Levenson Richard

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  • Article
    Machine-learning-based evaluation of intratumoral heterogeneity and tumor-stroma interface for clinical guidance
    (Elsevier, 2021-09-21) Laurinavicius, Arvydas ; Rasmusson, Allan ; Plancoulaine, Benoit ; Shribak, Michael ; Levenson, Richard
    Assessment of intratumoral heterogeneity and tumor-host interaction within the tumor microenvironment is becoming increasingly important for innovative cancer therapy decisions because of the unique information it can generate about the state of the disease. However, its assessment and quantification are limited by ambiguous definitions of the tumor-host interface and by human cognitive capacity in current pathology practice. Advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence have opened the field of digital pathology to novel tissue image analytics and feature extraction for generation of high-capacity computational disease management models. A particular benefit is expected from machine-learning applications that can perform extraction and quantification of subvisual features of both intratumoral heterogeneity and tumor microenvironment aspects. These methods generate information about cancer cell subpopulation heterogeneity, potential tumor-host interactions, and tissue microarchitecture, derived from morphologically resolved content using both explicit and implicit features. Several studies have achieved promising diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive artificial intelligence models that often outperform current clinical and pathology criteria. However, further effort is needed for clinical adoption of such methods through development of standardizable high-capacity workflows and proper validation studies.
  • Article
    Real-time polarization microscopy of fibrillar collagen in histopathology
    (Nature Research, 2021-09-24) Keikhosravi, Adib ; Shribak, Michael ; Conklin, Matthew W. ; Liu, Yuming ; Li, Bin ; Loeffler, Agnes ; Levenson, Richard ; Eliceiri, Kevin
    Over the past two decades, fibrillar collagen reorganization parameters such as the amount of collagen deposition, fiber angle and alignment have been widely explored in numerous studies. These parameters are now widely accepted as stromal biomarkers and linked to disease progression and survival time in several cancer types. Despite all these advances, there has not been a significant effort to make it possible for clinicians to explore these biomarkers without adding steps to the clinical workflow or by requiring high-cost imaging systems. In this paper, we evaluate previously described polychromatic polarization microscope (PPM) to visualize collagen fibers with an optically generated color representation of fiber orientation and alignment when inspecting the sample by a regular microscope with minor modifications. This system does not require stained slides, but is compatible with histological stains such as H&E. Consequently, it can be easily accommodated as part of regular pathology review of tissue slides, while providing clinically useful insight into stromal composition.
  • Article
    Intranuclear birefringent inclusions in paraffin sections by polychromatic polarization microscopy
    (Nature Research, 2021-03-18) Vitkunaite, Aiste ; Laurinaviciene, Aida ; Plancoulaine, Benoit ; Rasmusson, Allan ; Levenson, Richard ; Shribak, Michael ; Laurinavicius, Arvydas
    Intranuclear birefringent inclusions (IBI) found in various cell types in paraffin-embedded tissue sections have long been considered to be a tissue processing artifact, although an association with biological processes has been suggested. We applied polychromatic polarization microscopy to image their spatial organization. Our study provides evidence that IBI are caused by liquid paraffin-macromolecular crystals formed during paraffin-embedding procedures within cells and potentially reflect an active transcriptional status.