Murphy David J.

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David J.

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  • Article
    Corrections for pumped SBE 41CP CTDs determined from stratified tank experiments
    (American Meteorological Society, 2019-04-23) Martini, Kim I. ; Murphy, David J. ; Schmitt, Raymond W. ; Larson, Nordeen G.
    Sea-Bird Scientific SBE 41CP CTDs are used on autonomous floats in the global Argo ocean observing program to measure the temperature and salinity of the upper ocean. While profiling, the sensors are subject to dynamic errors as they profile through vertical gradients. Applying dynamic corrections to the temperature and conductivity data reduces these errors and improves sensor accuracy. A series of laboratory experiments conducted in a stratified tank are used to characterize dynamic errors and determine corrections. The corrections are adapted for Argo floats, and recommendations for future implementation are presented.
  • Article
    Argo data 1999-2019: two million temperature-salinity profiles and subsurface velocity observations from a global array of profiling floats.
    (Frontiers Media, 2020-09-15) Wong, Annie P. S. ; Wijffels, Susan E. ; Riser, Stephen C. ; Pouliquen, Sylvie ; Hosoda, Shigeki ; Roemmich, Dean ; Gilson, John ; Johnson, Gregory C. ; Martini, Kim I. ; Murphy, David J. ; Scanderbeg, Megan ; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S. ; Buck, Justin J. H. ; Merceur, Frederic ; Carval, Thierry ; Maze, Guillaume ; Cabanes, Cécile ; André, Xavier ; Poffa, Noé ; Yashayaev, Igor ; Barker, Paul M. ; Guinehut, Stéphanie ; Belbeoch, Mathieu ; Ignaszewski, Mark ; Baringer, Molly O. ; Schmid, Claudia ; Lyman, John ; McTaggart, Kristene E. ; Purkey, Sarah G. ; Zilberman, Nathalie ; Alkire, Matthew ; Swift, Dana ; Owens, W. Brechner ; Jayne, Steven R. ; Hersh, Cora ; Robbins, Pelle E. ; West-Mack, Deb ; Bahr, Frank B. ; Yoshida, Sachiko ; Sutton, Philip J. H. ; Cancouët, Romain ; Coatanoan, Christine ; Dobbler, Delphine ; Garcia Juan, Andrea ; Gourrion, Jérôme ; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas ; Bernard, Vincent ; Bourlès, Bernard ; Claustre, Hervé ; d’Ortenzio, Fabrizio ; Le Reste, Serge ; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves ; Rannou, Jean-Philippe ; Saout-Grit, Carole ; Speich, Sabrina ; Thierry, Virginie ; Verbrugge, Nathalie ; Angel-Benavides, Ingrid M. ; Klein, Birgit ; Notarstefano, Giulio ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro ; Suga, Toshio ; Ando, Kentaro ; Iwasaska, Naoto ; Kobayashi, Taiyo ; Masuda, Shuhei ; Oka, Eitarou ; Sato, Kanako ; Nakamura, Tomoaki ; Sato, Katsunari ; Takatsuki, Yasushi ; Yoshida, Takashi ; Cowley, Rebecca ; Lovell, Jenny L. ; Oke, Peter ; van Wijk, Esmee ; Carse, Fiona ; Donnelly, Matthew ; Gould, W. John ; Gowers, Katie ; King, Brian A. ; Loch, Stephen G. ; Mowat, Mary ; Turton, Jon ; Pattabhi Rama Rao, Eluri ; Ravichandran, M. ; Freeland, Howard ; Gaboury, Isabelle ; Gilbert, Denis ; Greenan, Blair J. W. ; Ouellet, Mathieu ; Ross, Tetjana ; Tran, Anh ; Dong, Mingmei ; Liu, Zenghong ; Xu, Jianping ; Kang, KiRyong ; Jo, HyeongJun ; Kim, Sung-Dae ; Park, Hyuk-Min
    In the past two decades, the Argo Program has collected, processed, and distributed over two million vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from the upper two kilometers of the global ocean. A similar number of subsurface velocity observations near 1,000 dbar have also been collected. This paper recounts the history of the global Argo Program, from its aspiration arising out of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, to the development and implementation of its instrumentation and telecommunication systems, and the various technical problems encountered. We describe the Argo data system and its quality control procedures, and the gradual changes in the vertical resolution and spatial coverage of Argo data from 1999 to 2019. The accuracies of the float data have been assessed by comparison with high-quality shipboard measurements, and are concluded to be 0.002°C for temperature, 2.4 dbar for pressure, and 0.01 PSS-78 for salinity, after delayed-mode adjustments. Finally, the challenges faced by the vision of an expanding Argo Program beyond 2020 are discussed.
  • Article
    Reply to "comments on 'corrections for pumped SBE 41CP CTDs determined from stratified tank experiments'"
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-02-24) Martini, Kim I. ; Murphy, David J. ; Schmitt, Raymond W. ; Larson, Nordeen G.
    The response in Johnson (2020) that the method used to determine cell thermal mass correction coefficients for SBE 41CP CTD data from Argo floats is biased as determined by Martini et al. (2019) is valid. However, the recommendation for correction coefficients should not be followed due to these three errors in Johnson (2020): Alignment is as large a source of dynamic error as cell thermal mass in the SBE 41CP CTD. Order of operations was overlooked, so that cell thermal mass is used to correct for alignment errors caused by the temporal mismatch of temperature and conductivity. The cell thermal mass corrections determined in Johnson et al. (2007) and Johnson (2020) also bias salinity. In this response we will do the following: Detail how the corrections in Johnson (2020) are biased because the optimization procedure does not accurately model physics in the tank and conductivity cell. Verify using in situ data from Argo floats deployed in the ocean that alignment is a significant source of error for the SBE 41CP as shown in Martini et al. (2019). Determine cell thermal mass correction coefficients from the stratified tank experiment merging the methods of Johnson (2020) and Martini et al. (2019) to optimize against a model that better represents the physics in the tank and conductivity cell. Compare the corrections using in situ data using the coefficients determined in Johnson et al. (2007), Martini et al. (2019), Johnson (2020), and this manuscript.