Deeds Jonathan R.

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Jonathan R.

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  • Preprint
    Toxicity and pathophysiology of palytoxin congeners after intraperitoneal and aerosol administration in rats
    ( 2018-02) Poli, Mark ; Ruiz-Olvera, Patricia ; Nalca, Aysegul ; Ruiz, Sara ; Livingston, Virginia ; Frick, Ondraya ; Dyer, David ; Schellhase, Christopher ; Raymond, Jolynne ; Kulis, David M. ; Anderson, Donald M. ; McGrath, Sara ; Deeds, Jonathan R.
    Preparations of palytoxin (PLTX, derived from Japanese Palythoa tuberculosa) and the congeners 42-OH-PLTX (from Hawaiian P. toxica) and ovatoxin-a (isolated from a Japanese strain of Ostreopsis ovata), as well as a 50:50 mixture of PLTX and 42-OH-PLTX derived from Hawaiian P. tuberculosa were characterized as to their concentration, composition, in-vitro potency and interaction with an anti-PLTX monoclonal antibody (mAb), after which they were evaluated for lethality and pathophysiological effects by intraperitoneal (IP) and aerosol administration to rats. Once each preparation was characterized as to its toxin composition by LC-HRMS and normalized to a total PLTX/OVTX concentration using HPLC-UV, all four preparations showed similar potency towards mouse erythrocytes in the erythrocyte hemolysis assay and interactions with the anti-PLTX mAb. The IP LD50 values derived from these experiments (1-3 μg/kg for all) were consistent with published values, although some differences from the published literature were seen. The aerosol LD50 values (.03-.06 μg/kg) confirmed the exquisite potency of PLTX suggested by the literature. The pathophysiological effects of the different toxin preparations by IP and aerosol administration were similar, albeit with some differences. Most commonly affected tissues were the lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, salivary glands, and adrenal glands. Despite some differences, these results suggest commonalities in potency and mechanism of action among these PLTX congeners.
  • Article
    PSP toxin levels and plankton community composition and abundance in size-fractionated vertical profiles during spring/summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank, 2007, 2008, and 2010 : 1. Toxin levels
    (Elsevier, 2013-04-12) Deeds, Jonathan R. ; Petitpas, Christian M. ; Shue, Vangie ; White, Kevin D. ; Keafer, Bruce A. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Milligan, Peter J. ; Anderson, Donald M. ; Turner, Jefferson T.
    As part of the NOAA ECOHAB funded Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX)1 project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin composition, and concentration in quantitatively-sampled size-fractionated (20–64, 64–100, 100–200, 200–500, and >500 μm) particulate water samples, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in these size fractions, at multiple depths (typically 1, 10, 20 m, and near-bottom) during 10 large-scale sampling cruises during the A. fundyense bloom season (May–August) in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in 2007, 2008, and 2010. Our findings were as follows: (1) when all sampling stations and all depths were summed by year, the majority (94%±4%) of total PSP toxicity was contained in the 20–64 μm size fraction; (2) when further analyzed by depth, the 20–64 μm size fraction was the primary source of toxin for 97% of the stations and depths samples over three years; (3) overall PSP toxin profiles were fairly consistent during the three seasons of sampling with gonyautoxins (1, 2, 3, and 4) dominating (90.7%±5.5%), followed by the carbamate toxins saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) (7.7%±4.5%), followed by n-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1 and 2, GTX5) (1.3%±0.6%), followed by all decarbamoyl toxins (dcSTX, dcNEO, dcGTX2&3) (<1%), although differences were noted between PSP toxin compositions for nearshore coastal Gulf of Maine sampling stations compared to offshore Georges Bank sampling stations for 2 out of 3 years; (4) surface cell counts of A. fundyense were a fairly reliable predictor of the presence of toxins throughout the water column; and (5) nearshore surface cell counts of A. fundyense in the coastal Gulf of Maine were not a reliable predictor of A. fundyense populations offshore on Georges Bank for 2 out of the 3 years sampled.
  • Article
    Dihydrodinophysistoxin-1 produced by Dinophysis norvegica in the Gulf of Maine, USA and its accumulation in shellfish
    (Toxins, 2020-08-20) Deeds, Jonathan R. ; Stutts, Whitney L. ; Celiz, Mary Dawn ; MacLeod, Jill ; Hamilton, Amy E. ; Lewis, Bryant J. ; Miller, David W. ; Kanwit, Kohl ; Smith, Juliette L. ; Kulis, David M. ; McCarron, Pearse ; Rauschenberg, Carlton D. ; Burnell, Craig A. ; Archer, Stephen D. ; Borchert, Jerry ; Lankford, Shelley K.
    Dihydrodinophysistoxin-1 (dihydro-DTX1, (M-H)−m/z 819.5), described previously from a marine sponge but never identified as to its biological source or described in shellfish, was detected in multiple species of commercial shellfish collected from the central coast of the Gulf of Maine, USA in 2016 and in 2018 during blooms of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis norvegica. Toxin screening by protein phosphatase inhibition (PPIA) first detected the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning-like bioactivity; however, confirmatory analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) failed to detect okadaic acid (OA, (M-H)−m/z 803.5), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1, (M-H)−m/z 817.5), or dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2, (M-H)−m/z 803.5) in samples collected during the bloom. Bioactivity-guided fractionation followed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) tentatively identified dihydro-DTX1 in the PPIA active fraction. LC-MS/MS measurements showed an absence of OA, DTX1, and DTX2, but confirmed the presence of dihydro-DTX1 in shellfish during blooms of D. norvegica in both years, with results correlating well with PPIA testing. Two laboratory cultures of D. norvegica isolated from the 2018 bloom were found to produce dihydro-DTX1 as the sole DSP toxin, confirming the source of this compound in shellfish. Estimated concentrations of dihydro-DTX1 were >0.16 ppm in multiple shellfish species (max. 1.1 ppm) during the blooms in 2016 and 2018. Assuming an equivalent potency and molar response to DTX1, the authority initiated precautionary shellfish harvesting closures in both years. To date, no illnesses have been associated with the presence of dihydro-DTX1 in shellfish in the Gulf of Maine region and studies are underway to determine the potency of this new toxin relative to the currently regulated DSP toxins in order to develop appropriate management guidance.
  • Article
    A survey of Dinophysis spp. and their potential to cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in coastal waters of the United States
    (Wiley, 2023-03) Ayache, Nour ; Bill, Brian D. ; Brosnahan, Michael L. ; Campbell, Lisa ; Deeds, Jonathan R. ; Fiorendino, James M. ; Gobler, Christopher J. ; Handy, Sara M. ; Harrington, Neil ; Kulis, David M. ; McCarron, Pearse ; Miles, Christopher O. ; Moore, Stephanie K. ; Nagai, Satoshi ; Trainer, Vera L. ; Wolny, Jennifer L. ; Young, Craig S. ; Smith, Juliette L.
    Multiple species of the genus Dinophysis produce diarrhetic shellfish toxins (okadaic acid and Dinophysis toxins, OA/DTXs analogs) and/or pectenotoxins (PTXs). Only since 2008 have DSP events (illnesses and/or shellfish harvesting closures) become recognized as a threat to human health in the United States. This study characterized 20 strains representing five species of Dinophysis spp. isolated from three US coastal regions that have experienced DSP events: the Northeast/Mid‐Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific Northwest. Using a combination of morphometric and DNA‐based evidence, seven Northeast/Mid‐Atlantic isolates and four Pacific Northwest isolates were classified as D. acuminata, a total of four isolates from two coasts were classified as D. norvegica, two isolates from the Pacific Northwest coast were identified as D. fortii, and three isolates from the Gulf of Mexico were identified as D. ovum and D. caudata. Toxin profiles of D. acuminata and D. norvegica varied by their geographical origin within the United States. Cross‐regional comparison of toxin profiles was not possible with the other three species; however, within each region, distinct species‐conserved profiles for isolates of D. fortii, D. ovum, and D. caudata were observed. Historical and recent data from various State and Tribal monitoring programs were compiled and compared, including maximum recorded cell abundances of Dinophysis spp., maximum concentrations of OA/DTXs recorded in commercial shellfish species, and durations of harvesting closures, to provide perspective regarding potential for DSP impacts to regional public health and shellfish industry.