Vineis Joseph H.

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Joseph H.

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  • Article
    Patient-specific Bacteroides genome variants in pouchitis
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2016-11-15) Vineis, Joseph H. ; Ringus, Daina L. ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Delmont, Tom O. ; Dalal, Sushila R. ; Raffals, Laura E. ; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A. ; Rubin, David T. ; Eren, A. Murat ; Chang, Eugene B. ; Sogin, Mitchell L.
    A 2-year longitudinal microbiome study of 22 patients who underwent colectomy with an ileal pouch anal anastomosis detected significant increases in distinct populations of Bacteroides during 9 of 11 patient visits that coincided with inflammation (pouchitis). Oligotyping and metagenomic short-read annotation identified Bacteroides populations that occurred in early samples, bloomed during inflammation, and reappeared after antibiotic treatment. Targeted cultivation of Bacteroides isolates from the same individual at multiple time points and from several patients detected subtle genomic changes, including the identification of rapidly evolving genomic elements that differentiate isogenic strains of Bacteroides fragilis from the mucosa versus lumen. Each patient harbored Bacteroides spp. that are closely related to commonly occurring clinical isolates, including Bacteroides ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. vulgatus, and B. fragilis, which contained unique loci in different patients for synthesis of capsular polysaccharides. The presence of unique Bacteroides capsular polysaccharide loci within different hosts and between the lumen and mucosa may represent adaptations to stimulate, suppress, and evade host-specific immune responses at different microsites of the ileal pouch.
  • Article
    A single genus in the gut microbiome reflects host preference and specificity
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2014-06-17) Eren, A. Murat ; Sogin, Mitchell L. ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Vineis, Joseph H. ; Fisher, Jenny C. ; Newton, Ryan J. ; McLellan, Sandra L.
    Delineating differences in gut microbiomes of human and animal hosts contributes towards understanding human health and enables new strategies for detecting reservoirs of waterborne human pathogens. We focused upon Blautia, a single microbial genus that is important for nutrient assimilation as preliminary work suggested host-related patterns within members of this genus. In our dataset of 57 M sequence reads of the V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in samples collected from seven host species, we identified 200 high-resolution taxonomic units within Blautia using oligotyping. Our analysis revealed 13 host-specific oligotypes that occurred exclusively in fecal samples of humans (three oligotypes), swine (six oligotypes), cows (one oligotype), deer (one oligotype), or chickens (two oligotypes). We identified an additional 171 oligotypes that exhibited differential abundance patterns among all the host species. Blautia oligotypes in the human population obtained from sewage and fecal samples displayed remarkable continuity. Oligotypes from only 10 Brazilian human fecal samples collected from individuals in a rural village encompassed 97% of all Blautia oligotypes found in a Brazilian sewage sample from a city of three million people. Further, 75% of the oligotypes in Brazilian human fecal samples matched those in US sewage samples, implying that a universal set of Blautia strains may be shared among culturally and geographically distinct human populations. Such strains can serve as universal markers to assess human fecal contamination in environmental samples. Our results indicate that host-specificity and host-preference patterns of organisms within this genus are driven by host physiology more than dietary habits.
  • Article
    Sewage reflects the microbiomes of human populations
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2015-02-24) Newton, Ryan J. ; McLellan, Sandra L. ; Dila, Deborah K. ; Vineis, Joseph H. ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Eren, A. Murat ; Sogin, Mitchell L.
    Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome.
  • Article
    Genome reconstructions indicate the partitioning of ecological functions inside a phytoplankton bloom in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica
    (Frontiers Media, 2015-10-26) Delmont, Tom O. ; Eren, A. Murat ; Vineis, Joseph H. ; Post, Anton F.
    Antarctica polynyas support intense phytoplankton blooms, impacting their environment by a substantial depletion of inorganic carbon and nutrients. These blooms are dominated by the colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica and they are accompanied by a distinct bacterial population. Yet, the ecological role these bacteria may play in P. antarctica blooms awaits elucidation of their functional gene pool and of the geochemical activities they support. Here, we report on a metagenome (~160 million reads) analysis of the microbial community associated with a P. antarctica bloom event in the Amundsen Sea polynya (West Antarctica). Genomes of the most abundant Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria populations have been reconstructed and a network analysis indicates a strong functional partitioning of these bacterial taxa. Three of them (SAR92, and members of the Oceanospirillaceae and Cryomorphaceae) are found in close association with P. antarctica colonies. Distinct features of their carbohydrate, nitrogen, sulfur and iron metabolisms may serve to support mutualistic relationships with P. antarctica. The SAR92 genome indicates a specialization in the degradation of fatty acids and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (compounds released by P. antarctica) into dimethyl sulfide, an aerosol precursor. The Oceanospirillaceae genome carries genes that may enhance algal physiology (cobalamin synthesis). Finally, the Cryomorphaceae genome is enriched in genes that function in cell or colony invasion. A novel pico-eukaryote, Micromonas related genome (19.6 Mb, ~94% completion) was also recovered. It contains the gene for an anti-freeze protein, which is lacking in Micromonas at lower latitudes. These draft genomes are representative for abundant microbial taxa across the Southern Ocean surface.
  • Article
    Anvi’o : an advanced analysis and visualization platform for ‘omics data
    (PeerJ, 2015-10-08) Eren, A. Murat ; Esen, Ozcan C. ; Quince, Christopher ; Vineis, Joseph H. ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Sogin, Mitchell L. ; Delmont, Tom O.
    Advances in high-throughput sequencing and ‘omics technologies are revolutionizing studies of naturally occurring microbial communities. Comprehensive investigations of microbial lifestyles require the ability to interactively organize and visualize genetic information and to incorporate subtle differences that enable greater resolution of complex data. Here we introduce anvi’o, an advanced analysis and visualization platform that offers automated and human-guided characterization of microbial genomes in metagenomic assemblies, with interactive interfaces that can link ‘omics data from multiple sources into a single, intuitive display. Its extensible visualization approach distills multiple dimensions of information about each contig, offering a dynamic and unified work environment for data exploration, manipulation, and reporting. Using anvi’o, we re-analyzed publicly available datasets and explored temporal genomic changes within naturally occurring microbial populations through de novo characterization of single nucleotide variations, and linked cultivar and single-cell genomes with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data. Anvi’o is an open-source platform that empowers researchers without extensive bioinformatics skills to perform and communicate in-depth analyses on large ‘omics datasets.
  • Article
    Minimum entropy decomposition : unsupervised oligotyping for sensitive partitioning of high-throughput marker gene sequences
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2014-10-17) Eren, A. Murat ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Lescault, Pamela J. ; Reveillaud, Julie ; Vineis, Joseph H. ; Sogin, Mitchell L.
    Molecular microbial ecology investigations often employ large marker gene datasets, for example, ribosomal RNAs, to represent the occurrence of single-cell genomes in microbial communities. Massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies enable extensive surveys of marker gene libraries that sometimes include nearly identical sequences. Computational approaches that rely on pairwise sequence alignments for similarity assessment and de novo clustering with de facto similarity thresholds to partition high-throughput sequencing datasets constrain fine-scale resolution descriptions of microbial communities. Minimum Entropy Decomposition (MED) provides a computationally efficient means to partition marker gene datasets into ‘MED nodes’, which represent homogeneous operational taxonomic units. By employing Shannon entropy, MED uses only the information-rich nucleotide positions across reads and iteratively partitions large datasets while omitting stochastic variation. When applied to analyses of microbiomes from two deep-sea cryptic sponges Hexadella dedritifera and Hexadella cf. dedritifera, MED resolved a key Gammaproteobacteria cluster into multiple MED nodes that are specific to different sponges, and revealed that these closely related sympatric sponge species maintain distinct microbial communities. MED analysis of a previously published human oral microbiome dataset also revealed that taxa separated by less than 1% sequence variation distributed to distinct niches in the oral cavity. The information theory-guided decomposition process behind the MED algorithm enables sensitive discrimination of closely related organisms in marker gene amplicon datasets without relying on extensive computational heuristics and user supervision.