Lupton John E.

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John E.

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  • Article
    Mantle 3He distribution and deep circulation in the Indian Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-06-10) Srinivasan, Ashwanth ; Top, Zafer ; Schlosser, Peter ; Hohmann, Roland ; Iskandarani, Mohamed ; Olson, Donald B. ; Lupton, John E. ; Jenkins, William J.
    The World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean helium isotope data are mapped and features of intermediate and deep circulation are inferred and discussed. The 3He added to the deep Indian Ocean originates from (1) a strong source on the mid-ocean ridge at about 19°S/65°E, (2) a source located in the Gulf of Aden in the northwestern Indian Ocean, (3) sources located in the convergent margins in the northeastern Indian Ocean, and (4) water imported from the Indonesian Seas. The main circulation features inferred from the 3He distribution include (1) deep (2000–3000 m) eastward flow in the central Indian Ocean, which overflows into the West Australian Basin through saddles in the Ninetyeast Ridge, (2) a deep (2000–3000 m) southwestward flow in the western Indian Ocean, and (3) influx of Banda Sea Intermediate Waters associated with the deep core (1000–1500 m) of the through flow from the Pacific Ocean. The large-scale 3He distribution is consonant with the known pathways of deep and bottom water circulation in the Indian Ocean.
  • Article
    Eruptive modes and hiatus of volcanism at West Mata seamount, NE Lau basin : 1996–2012
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-10-31) Embley, Robert W. ; Merle, Susan G. ; Baker, Edward T. ; Rubin, Kenneth H. ; Lupton, John E. ; Resing, Joseph A. ; Dziak, Robert P. ; Lilley, Marvin D. ; Chadwick, William W. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Greene, Ronald ; Walker, Sharon L. ; Haxel, Joseph H. ; Olson, Eric J. ; Baumberger, Tamara
    We present multiple lines of evidence for years to decade-long changes in the location and character of volcanic activity at West Mata seamount in the NE Lau basin over a 16 year period, and a hiatus in summit eruptions from early 2011 to at least September 2012. Boninite lava and pyroclasts were observed erupting from its summit in 2009, and hydroacoustic data from a succession of hydrophones moored nearby show near-continuous eruptive activity from January 2009 to early 2011. Successive differencing of seven multibeam bathymetric surveys of the volcano made in the 1996–2012 period reveals a pattern of extended constructional volcanism on the summit and northwest flank punctuated by eruptions along the volcano's WSW rift zone (WSWRZ). Away from the summit, the volumetrically largest eruption during the observational period occurred between May 2010 and November 2011 at ∼2920 m depth near the base of the WSWRZ. The (nearly) equally long ENE rift zone did not experience any volcanic activity during the 1996–2012 period. The cessation of summit volcanism recorded on the moored hydrophone was accompanied or followed by the formation of a small summit crater and a landslide on the eastern flank. Water column sensors, analysis of gas samples in the overlying hydrothermal plume and dives with a remotely operated vehicle in September 2012 confirmed that the summit eruption had ceased. Based on the historical eruption rates calculated using the bathymetric differencing technique, the volcano could be as young as several thousand years.
  • Article
    Methane, manganese, and helium in hydrothermal plumes following volcanic eruptions on the East Pacific Rise near 9°50′N
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-06-28) Love, Brooke A. ; Resing, Joseph A. ; Cowen, James P. ; Lupton, John E. ; Fornari, Daniel J. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Biller, Dondra
    As part of a rapid response cruise in May 2006, we surveyed water column hydrothermal plumes and bottom conditions on the East Pacific Rise between 9°46.0′N and 9°57.6′N, where recent seafloor volcanic activity was suspected. Real-time measurements included temperature, light transmission, and salinity. Samples of the plume waters were analyzed for methane, manganese, helium concentrations, and the δ 13C of methane. These data allow us to examine the effects of the 2005–2006 volcanic eruption(s) on plume chemistry. Methane and manganese are sensitive tracers of hydrothermal plumes, and both were present in high concentrations. Methane reached 347 nM in upper plume samples (250 m above seafloor) and exceeded 1085 nM in a near-bottom sample. Mn reached 54 nM in the upper plume and 98 nM in near-bottom samples. The concentrations of methane and Mn were higher than measurements made after a volcanic eruption in the same area in 1991, but the ratio of CH4/Mn, at 6.7, is slightly lower, though still well above the ratios measured in chronic plumes. High concentrations of methane in near-bottom samples were associated with areas of microbial mats and diffuse venting documented in seafloor imagery. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon shows evidence of active microbial oxidation; however, neither the fractionation factor nor the source of the eruption-associated methane can be determined with any certainty. Considerable scatter in the isotopic data is due to diverse sources for the methane as well as fractionation as methane is consumed. One sample at +21‰ versus Peedee belemnite standard is among the most enriched methane carbon values reported in a hydrothermal plume to date.
  • Article
    A comprehensive global oceanic dataset of helium isotope and tritium measurements.
    (Copernicus Publications, 2019-04-05) Jenkins, William J. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Fendrock, Michaela ; Fine, Rana A. ; Gamo, Toshitaka ; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe ; Key, Robert M. ; Klein, Birgit ; Lupton, John E. ; Newton, Robert ; Rhein, Monika ; Roether, Wolfgang ; Sano, Yuji ; Schlitzer, Reiner ; Schlosser, Peter ; Swift, James H.
    Tritium and helium isotope data provide key information on ocean circulation, ventilation, and mixing, as well as the rates of biogeochemical processes and deep-ocean hydrothermal processes. We present here global oceanic datasets of tritium and helium isotope measurements made by numerous researchers and laboratories over a period exceeding 60 years. The dataset's DOI is, and the data are available at (last access: 15 March 2019) or alternately (last access: 13 March 2019) and includes approximately 60 000 valid tritium measurements, 63 000 valid helium isotope determinations, 57 000 dissolved helium concentrations, and 34 000 dissolved neon concentrations. Some quality control has been applied in that questionable data have been flagged and clearly compromised data excluded entirely. Appropriate metadata have been included, including geographic location, date, and sample depth. When available, we include water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen. Data quality flags and data originator information (including methodology) are also included. This paper provides an introduction to the dataset along with some discussion of its broader qualities and graphics.
  • Article
    Hydrothermal exploration of the southern Chile Rise: sediment‐hosted venting at the Chile Triple Junction
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-03-04) German, Christopher R. ; Baumberger, Tamara ; Lilley, Marvin D. ; Lupton, John E. ; Noble, Abigail E. ; Saito, Mak A. ; Thurber, Andrew R. ; Blackman, Donna K.
    We report results from a hydrothermal plume survey along the southernmost Chile Rise from the Guamblin Fracture Zone to the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) encompassing two segments (93 km cumulative length) of intermediate spreading-rate mid-ocean ridge axis. Our approach used in situ water column sensing (CTD, optical clarity, redox disequilibrium) coupled with sampling for shipboard and shore based geochemical analyses (δ3He, CH4, total dissolvable iron (TDFe) and manganese, (TDMn)) to explore for evidence of seafloor hydrothermal venting. Across the entire survey, the only location at which evidence for submarine venting was detected was at the southernmost limit to the survey. There, the source of a dispersing hydrothermal plume was located at 46°16.5’S, 75°47.9’W, coincident with the CTJ itself. The plume exhibits anomalies in both δ3He and dissolved CH4 but no enrichments in TDFe or TDMn beyond what can be attributed to resuspension of sediments covering the seafloor where the ridge intersects the Chile margin. These results are indicative of sediment-hosted venting at the CTJ.
  • Article
    Shallow seafloor gas emissions near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-12-10) Spain, Erica A. ; Johnson, Sean C. ; Hutton, Briony ; Whittaker, Joanne M. ; Lucieer, Vanessa ; Watson, Sally ; Fox, Jodi M. ; Lupton, John E. ; Arculus, Richard J. ; Bradney, A. ; Coffin, Millard F.
    Bubble emission mechanisms from submerged large igneous provinces remains enigmatic. The Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province in the southern Indian Ocean, has a long sustained history of active volcanism and glacial/interglacial cycles of sedimentation, both of which may cause seafloor bubble production. We present the results of hydroacoustic flare observations around the underexplored volcanically active Heard Island and McDonald Islands on the Central Kerguelen Plateau. Flares were observed with a split‐beam echosounder and characterized using multifrequency decibel differencing. Deep‐tow camera footage, water properties, water column δ3He, subbottom profile, and sediment δ13C and δ34S data were analyzed to consider flare mechanisms. Excess δ3He near McDonald Islands seeps, indicating mantle‐derived input, suggests proximal hydrothermal activity; McDonald Islands flares may thus indicate CO2, methane, and other minor gas bubbles associated with shallow diffuse hydrothermal venting. The Heard Island seep environment, with subbottom acoustic blanking in thick sediment, muted 3He signal, and δ13C and δ34S fractionation factors, suggest that Heard Island seeps may either be methane gas (possibly both shallow biogenic methane and deeper‐sourced thermogenic methane related to geothermal heat from onshore volcanism) or a combination of methane and CO2, such as seen in sediment‐hosted geothermal systems. These data provide the first evidence of submarine gas escape on the Central Kerguelen Plateau and expand our understanding of seafloor processes and carbon cycling in the data‐poor southern Indian Ocean. Extensive sedimentation of the Kerguelen Plateau and additional zones of submarine volcanic activity mean additional seeps or vents may lie outside the small survey area proximal to the islands.
  • Article
    Evolution of the south Pacific helium plume over the past three decades
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2017-05-04) Lupton, John E. ; Jenkins, William J.
    The recent GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect in 2013 crossed the East Pacific Rise at 15°S following the same track as the 1987 Helios Expedition along the core of the mid-depth helium plume that spreads westward from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis. The fact that several stations were co-located with the earlier Helios stations has allowed a detailed comparison of the changes in the helium plume over the intervening 26 years. While the plume in many areas is unchanged, there is a marked decrease in plume intensity at longitude 120°W in the 2013 data which was not present in 1987. Recent radioisotope measurements along the plume track suggest that this decrease is due to the intrusion of a different water mass into the plume, rather than a modulation of hydrothermal input on the EPR axis. Analysis of GEOTRACES hydrographic data shows excess heat present in the plume up to 0.04°C, corresponding to a 3He/heat ratio of ∼2.5 × 10−18 mol J−1, similar to that found in mature hydrothermal vents. RAFOS floats deployed in 1987 indicate an average westward transport of ∼0.3 cm s−1 at 2500 m depth in the off-axis plume, in agreement with recent estimates of ∼0.4 cm s−1 based on “aging” of the plume from 227Ac/3He ratios.
  • Article
    Evidence for an extensive hydrothermal plume in the Tonga-Fiji region of the South Pacific
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-01-17) Lupton, John E. ; Pyle, Douglas G. ; Jenkins, William J. ; Greene, Ronald ; Evans, Leigh
    Several hydrographic stations in the vicinity of the Samoa Islands have 3He/4He above the regional background in the depth range of 1500–1800 m, indicating injection of mantle helium from a local hydrothermal source. The highest δ(3He) = 43.4% was detected at 1726-m depth at 15.0°S, 173.1°W in the bathymetric gap between the Samoa Islands and the northern end of the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. The δ(3He) profile at this station decreases to δ(3He) = 26% at 2500-m depth. The relatively shallow depth of the maximum hydrothermal signal suggests a source different from the conventional Pacific basin helium plume centered at 2500 m that is carried westward from the East Pacific Rise. Stations to the west of this locality show a progressive decrease in the maximum δ(3He) values in the depth range of 1480–1790 m out to 169°E. Stations east of the Tonga-Fiji region show lower 3He values (<26%) at 1700 m and the profiles are dominated by a deeper maximum at 2500 m, presumably the distal traces of hydrothermal input from East Pacific Rise. This pattern in the 3He distribution suggests that the 1700-m deep helium plume is carried in a northwesterly direction some 2000 km from its source near the northern end of the Tonga-Kermadec Arc. At this time very little is known about the source of this hydrothermal plume or the details of its areal extent. Numerous seamounts and rift zones in the region are possible hydrothermal sources for the plume. The summit crater of Vailulu'u, a young seamount at the eastern end of the Samoa chain, was recently discovered to be hydrothermally active at ∼600 m depth [Hart et al., 2000]. However this shallow hydrothermal field on Vailulu'u is an unlikely source for the deeper 1700-m signal. The most likely source would appear to be the extensional zones of the northern Lau Basin system, such as the Mangatolo Triple Junction. Just as the helium plume emanating from Lo'ihi has helped our understanding of the circulation near the Hawaiian Islands [Lupton, 1996], this helium plume in the Tonga-Fiji region has great potential for delineating circulation in this area of the south Pacific.