Marjanovic Milena

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  • Article
    Variable crustal structure along the Juan de Fuca Ridge : influence of on-axis hot spots and absolute plate motions
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-08-02) Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Canales, J. Pablo ; Kent, Graham M. ; Harding, Alistair J. ; Marjanovic, Milena
    Multichannel seismic and bathymetric data from the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JDFR) provide constraints on axial and ridge flank structure for the past 4–8 Ma within three spreading corridors crossing Cleft, Northern Symmetric, and Endeavour segments. Along-axis data reveal south-to-north gradients in seafloor relief and presence and depth of the crustal magma lens, which indicate a warmer axial regime to the south, both on a regional scale and within individual segments. For young crust, cross-axis lines reveal differences between segments in Moho two-way traveltimes of 200–300 ms which indicate 0.5–1 km thicker crust at Endeavour and Cleft compared to Northern Symmetric. Moho traveltime anomalies extend beyond the 5–15 km wide axial high and coincide with distinct plateaus, 32 and 40 km wide and 200–400 m high, found at both segments. On older crust, Moho traveltimes are similar for all three segments (∼2100 ± 100 ms), indicating little difference in average crustal production prior to ∼0.6 and 0.7 Ma. The presence of broad axis-centered bathymetric plateau with thickened crust at Cleft and Endeavour segments is attributed to recent initiation of ridge axis-centered melt anomalies associated with the Cobb hot spot and the Heckle melt anomaly. Increased melt supply at Cleft segment upon initiation of Axial Volcano and southward propagation of Endeavour segment during the Brunhes point to rapid southward directed along-axis channeling of melt anomalies linked to these hot spots. Preferential southward flow of the Cobb and Heckle melt anomalies and the regional-scale south-to-north gradients in ridge structure along the JDFR may reflect influence of the northwesterly absolute motion of the ridge axis on subaxial melt distribution.
  • Preprint
    A multi-sill magma plumbing system beneath the axis of the East Pacific Rise
    ( 2014-09) Marjanovic, Milena ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Carton, Helene ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Mutter, John C. ; Canales, J. Pablo
    The mid-crust axial magma lens detected at fast and intermediate spreading mid-ocean ridges is believed to be the primary magma reservoir for formation of upper oceanic crust. However, the mechanism behind formation of the lower crust is a subject of ongoing debate. The sheeted sill model proposed from observations of ophiloites requires the presence of multiple lenses/sills throughout lower crust but only a single lens is imaged directly beneath the innermost axial zone in prior seismic studies . Here, high-fidelity seismic data from the East Pacific Rise reveal series of reflections below the axial magma lens that we interpret as mid-lower crustal lenses. These deeper lenses are present between 9°20-57′N at variable two-way-travel-times, up to 4.6 s (~1.5 km beneath the axial magma lens), providing direct support for the sheeted sill model. From local changes in the amplitude and geometry of the events beneath a zone of recent volcanic eruption, we infer that melt drained from a lower lens contributed to the replenishment of the axial magma lens above and, perhaps, the eruption. The new data indicate that a multi-level sill complex is present beneath the East Pacific Rise that likely contributes to the formation of both the upper and lower crust.
  • Article
    Discovery of active off-axis hydrothermal vents at 9° 54’N East Pacific Rise
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2022-07-21) McDermott, Jill M. ; Parnell-Turner, Ross ; Barreyre, Thibaut ; Herrera, Santiago ; Downing, Connor C. ; Pittoors, Nicole C. ; Pehr, Kelden ; Vohsen, Samuel A. ; Dowd, William S. ; Wu, Jyun-Nai ; Marjanovic, Milena ; Fornari, Daniel J.
    Comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of active hydrothermal vent fields along midocean ridges is essential to understanding global chemical and heat fluxes and endemic faunal distributions. However, current knowledge is biased by a historical preference for on-axis surveys. A scarcity of high-resolution bathymetric surveys in off-axis regions limits vent identification, which implies that the number of vents may be underestimated. Here, we present the discovery of an active, high-temperature, off-axis hydrothermal field on a fast-spreading ridge. The vent field is located 750 m east of the East Pacific Rise axis and ∼7 km north of on-axis vents at 9° 50′N, which are situated in a 50- to 100-m-wide trough. This site is currently the largest vent field known on the East Pacific Rise between 9 and 10° N. Its proximity to a normal fault suggests that hydrothermal fluid pathways are tectonically controlled. Geochemical evidence reveals deep fluid circulation to depths only 160 m above the axial magma lens. Relative to on-axis vents at 9° 50′N, these off-axis fluids attain higher temperatures and pressures. This tectonically controlled vent field may therefore exhibit greater stability in fluid composition, in contrast to more dynamic, dike-controlled, on-axis vents. The location of this site indicates that high-temperature convective circulation cells extend to greater distances off axis than previously realized. Thorough high-resolution mapping is necessary to understand the distribution, frequency, and physical controls on active off-axis vent fields so that their contribution to global heat and chemical fluxes and role in metacommunity dynamics can be determined.
  • Article
    Constraints on melt content of off-axis magma lenses at the East Pacific Rise from analysis of 3-D seismic amplitude variation with angle of incidence
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-06-28) Aghaei, Omid ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Marjanovic, Milena ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Canales, J. Pablo ; Carton, Helene ; Nikić, Nikola
    We use 3-D multichannel seismic data to form partial angle P wave stacks and apply amplitude variation with angle (AVA) crossplotting to assess melt content and melt distribution within two large midcrustal off-axis magma lenses (OAMLs) found along the East Pacific Rise from 9°37.5′N to 9°57′N. The signal envelope of the partial angle stacks suggests that both OAMLs are partially molten with higher average melt content and more uniform melt distribution in the southern OAML than in the northern OAML. For AVA crossplotting, the OAMLs are subdivided into seven ~1 km2 analysis windows. The AVA crossplotting results indicate that the OAMLs contain a smaller amount of melt than the axial magma lens (AML). For both OAMLs, a higher melt fraction is detected within analysis windows located close to the ridge axis than within the most distant windows. The highest average melt concentration is interpreted for the central sections of the OAMLs. The overall low OAML melt content could be indicative of melt lost due to recent off-axis eruptions, drainage to the AML, or limited mantle melt supply. Based on the results of this and earlier bathymetric, morphological, geochemical, and geophysical investigations, we propose that the melt-poor OAML state is largely the result of limited melt supply from the underlying mantle source reservoir with smaller contribution attributed to melt leakage to the AML. We hypothesize that the investigated OAMLs have a longer period of melt replenishment, lower eruption recurrence rates, and lower eruption volumes than the AML, though some could be single intrusion events.
  • Article
    Stacked magma lenses beneath mid-ocean ridges: insights from new seismic observations and synthesis with prior geophysical and geologic findings
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-03-24) Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Marjanovic, Milena ; Arnulf, Adrien F. ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Canales, J. Pablo ; Arnoux, Gillean M.
    Recent multi-channel seismic studies of fast spreading and hot-spot influenced mid-ocean ridges reveal magma bodies located beneath the mid-crustal Axial Magma Lens (AML), embedded within the underlying crustal mush zone. We here present new seismic images from the Juan de Fuca Ridge that show reflections interpreted to be from vertically stacked magma lenses in a number of locations beneath this intermediate-spreading ridge. The brightest reflections are beneath Northern Symmetric segment, from ∼46°42′-52′N and Split Seamount, where a small magma body at local Moho depths is also detected, inferred to be a source reservoir for the stacked magma lenses in the crust above. The imaged magma bodies are sub-horizontal, extend continuously for along-axis lengths of ∼1–8 km, with the shallowest located at depths of ∼100–1,200 m below the AML, and are similar to sub-AML bodies found at the East Pacific Rise. At both ridges, stacked sill-like lenses are detected beneath only a small fraction of the ridge length examined and are inferred to mark local sites of higher melt flux and active replenishment from depth. The imaged magma lenses are focused in the upper part of the lower crust, which coincides with the most melt rich part of the crystal mush zone detected in other geophysical studies and where sub-vertical fabrics are observed in geologic exposures of oceanic crust. We infer that the multi-level magma accumulations are ephemeral and may result from porous flow and mush compaction, and that they can be tapped and drained during dike intrusion and eruption events.
  • Article
    Gravity and seismic study of crustal structure along the Juan de Fuca Ridge axis and across pseudofaults on the ridge flanks
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-05-17) Marjanovic, Milena ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Canales, J. Pablo
    Variations in topography and seismic structure are observed along the Juan de Fuca (JdF) Ridge axis and in the vicinity of pseudofaults on the ridge flanks left by former episodes of ridge propagation. Here we analyze gravity data coregistered with multichannel seismic data from the JdF Ridge and flanks in order to better understand the origin of crustal structure variations in this area. The data were collected along the ridge axis and along three ridge-perpendicular transects at the Endeavor, Northern Symmetric, and Cleft segments. Negative Mantle Bouguer anomalies of −21 to −28 mGal are observed at the axis of the three segments. Thicker crust at the Endeavor and Cleft segments is inferred from seismic data and can account for the small differences in axial gravity anomalies (3–7 mGal). Additional low densities/elevated temperatures within and/or below the axial crust are required to explain the remaining axial MBA low at all segments. Gravity models indicate that the region of low densities is wider beneath the Cleft segment. Gravity models for pseudofaults crossed along the three transects support the presence of thinner and denser crust within the pseudofault zones that we attribute to iron-enriched crust. On the young crust side of the pseudofaults, a 10–20 km wide zone of thicker crust is found. Reflection events interpreted as subcrustal sills underlie the zones of thicker crust and are the presumed source for the iron enrichment.
  • Article
    Distribution of melt along the East Pacific Rise from 9°30′ to 10°N from an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) technique
    (Oxford University Press, 2015-06) Marjanovic, Milena ; Carton, Helene ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Mutter, John C. ; Canales, J. Pablo
    We examine along-axis variations in melt content of the axial magma lens (AML) beneath the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) using an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) crossplotting method applied to multichannel seismic data acquired in 2008. The AVA crossplotting method, which has been developed for and, so far, applied for hydrocarbon prospection in sediments, is for the first time applied to a hardrock environment. We focus our analysis on 2-D data collected along the EPR axis from 9°29.8′N to 9°58.4′N, a region which encompasses the sites of two well-documented submarine volcanic eruptions (1991–1992 and 2005–2006). AVA crossplotting is performed for a ∼53 km length of the EPR spanning nine individual AML segments (ranging in length from ∼3.2 to 8.5 km) previously identified from the geometry of the AML and disruptions in continuity. Our detailed analyses conducted at 62.5 m interval show that within most of the analysed segments melt content varies at spatial scales much smaller (a few hundred of metres) than the length of the fine-scale AML segments, suggesting high heterogeneity in melt concentration. At the time of our survey, about 2 yr after the eruption, our results indicate that the three AML segments that directly underlie the 2005–2006 lava flow are on average mostly molten. However, detailed analysis at finer-scale intervals for these three segments reveals AML pockets (from >62.5 to 812.5 m long) with a low melt fraction. The longest such mushy section is centred beneath the main eruption site at ∼9°50.4′N, possibly reflecting a region of primary melt drainage during the 2005–2006 event. The complex geometry of fluid flow pathways within the crust above the AML and the different response times of fluid flow and venting to eruption and magma reservoir replenishment may contribute to the poor spatial correlation between incidence of hydrothermal vents and presence of highly molten AML. The presented results are an important step forward in our ability to resolve small-scale characteristics of the AML and recommend the AVA crossplotting as a tool for examining mid-ocean ridge magma-systems elsewhere.
  • Article
    Crustal magmatic system beneath the east pacific rise (8 degrees 20 to 10 degrees 10N): Implications for tectonomagmatic segmentation and crustal melt transport at fast-spreading ridges
    (American Geophysical Union, 2018-11-06) Marjanovic, Milena ; Carbotte, Suzanne M. ; Carton, Helene ; Nedimovic, Mladen R. ; Canales, J. Pablo ; Mutter, John C.
    Detailed images of the midcrustal magmatic system beneath the East Pacific Rise (8°20′–10°10′N) are obtained from 2‐D and 3‐D‐swath processing of along axis seismic data and are used to characterize properties of the axial crust, cross‐axis variations, and relationships with structural segmentation of the axial zone. Axial magma lens (AML) reflections are imaged beneath much of the ridge axis (mean depth 1,640 ± 185 m), as are deeper sub‐AML (SAML) reflections (brightest events ~100–800 m below AML). Local shallow regions in the AML underlie two regions of shallow seafloor depth from 9°40′–55′N and 8°26′–33′N. Enhanced magma replenishment at present beneath both sites is inferred and may be linked to nearby off‐axis volcanic chains. SAML reflections, which are observed primarily from 9°20′ to 10°05′N, indicate a finely segmented magma reservoir similar to the AML above, composed of subhorizontal, 2‐ to 7 km‐long AML segments, often with stepwise changes in reflector depth from one segment to the next. We infer that these melt bodies are related to short‐lived melt instability zones. In many locations including where seismic constraints are strongest the intermediate scale (~15–40 km) structural segmentation of the ridge axis identified in this region coincides with (1) changes in average thickness of layer 2A (by 10%–15%), (2) changes in average depth of AML (<100 m), and (3) with the spacing of punctuated low velocity zones mapped in the uppermost mantle. The ~6 km dominant length of multiple AML segments within each of the larger structural segments may reflect the spacing of local sites of ascending magma from discrete melt reservoirs pooled beneath the crust.
  • Article
    Significance of short‐wavelength magnetic anomaly low along the East Pacific Rise axis, 9°50′N
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-05-16) Berrios‐Rivera, Natalia ; Gee, Jeffrey S. ; Parnell‐Turner, Ross ; Maher, Sarah ; Wu, Jyun‐Nai ; Fornari, Daniel ; Tivey, Maurice ; Marjanović, Milena ; Barreyre, Thibaut ; McDermott, Jill
    Magnetic anomaly variations near mid‐ocean ridge spreading centers are sensitive to a variety of crustal accretionary processes as well as geomagnetic field variations when the crust forms. We collected near‐bottom vector magnetic anomaly data during a series of 21 autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry dives near 9°50′N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) covering ∼26 km along‐axis. These data document the 2–3 km wide axial anomaly high that is commonly observed at fast‐spreading ridges but also reveal the presence of a superimposed ∼800 m full wavelength anomaly low. The anomaly low is continuous for ≥13 km along axis and may extend over the entire survey region. A more detailed survey of hydrothermal vents near 9°50.3′N reveals ∼100 m diameter magnetic lows, which are misaligned relative to active vents and therefore cannot explain the continuous axial low. The axial magnetization low persists in magnetic inversions with variable extrusive source thickness, indicating that to the extent to which layer 2A constitutes the sole magnetic source, variations in its thickness alone cannot account for the axial low. Lava accumulation models illustrate that high geomagnetic intensity over the past ∼2.5 kyr, and decreasing intensity over the past ∼900 years, are both consistent with the broad axial anomaly high and the superimposed shorter wavelength low. The continuity of this axial low, and similar features elsewhere on the EPR suggests, that either crustal accretionary processes responsible for this anomaly are common among fast‐spread ridges, or that the observed magnetization low may partially reflect global geomagnetic intensity fluctuations.