 km. The altimeter spectra are consistent with acoustic Doppler current profiler/model spectra at scales longer than 70/125 km, respectively. Observed seasonality is weak. Taken together, our results suggest that geostrophic velocities can be diagnosed from sea surface height on scales larger than about 70 km in the southern CCS.
  • Thesis
    The development of nonlinear surface and internal wave groups
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1982-08) Chereskin, Teresa K.
    The development of nonlinear surface and internal wave groups is investigated. Surface wave evolution was observed in an unusually long wave channel as a function of steepness and group length. Dissipation and frequency downshifting were important characteristics of the long-time evolution. The amplitude and phase modulations were obtained using the Hilbert transform and specified as an initial condition to the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation, which was solved numerically. This equation is known to govern the slowly varying complex modulation envelope of gravity waves on deep water. When dissipation was included, the model compared quite well with the observations. Phase modulation was used to interpret the long-time behavior, using the phase evolution of exact asymptotic solutions as a guide. The wave groups exhibited a long-time coherence but not the recurrence predicted by the inviscid theory. An oceanic field study of the generation of groups of large amplitude internal waves by stratified tidal flow over a submarine ridge indicates that the large amplitude and asymmetry of the topography are critical in determining the type of flow response. The calculated Froude numbers response length scale and duration differ markedly between the two phases of the tide due to the asymmetry.