Jakuba Michael V.

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Michael V.

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  • Article
    Mid-ocean ridge exploration with an autonomous underwater vehicle
    (Oceanography Society, 2007-12) Yoerger, Dana R. ; Bradley, Albert M. ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; German, Christopher R. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Embley, Robert W.
    Human-occupied submersibles, towed vehicles, and tethered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) have traditionally been used to study the deep seafloor. In recent years, however, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have begun to replace these other vehicles for mapping and survey missions. AUVs complement the capabilities of these pre-existing systems, offering superior mapping capabilities, improved logistics, and better utilization of the surface support vessel by allowing other tasks such as submersible operations, ROV work, CTD stations, or multibeam surveys to be performed while the AUV does its work. AUVs are particularly well suited to systematic preplanned surveys using sonars, in situ chemical sensors, and cameras in the rugged deep-sea terrain that has been the focus of numerous scientific expeditions (e.g., those to mid-ocean ridges and ocean margin settings). The Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) is an example of an AUV that has been used for over 20 cruises sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Ocean Exploration (OE), and international and private sources. This paper summarizes NOAA OE-sponsored cruises made to date using ABE.
  • Preprint
    Mapping multiple gas/odor sources in an uncontrolled indoor environment using a Bayesian occupancy grid mapping based method
    ( 2011-06) Ferri, Gabriele ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Mondini, Alessio ; Mattoli, Virgilio ; Mazzolai, Barbara ; Yoerger, Dana R. ; Dario, Paolo
    In this paper we address the problem of autonomously localizing multiple gas/odor sources in an indoor environment without a strong airflow. To do this, a robot iteratively creates an occupancy grid map. The produced map shows the probability each discrete cell contains a source. Our approach is based on a recent adaptation [15] to traditional Bayesian occupancy grid mapping for chemical source localization problems. The approach is less sensitive, in the considered scenario, to the choice of the algorithm parameters. We present experimental results with a robot in an indoor uncontrolled corridor in the presence of different ejecting sources proving the method is able to build reliable maps quickly (5.5 minutes in a 6 m x 2.1 m area) and in real time.
  • Preprint
    Diverse styles of submarine venting on the ultraslow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise
    ( 2010-06-24) German, Christopher R. ; Bowen, Andrew D. ; Coleman, Max ; Honig, D. L. ; Huber, Julie A. ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Kinsey, James C. ; Kurz, Mark D. ; Leroy, S. ; McDermott, Jill M. ; Mercier de Lepinay, B. ; Nakamura, Ko-ichi ; Seewald, Jeffrey S. ; Smith, J. L. ; Sylva, Sean P. ; Van Dover, Cindy L. ; Whitcomb, Louis L. ; Yoerger, Dana R.
    Thirty years after the first discovery of high-temperature submarine venting, the vast majority of the global Mid Ocean Ridge remains unexplored for hydrothermal activity. Of particular interest are the world’s ultra-slow spreading ridges which were the last to be demonstrated to host high-temperature venting, but may host systems particularly relevant to pre-biotic chemistry and the origins of life. Here we report first evidence for diverse and very deep hydrothermal vents along the ~110 km long, ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise. Our data indicate that the Mid- Cayman Rise hosts at least three discrete hydrothermal sites, each representing a different type of water-rock interaction, including both mafic and ultra-mafic systems and, at ~5000 m, the deepest known hydrothermal vent. Although submarine hydrothermal circulation, in which seawater percolates through and reacts with host lithologies, occurs on all mid-ocean ridges, the diversity of vent-types identified here and their relative geographic isolation make the Mid-Cayman Rise unique in the oceans. These new sites offer prospects for: an expanded range of vent-fluid compositions; varieties of abiotic organic chemical synthesis and extremophile microorganisms; and unparalleled faunal biodiversity - all in close proximity.
  • Preprint
    Toward extraplanetary under-ice exploration : robotic steps in the Arctic
    ( 2009-01-12) Kunz, Clayton G. ; Murphy, Christopher A. ; Singh, Hanumant ; Pontbriand, Claire W. ; Sohn, Robert A. ; Singh, Sandipa ; Sato, Taichi ; Roman, Christopher N. ; Nakamura, Ko-ichi ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Eustice, Ryan M. ; Camilli, Richard ; Bailey, John
    This paper describes the design and use of two new autonomous underwater vehicles, Jaguar and Puma, which were deployed in the summer of 2007 at sites at 85°N latitude in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean to search for hydrothermal vents. These robots are the first to be deployed and recovered through ice to the deep ocean (> 3500m) for scientific research. We examine the mechanical design, software architecture, navigation considerations, sensor suite and issues with deployment and recovery in the ice based on the missions they carried out. Successful recoveries of vehicles deployed under the ice requires two-way acoustic communication, flexible navigation strategies, redundant localization hardware, and software that can cope with several different kinds of failure. The ability to direct an AUV via the low bandwidth and intermittently functional acoustic channel, is of particular importance. Based on our experiences, we also discuss the applicability of the technology and operational approaches of this expedition to the exploration of Jupiter's ice-covered moon Europa.
  • Thesis
    Stochastic mapping for chemical plume source localization with application to autonomous hydrothermal vent discovery
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-02) Jakuba, Michael V.
    This thesis presents a stochastic mapping framework for autonomous robotic chemical plume source localization in environments with multiple sources. Potential applications for robotic chemical plume source localization include pollution and environmental monitoring, chemical plant safety, search and rescue, anti-terrorism, narcotics control, explosive ordinance removal, and hydrothermal vent prospecting. Turbulent flows make the spatial relationship between the detectable manifestation of a chemical plume source, the plume itself, and the location of its source inherently uncertain. Search domains with multiple sources compound this uncertainty because the number of sources as well as their locations is unknown a priori. Our framework for stochastic mapping is an adaptation of occupancy grid mapping where the binary state of map nodes is redefined to denote either the presence (occupancy) or absence of an active plume source. A key characteristic of the chemical plume source localization problem is that only a few sources are expected in the search domain. The occupancy grid framework allows for both plume detections and non-detections to inform the estimated state of grid nodes in the map, thereby explicitly representing explored but empty portions of the domain as well as probable source locations. However, sparsity in the expected number of occupied grid nodes strongly violates a critical conditional independence assumption required by the standard Bayesian recursive map update rule. While that assumption makes for a computationally attractive algorithm, in our application it results in occupancy grid maps that are grossly inconsistent with the assumption of a small number of occupied cells. To overcome this limitation, several alternative occupancy grid update algorithms are presented, including an exact solution that is computationally tractable for small numbers of detections and an approximate recursive algorithm with improved performance relative to the standard algorithm but equivalent computational cost. Application to hydrothermal plume data collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE during vent prospecting operations in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans verifies the utility of the approach. The resulting maps enable nested surveys for homing-in on seafloor vent sites to be carried out autonomously. This eliminates inter-dive processing, recharging of batteries, and time spent deploying and recovering the vehicle that would otherwise be necessary with survey design directed by human operators.
  • Article
    Detachment shear zone of the Atlantis Massif core complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-06-21) Karson, Jeffrey A. ; Fruh-Green, Gretchen L. ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Williams, E. A. ; Yoerger, Dana R. ; Jakuba, Michael V.
    Near-bottom investigations of the cross section of the Atlantis Massif exposed in a major tectonic escarpment provide an unprecedented view of the internal structure of the footwall domain of this oceanic core complex. Integrated direct observations, sampling, photogeology, and imaging define a mylonitic, low-angle detachment shear zone (DSZ) along the crest of the massif. The shear zone may project beneath the nearby, corrugated upper surface of the massif. The DSZ and related structures are inferred to be responsible for the unroofing of upper mantle peridotites and lower crustal gabbroic rocks by extreme, localized tectonic extension during seafloor spreading over the past 2 m.y. The DSZ is characterized by strongly foliated to mylonitic serpentinites and talc-amphibole schists. It is about 100 m thick and can be traced continuously for at least 3 km in the tectonic transport direction. The DSZ foliation arches over the top of the massif in a convex-upward trajectory mimicking the morphology of the top of the massif. Kinematic indicators show consistent top-to-east (toward the MAR axis) tectonic transport directions. Foliated DSZ rocks grade structurally downward into more massive basement rocks that lack a pervasive outcrop-scale foliation. The DSZ and underlying basement rocks are cut by discrete, anastomosing, normal-slip, shear zones. Widely spaced, steeply dipping, normal faults cut all the older structures and localize serpentinization-driven hydrothermal outflow at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. A thin (few meters) sequence of sedimentary breccias grading upward into pelagic limestones directly overlies the DSZ and may record a history of progressive rotation of the shear zone from a moderately dipping attitude into its present, gently dipping orientation during lateral spreading and uplift.
  • Preprint
    Mid-water current aided localization for autonomous underwater vehicles
    ( 2015-12) Medagoda, Lashika ; Williams, Stefan B. ; Pizarro, Oscar ; Kinsey, James C. ; Jakuba, Michael V.
    Survey-class Autonomous Underwater Vehi- cles (AUVs) typically rely on Doppler Velocity Logs (DVL) for precision localization near the seafloor. In cases where the seafloor depth is greater than the DVL bottom-lock range, localizing between the surface and the seafloor presents a localization problem since both GPS and DVL observations are unavailable in the mid- water column. This work proposes a solution to this problem that exploits the fact that current profile layers of the water column are near constant over short time scales (in the scale of minutes). Using observations of these currents obtained with the Acoustic Doppler Cur- rent Profiler (ADCP) mode of the DVL during descent, along with data from other sensors, the method dis- cussed herein constrains position error. The method is validated using field data from the Sirius AUV coupled with view-based Simultaneous Localization and Map- ping (SLAM) and on descents up to 3km deep with the Sentry AUV.
  • Preprint
    Explosive volcanism on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean
    ( 2007-11-26) Sohn, Robert A. ; Willis, Claire ; Humphris, Susan E. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Singh, Hanumant ; Edmonds, Henrietta N. ; Kunz, Clayton G. ; Hedman, Ulf ; Helmke, Elisabeth ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Liljebladh, Bengt ; Linder, Julia ; Murphy, Christopher A. ; Nakamura, Ko-ichi ; Sato, Taichi ; Schlindwein, Vera ; Stranne, Christian ; Tausenfreund, Upchurch ; Winsor, Peter ; Jakobsson, Martin ; Soule, Samuel A.
    Roughly 60% of the Earth’s outer surface is comprised of oceanic crust formed by volcanic processes at mid-ocean ridges (MORs). Although only a small fraction of this vast volcanic terrain has been visually surveyed and/or sampled, the available evidence suggests that explosive eruptions are rare on MORs, particularly at depths below the critical point for steam (3000 m). A pyroclastic deposit has never been observed on the seafloor below 3000 m, presumably because the volatile content of mid-ocean ridge basalts is generally too low to produce the gas fractions required to fragment a magma at such high hydrostatic pressure. We employed new deep submergence technologies during an International Polar Year expedition to the Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic Basin at 85°E, to acquire the first-ever photographic images of ‘zero-age’ volcanic terrain on this remote, ice-covered MOR. Our imagery reveals that the axial valley at 4000 m water depth is blanketed with unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits, including bubble wall fragments (limu o Pele), covering a large area greater than 10 km2. At least 13.5 wt% CO2 is required to fragment magma at these depths, which is ~10x greater than the highest values measured to-date in a MOR basalt. These observations raise important questions regarding the accumulation and discharge of magmatic volatiles at ultra-slow spreading rates on the Gakkel Ridge (6- 14 mm yr-1, full-rate), and demonstrate that large-scale pyroclastic activity is possible along even the deepest portions of the global MOR volcanic system.
  • Preprint
    Long-baseline acoustic navigation for under-ice autonomous underwater vehicle operations
    ( 2008-05-19) Jakuba, Michael V. ; Roman, Christopher N. ; Singh, Hanumant ; Murphy, Christopher A. ; Kunz, Clayton G. ; Willis, Claire ; Sato, Taichi ; Sohn, Robert A.
    The recent Arctic GAkkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) to the Arctic Ocean’s Gakkel Ridge (July/August 2007) aboard the Swedish ice-breaker I/B Oden employed autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for water-column and ocean bottom surveys. These surveys were unique among AUV operations to date in requiring georeferenced navigation in proximity to the seafloor beneath permanent and moving ice cover. We report results for long-baseline (LBL) acoustic navigation during autonomous under-ice surveys near the seafloor and adaptation of the LBL concept for several typical operational situations including navigation in proximity to the ship during vehicle recoveries. Fixed seafloor transponders were free-fall deployed from the ship for deep positioning. The ship’s helicopter collected acoustic travel times from several locations to geo-reference the transponders’ locations, subject to the availability of openings in the ice. Two shallow beacons suspended from the ship provided near-surface spherical navigation in ship-relative coordinates. During routine recoveries, we used this system to navigate the vehicles into open water near the ship before commanding them to surface. In cases where a vehicle was impaired, its position was still determined acoustically through some combination of its acoustic modem, the fixed seafloor transponders, the ship-deployed transponders, and an on-board backup relay transponder. The techniques employed included ranging adapted for a moving origin and hyperbolic navigation.
  • Article
    Autonomous and remotely operated vehicle technology for hydrothermal vent discovery, exploration, and sampling
    (Oceanography Society, 2007-03) Yoerger, Dana R. ; Bradley, Albert M. ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; German, Christopher R. ; Shank, Timothy M. ; Tivey, Maurice A.
    Autonomous and remotely operated underwater vehicles play complementary roles in the discovery, exploration, and detailed study of hydrothermal vents. Beginning with clues provided by towed or lowered instruments, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can localize and make preliminary photographic surveys of vent fields. In addition to finding and photographing such sites, AUVs excel at providing regional context through fine-scale bathymetric and magnetic field mapping. Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) enable close-up inspection, photomosaicking, and tasks involving manipulation of samples and instruments. Increasingly, ROVs are used to conduct in situ seafloor experiments. ROVs can also be used for fine-scale bathymetric mapping with excellent results, although AUVs are usually more efficient in such tasks.
  • Preprint
    A novel trigger-based method for hydrothermal vents prospecting using an autonomous underwater robot
    ( 2010-04) Ferri, Gabriele ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Yoerger, Dana R.
    In this paper we address the problem of localizing active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The plumes emitted by hydrothermal vents are the result of thermal and chemical inputs from submarine hot spring systems into the overlying ocean. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) AUV has successfully localized previously undiscovered hydrothermal vent fields in several recent vent prospecting expeditions. These expeditions utilized the AUV for a three-stage, nested survey strategy approach (German et al., 2008). Each stage consists of a survey flown at successively deeper depths through easier to detect but spatially more constrained vent fluids. Ideally this sequence of surveys culminates in photographic evidence of the vent fields themselves. In this work we introduce a new adaptive strategy for an AUV's movement during the first, highest-altitude survey: the AUV initially moves along pre-designed tracklines but certain conditions can trigger an adaptive movement that is likely to acquire additional high value data for vent localization. The trigger threshold is changed during the mission, adapting the method to the different survey profiles the robot may find. The proposed algorithm is vetted on data from previous ABE missions and measures of efficiency presented.
  • Working Paper
    Pump it Up workshop report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2017-10-20) Buesseler, Ken O. ; Adams, Allan ; Bellingham, James G. ; Dever, Mathieu ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Estapa, Margaret L. ; Frank, Alex ; Gallager, Scott M. ; Govindarajan, Annette F. ; Horner, Tristan J. ; Hunter, Jon ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Kapit, Jason ; Katija, Kakani ; Lawson, Gareth L. ; Lu, Yuehan ; Mahadevan, Amala ; Nicholson, David P. ; Omand, Melissa M. ; Palevsky, Hilary I. ; Rauch, Chris ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Ulmer, Kevin M. ; Wurgaft, Eyal ; Yoerger, Dana R.
    A two-day workshop was conducted to trade ideas and brainstorm about how to advance our understanding of the ocean’s biological pump. The goal was to identify the most important scientific issues that are unresolved but might be addressed with new and future technological advances.
  • Article
    Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-09-04) Katlein, Christian ; Arndt, Stefanie ; Nicolaus, Marcel ; Perovich, Donald K. ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Suman, Stefano ; Elliott, Stephen M. ; Whitcomb, Louis L. ; McFarland, Christopher J. ; Gerdes, Rudiger ; Boetius, Antje ; German, Christopher R.
    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000 m2), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.
  • Article
    Scientific challenges and present capabilities in underwater robotic vehicle design and navigation for oceanographic exploration under-ice
    (MDPI, 2020-08-11) Barker, Laughlin D. L. ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Bowen, Andrew D. ; German, Christopher R. ; Maksym, Ted ; Mayer, Larry A. ; Boetius, Antje ; Dutrieux, Pierre ; Whitcomb, Louis L.
    This paper reviews the scientific motivation and challenges, development, and use of underwater robotic vehicles designed for use in ice-covered waters, with special attention paid to the navigation systems employed for under-ice deployments. Scientific needs for routine access under fixed and moving ice by underwater robotic vehicles are reviewed in the contexts of geology and geophysics, biology, sea ice and climate, ice shelves, and seafloor mapping. The challenges of under-ice vehicle design and navigation are summarized. The paper reviews all known under-ice robotic vehicles and their associated navigation systems, categorizing them by vehicle type (tethered, untethered, hybrid, and glider) and by the type of ice they were designed for (fixed glacial or sea ice and moving sea ice).
  • Thesis
    Modeling and control of an autonomous underwater vehicle with combined foil/thruster actuators
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2003-02) Jakuba, Michael V.
    The Sentry AUV represents a radical departure from conventional AUV design, particularly with respect to actuation. The vehicle's combined foil/thruster actuators have the potential to produce a vehicle both maneuverable in the veritical plane and efficient in forward flight, well suited to survey work over rough topography. Capitalizing on this; however, requires an understanding of the vehicles dynamics. In this work, we present the development and analysis of an analytic model of the Sentry AUV. Our goals were to develop a model sufficiently accurate in terms of the mission profile to identify critical vehicle behaviors influencing successful mission completion. The analytical vehicle model was developed with structural accuracy in mind, and under the requirement that it handle a large range of vertical plane velocities, Our primary methodology for analysis was through the design of a linear controller, whose behavior was investigated in simulation and as implemented on a 1/4-scale physical model. Based on decoupled linearized models for near-horizontal flight derived from the full non-linear model, classical linear controllers were designed and validated by simulation and implementation on the physical model. Closed loop simulations conducted at high angle of attack verified the vehicle's predicted maneuverability in the vertical plane. Ultimately we determined the vehicle's input structure limited the achievable performance of a classical linear controller.
  • Article
    Surviving in ocean worlds: experimental characterization of fiber optic tethers across Europa-like ice faults and unraveling the sliding behavior of ice
    (IOP Publishing, 2023-01-09) Singh, Vishaal ; McCarthy, Christine ; Silvia, Matthew ; Jakuba, Michael V. ; Craft, Kathleen L. ; Rhoden, Alyssa R. ; German, Chris ; Koczynski, Theodore A.
    As an initial step toward in situ exploration of the interiors of Ocean Worlds to search for life using cryobot architectures, we test how various communication tethers behave under potential Europa-like stress conditions. By freezing two types of pretensioned insulated fiber optic cables inside ice blocks, we simulate tethers being refrozen in a probe’s wake as it traverses through an Ocean World’s ice shell. Using a cryogenic biaxial apparatus, we simulate shear motion on preexisting faults at various velocities and temperatures. These shear tests are used to evaluate the mechanical behavior of ice, characterize the behavior of communication tethers, and explore their limitations for deployment by a melt probe. We determine (a) the maximum shear stress tethers can sustain from an ice fault, prior to failure (viable/unviable regimes for deployment), and (b) optical tether performance for communications. We find that these tethers are fairly robust across a range of temperature and velocity conditions expected on Europa ( T = 95–260 K, velocity = 5 × 10 −7 m s −1 to 3 × 10 −4 m s −1 ). However, damage to the outer jackets of the tethers and stretching of inner fibers at the coldest temperatures tested both indicate a need for further tether prototype development. Overall, these studies constrain the behavior of optical tethers for use at Ocean Worlds, improve the ability to probe thermomechanical properties of dynamic ice shells likely to be encountered by landed missions, and guide future technology development for accessing the interiors of (potentially habitable ± inhabited) Ocean Worlds.