Stanley Jenni A.
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ArticleOntogenetic variation in the hearing sensitivity of black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and the implications of anthropogenic sound on behavior and communication(Company of Biologists, 2020-05-27) Stanley, Jenni A. ; Caiger, Paul E. ; Phelan, Beth ; Shelledy, Katharine ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Van Parijs, Sofie M.Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) is an important fish species in both commercial and recreational fisheries of southern New England and the mid-Atlantic Bight. Due to the intense urbanization of these waters, this species is subject to a wide range of anthropogenic noise pollution. Concerns that C. striata are negatively affected by pile driving and construction noise predominate in areas earmarked for energy development. However, as yet, the hearing range of C. striata is unknown, making it hard to evaluate potential risks. This study is a first step in understanding the effects of anthropogenic noise on C. striata by determining the auditory bandwidth and thresholds of this species using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), creating pressure and acceleration audiograms. These physiological tests were conducted on wild-caught C. striata in three size/age categories. Results showed that juvenile C. striata significantly had the lowest thresholds, with hearing sensitivity decreasing in the larger size classes. Furthermore, Centropristis striata has fairly sensitive hearing relative to other related species. Preliminary investigations into the mechanisms of their hearing ability were undertaken with gross dissections and an opportunistic micro computed tomography image to address the auditory structures including otoliths and swimbladder morphology. Crucially, the hearing range of C. striata, and their most sensitive frequencies, directly overlap with high-amplitude anthropogenic noise pollution such as shipping and underwater construction.
ArticleAcoustic impacts of offshore wind energy on fishery resources an evolving source and varied effects across a wind farm's lifetime(Oceanography Society, 2020-12-16) Mooney, T. Aran ; Andersson, Mathias H. ; Stanley, Jenni A.Offshore wind farms are proliferating around the world, and their presence is expected to expand substantially within US waters. Wind farm lifetimes involve 40–50-year commitments, including site surveys, construction, operation, and eventual decommissioning. Because their areas often overlap with essential fisheries habitats, there is a need to understand, mitigate, and manage offshore wind farm impacts on fisheries and ecosystems. Activities during all phases of wind farm lifetimes produce underwater sound, a concern because high noise levels and/or persistent anthropogenic noise can impact marine life in many ways. Here, we review the current understanding of impacts of wind energy activities on fisheries resources, taking into account the varied noise conditions that occur from site survey to decommissioning. For certain portions of wind farm development, such as construction and operation, there is a small amount of available data that allows stakeholders to evaluate impacts for at least some taxa. Yet, we are data deficient for most species’ populations, life stages, and other phases as they relate to wind farm development. Thus, it is difficult to evaluate impacts with any certainty, underscoring the need for further studies to adequately address impacts of offshore wind farms on vulnerable and ecologically and economically important taxa.
ArticleSounding the call for a global library of underwater biological sounds(Frontiers Media, 2022-02-08) Parsons, Miles J. G. ; Lin, Tzu-Hao ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Erbe, Christine ; Juanes, Francis ; Lammers, Marc O. ; Li, Songhai ; Linke, Simon ; Looby, Audrey ; Nedelec, Sophie L. ; Van Opzeeland, Ilse ; Radford, Craig A. ; Rice, Aaron N. ; Sayigh, Laela S. ; Stanley, Jenni A. ; Urban, Edward ; Di Iorio, LuciaAquatic environments encompass the world’s most extensive habitats, rich with sounds produced by a diversity of animals. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is an increasingly accessible remote sensing technology that uses hydrophones to listen to the underwater world and represents an unprecedented, non-invasive method to monitor underwater environments. This information can assist in the delineation of biologically important areas via detection of sound-producing species or characterization of ecosystem type and condition, inferred from the acoustic properties of the local soundscape. At a time when worldwide biodiversity is in significant decline and underwater soundscapes are being altered as a result of anthropogenic impacts, there is a need to document, quantify, and understand biotic sound sources–potentially before they disappear. A significant step toward these goals is the development of a web-based, open-access platform that provides: (1) a reference library of known and unknown biological sound sources (by integrating and expanding existing libraries around the world); (2) a data repository portal for annotated and unannotated audio recordings of single sources and of soundscapes; (3) a training platform for artificial intelligence algorithms for signal detection and classification; and (4) a citizen science-based application for public users. Although individually, these resources are often met on regional and taxa-specific scales, many are not sustained and, collectively, an enduring global database with an integrated platform has not been realized. We discuss the benefits such a program can provide, previous calls for global data-sharing and reference libraries, and the challenges that need to be overcome to bring together bio- and ecoacousticians, bioinformaticians, propagation experts, web engineers, and signal processing specialists (e.g., artificial intelligence) with the necessary support and funding to build a sustainable and scalable platform that could address the needs of all contributors and stakeholders into the future.
ArticleA decade of monitoring Atlantic cod Gadus morhua spawning aggregations in Massachusetts Bay using passive acoustics(Inter Research, 2020-02-06) Caiger, Paul E. ; Dean, Micah J. ; DeAngelis, Annamaria I. ; Hatch, Leila ; Rice, Aaron N. ; Stanley, Jenni A. ; Tholke, Chris ; Zemeckis, Douglas R. ; Van Parijs, Sofie M.Atlantic cod Gadus morhua populations in the northeast USA have failed to recover since major declines in the 1970s and 1990s. To rebuild these stocks, managers need reliable information on spawning dynamics in order to design and implement control measures; discovering cost-effective and non-invasive monitoring techniques is also favorable. Atlantic cod form dense, site-fidelic spawning aggregations during which they vocalize, permitting acoustic detection of their presence at such times. The objective of this study was to detect spawning activity of Atlantic cod using multiple fixed-station passive acoustic recorders to sample across Massachusetts Bay during the winter spawning period. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to investigate spatio-temporal trends of cod vocalizing over 10 consecutive winter spawning seasons (2007-2016), the longest such timeline of any passive acoustic monitoring of a fish species. The vocal activity of Atlantic cod was associated with diel, lunar, and seasonal cycles, with a higher probability of occurrence at night, during the full moon, and near the end of November. Following 2009 and 2010, there was a general decline in acoustic activity. Furthermore, the northwest corner of Stellwagen Bank was identified as an important spawning location. This project demonstrated the utility of passive acoustic monitoring in determining the presence of an acoustically active fish species, and provides valuable data for informing the management of this commercially, culturally, and ecologically important species.