WHOI Technical Reports

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The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution publishes technical reports describing projects carried out by WHOI researchers. New reports are added as they become available.

Pre-1978 reports are scanned and added by request; contact the WHOAS project manager whoas@whoi.edu to have a Technical Report added.

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 1071
  • Technical Report
    Submesoscale Ocean Dynamics Experiment (S-MODE) Data Submission Report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-04) Westbrook, Elizabeth ; Bingham, Frederick M. ; Brodnitz, Susannah ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Rodríguez, Ernesto ; Zappa, Christopher
    This document reviews the sampling details of the S-MODE (Submesoscale Ocean Dynamics Experiment), a NASA-funded, EVS-3 (Earth Venture Suborbital-3), oceanographic field program. It describes what measurements were collected, when and with what instruments and platforms. For each measurement platform it gives simple plots showing the basic dataset, and describes the sampling in detail. S-MODE in situ and aircraft data are available from the PO.DAAC (Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center) landing page, and individual datasets are also available at the DOIs listed in the “Data Availability” section of this report.
  • Technical Report
    A Higgs Universe and the flow of time
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-04) Lynch, James F.
    Theoretically considering velocities greater than c implies considering an observer’s past and extends the overall analysis into the complex plane. By using a series of rotations by i in the complex plane, one can create a four-lobed structure of “instants of time,” which together with considering matter and antimatter in the lobes and the +/- sense of the rotation, leads to a Higgs field representation of space and time. A 10x10 metric is developed for this system as well as a generalized spacetime interval. It is also shown that the Friedmann Equations are consistent with our “Higgs Cosmology” if generalized to a set of coupled equations that connect the forward and backward going solutions. Simple solutions for the forward and backward going universes are presented, and are shown to be consistent with the backward solution providing both inflation and a “cosmological constant” type of dark energy, Dark matter is also discussed and is hypothesized to be due to the mass of the four “Higgs sectors” as seen through the lens of relativity by an observer in our universe. A PowerPoint presentation on this work is presented at the end of the report as a supplement.
  • Technical Report
    Bight Fracture Zone Experiment: Moored Instrument Data Report, July 2015 - July 2017
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-04) Furey, Heather H. ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Bower, Amy S.
    This document describes the steps used for the initial processing of the Bight Fracture Zone mooring data, collected between July 2015 – July 2017. The data were collected using SBE MicroCATs and Nobska MAVS- 4 Acoustic Current Meters. The initial processing for both the MicroCAT and MAVS-4 consisted of removing data collected while out of water, replacing data outliers with NaNs, and correcting drifts in the data. In addition, the MAVS-4 data were transformed from instrument coordinates to earth coordinates and magnetic declination was correction was applied.
  • Technical Report
    2018 program of studies: sustainable fluid dynamics
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-02-09) Balmforth, Neil J. ; Caulfield, Colm-cille
    The 2018 GFD Program theme was Sustainable Fluid Dynamics with Professor Andrew Woods of the University of Cambridge serving as principal lecturer. Andy showed the audience in the cottage and on the porch how to find similarity solutions everywhere, from deep in the earth to high in the atmosphere. He expanded on his lectures with the fellows during “Andy time”, and stayed on throughout the summer to participate in the traditional debates on the porch with participants old and new. Andy also contributed enthusiastically to the supervision of the fellows, particularly when there was an opportunity to squirt food dye into an experiment.
  • Technical Report
    Oxygen isotopic analysis of two cores from the Vema Channel, southwestern Atlantic Ocean : an evaluation of the method and results
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1976-03) Peters, Christopher S.
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of oxygen isotopic analysis in establishing a late Pleistocene stratigraphy in two cores (CHN 115-88 and CHN 115-89) from the Verna Channel. Glacial and interglacial stages and stage boundaries in the two cores were identified, based on fluctuations in the 018 curves obtained by analysis of bulk foraminiferal assemblages. The position of the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary near the base of both cores provided an estimate of average accumulation rates of 0.94 cm/103 years in core 88, and 0.86 cm/103 years in core 89. The δ 018 curve for core 88 indicates a continuous stratigraphic record of glacial and interglacial stages as far back as stage 20; stages in core 89 are identifiable as far as stage 12. Stratigraphic interpretation within the top portion of the cores is somewhat uncertain, possibly due to disturbed or missing sediment. variability in accumulation rates down-core, and the possibility of missing coretop sediment, contribute to the uncertainty in stage designations. The degree of variability of accumulation rates within cores 88 and 89 may be estimated by assuming a constant sedimentation rate, and then comparing the "time scale" of the stage boundaries with that of Shackleton and Opdyke (1973). The results indicate that oxygen isotopic analysis of bulk foraminiferal assemblages can provide reliable interpretations in some instances where analysis of monospecific assemblages is not possible. Analysis of monospecific assemblages, however, will be required for more precise and reliable paleoclimatic interpretations.
  • Technical Report
    Seamounts near the eastern coast of North America
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1955-04) Zeigler, John M.
    The chain of seamonts known as the New England Seamonts was examined. Bathymetry from six cruises in this region was contoured and a discussion of errors provided. Remains of calcareous algae in rocks dredges from the tops of two of the seamounts indicate that the seamounts have subsided more than 4,000 feet. Isostatic adjustment of a small seamount does not explain the subsidence, therefore it is suggested that much of this subsidence might be attributed to squeezing-out of plastic sediment from beneath the base of the seamounts or possibly that the sedimentary apron from the continent has spread seaward and caused the continental slope to become depressed.
  • Technical Report
    Marine mammals of the Pacific with particular reference to the production of underwater sound
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1949-07) Fish, Marie Poland
    The present report is concerned with one of the oceanic biology subjects designated by the Navy for investigation. In compliance with the assignment the objective has been (1) to assemble, analyze and where possible correlate with environmental factors, available information from Pacific waters, and (2) upon completion of this work to prepare recommendations for further field research designed to fulfill Navy requirements. A proposed program will be presented in a separate report. Considerable interference encountered by underwater acoustic gear is now known to be of biological origin. In coastal areas, especially along coral and rocky shores, much background noise can be attributed to fish (Fish, 1948) and invertebrates (Johnson et al., 1947). But beyond the influence of land there are certain characteristic sounds which have repeatedly been associated with marine mammals. Numerous visual observations of whales and porpoises coincident with the reception of such sounds have been made, and the charting of Submarine Patrol records (Charts VII to X, pages 56 to 59) reveals that all similar unidentified contacts have occurred within the known seasonal and geographical range of common marine mammals.
  • Technical Report
    The Northwest Tropical Atlantic Station (NTAS): NTAS-21 Mooring Turnaround Cruise Report Cruise On Board RV Ronald H. Brown JOctober 6-25, 2022 Bridgetown, Barbados – Bridgetown, Barbados
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2022-12) Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Graham, Raymond ; Lankhorst, Matthias
    The Northwest Tropical Atlantic Station (NTAS) was established to address the need for accurate air-sea flux estimates and upper ocean measurements in a region with strong sea surface temperature anomalies and the likelihood of significant local air–sea interaction on interannual to decadal timescales. The approach is to maintain a surface mooring outfitted for meteorological and oceanographic measurements at a site near 15°N, 51°W by successive mooring turnarounds. These observations are used to investigate air–sea interaction processes related to climate variability. The NTAS Ocean Reference Station (ORS NTAS) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing (GOMO) Program (formerly Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division). This report documents recovery of the NTAS-20, the final mooring of the NTAS time-series. The NTAS moorings use Surlyn foam buoys as the surface element. These buoys were outfitted with two Air–Sea Interaction Meteorology (ASIMET) systems. Each system measures, records, and transmits via satellite the surface meteorological variables necessary to compute air–sea fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum. The upper 160 m of the mooring line were outfitted with oceanographic sensors for the measurement of temperature, salinity, and velocity. The mooring recovery was done by the Upper Ocean Processes Group of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Drew Cole, onboard R/V Ronald H. Brown, Cruise RB-22-04. The cruise took place between October 6 and 25 2022. Other operations during the cruise consisted of the intercomparison between ship and NTAS buoy measurements, turnaround of Meridional Overturning Variability Experiment (MOVE) subsurface mooring array, CTD casts, and four Argo floats deployments. MOVE is designed to monitor the integrated deep meridional flow in the tropical North Atlantic. This report describes these operations.
  • Technical Report
    Acoustic properties of mud bottoms
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1944-12-06) Woollard, George Prior
    In Reference A and Reference B, it has been pointed out that the acoustic properties of bottoms classified as MUD on the present Bottom Sediment Charts appear to vary greatly. The present memorandum is divided into two parts . Part I summarizes the acoustic information obtained over MUD bottoms that is in the files of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Part II discusses the factors that apparently control the acoustic behavior of MUD bottoms and considers the probability or predicting successfully the acoustic behavior of any mud from a study of these related factors.
  • Technical Report
    The Northwest Tropical Atlantic Station (NTAS): NTAS-20 Mooring Turnaround Cruise Report Cruise On Board RV Pisces November 4-28, 2021 Newport, RI - Pascagoula, MS
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-11) Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Graham, Raymond
    The Northwest Tropical Atlantic Station (NTAS) was established to address the need for accurate air-sea flux estimates and upper ocean measurements in a region with strong sea surface temperature anomalies and the likelihood of significant local air–sea interaction on interannual to decadal timescales. The approach is to maintain a surface mooring outfitted for meteorological and oceanographic measurements at a site near 15°N, 51°W by successive mooring turnarounds. These observations are used to investigate air–sea interaction processes related to climate variability. The NTAS Ocean Reference Station (ORS NTAS) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing (GOMO) Program (formerly Ocean Observing and Monitoring Division). This report documents recovery of the NTAS-19 mooring and deployment of the NTAS-20 mooring at the same site. Both moorings used Surlyn foam buoys as the surface element. These buoys were outfitted with two Air–Sea Interaction Meteorology (ASIMET) systems. Each system measures, records, and transmits via satellite the surface meteorological variables necessary to compute air–sea fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum. The upper 160 m of the mooring line were outfitted with oceanographic sensors for the measurement of temperature, salinity and velocity. The mooring turnaround was done by the Upper Ocean Processes Group of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), onboard R/V Pisces, Cruise PC-21-07. The cruise took place from November 4 to 28, 2021. The NTAS-20 mooring was deployed on November 12, and the NTAS-19 mooring was recovered on November 13. Limited inter-comparison between ship and buoys were performed on this cruise. This report describes these operations and the pre-cruise buoy preparations. Other operations during PC-21-07 consisted of one CTD cast near the Meridional Overturning Variability Experiment (MOVE) subsurface mooring array MOVE 1-14. MOVE is designed to monitor the integrated deep meridional flow in the tropical North Atlantic.
  • Technical Report
    Two types of lenses for deep underwater photography
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1942) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    In underwater photography, the object is immersed in water while the image is usually formed in air. The most obvious, straightforward way to form an image under these circumstances with a conventional type of lens is to use a plane parallel slab of glass as a window in front of the lens to separate the water from the air space. For most types of camera lenses, this is a perfectly adequate solution; But if one looks at the problem carefully, it is evident that such a system introduces a chromatic aberration referred to as lateral color. The source of this aberration is illustrated in Fig. 1. The dispersion at the glass to air interface overcompensates for the dispersion at the water to glass interface. As a result, the direction of a ray entering the camera lens for any given ray incident on the window varies with the wavelength of light.
  • Technical Report
    Summary of bathythermograph observations from the western North Atlantic : October 1940 - December 1941
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1942-11-05) Iselin, Columbus O'Donnell
    The range of submarine detection is frequently limited by the refraction produced by vertical temperature gradients in the superficial layers of the ocean. In order to measure these temperature gradients and thus to permit predictions of the range, the bathythermograph was developed and is now being used on a considerable number of anti-submarine vessels, while a somewhat modified version of the instrument is being tried out on submarines. Some 6675 bathythermograph observations from the western North Atlantic have been examined in order to determine how frequently such observations should be made so that within practical limits and anti-submarine vessel may at all times know the assured range of its sound gear. The occurrence of the four basic types of refraction patterns is shown by a series of six charts. For all but one of these patterns the range can be rather quickly and easily estimated from simple tables; but when the so-called afternoon effect is encountered, which is on the average about 20% of the time, a more complete analysis is necessary. It is found that under the most unfavorable circumstances, that is, in mid-summer and near the edges of a strong current system, there is about one chance in three that the refraction pattern will chance significantly in a distance of four miles. At other times of year and in areas where horizontal variations in temperature are less pronounced a single bathythermograph observation can be considered representative of a much larger area. It is also shown that in the western North Atlantic about 92% of the time in summer and about 34% of the time in winter the assured range of submarine detection is limited by refraction to less than 2500 yards.
  • Technical Report
    Preliminary report on the prediction of "Afternoon Effect"
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1942-07-25) Iselin, Columbus O'Donnell ; Woodcock, Alfred H. 
    With moderate or light winds and a clear sky the diurnal heating which occurs near the sea surface can cause a serious reduction in the range of submarine detection, especially on shallow targets. This has usually been called the “afternoon effect", although as will be noticed below the ranges often remain short long after sun down. The heating of surface waters which causes such sharp downward refraction can of course be noted on a bathythermograph record, provided pen vibration does not confuse the upper part of the trace. Unfortunately it is the upper 20 or 30 feet of a bathythermograph curve which in the case of ships moving faster than 12 knots is often somewhat difficult to read with sufficient certainty. Moreover, in planning a days operations it is clearly desirable to know in advance how much reduction in range may be expected from diurnal warming.
  • Technical Report
    Performance of bathythermograph with hand winch
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1942-05-05) Vine, Allyn Collin ; Ewing, W. Maurice
    On May l, 1942 a series of towing tests were made off New London to determine how satisfactory a small hand operated winch would be. The boat was an 83 ft. Coast Guard patrol boat with the end of the boom about 3 feet outboard and 15 feet forward of the stern. Towing tests were made at 8, 12, and 18 knots. At 18 knots two methods were tried: A. Those where the BT was dropped from the end of the boom in the usual manner. B. Those where the BT was dropped from the bow of the boat. This method gave a considerably greater depth of water for the same amount of wire out than the former method. In a longer boat where the BT can be carried 100 to 150 ft. ahead of the boom this additional depth may amount to 100 feet.
  • Technical Report
    Instructions for installing pressure-temperature recorder
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1942-01-21) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Instructions for installing pressure-temperature recorder including location of parts on the submarine and the general description of the apparatus. The instrument is composed of two main elements: a) the pressure-sensitive element; and b) the temperature-sensitive element.
  • Technical Report
    A slide rule for computing supersonic ray diagrams from bathythermograph data
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1941-11-05) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    This report, and the accompanying slide rule were prepared by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the National Defense Research Committee.
  • Technical Report
    Oceanographic observations from the Semmes : Jan. 14-Feb. 14, 1941
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1941-04-24) Iselin, Columbus O'Donnell
    Oceanographic Observations from the SEMMES Jan. 14-Feb. 14, 1941 On a recent cruise through the West Indies a program of oceanographic observations was carried out on board the experimental sound ship, the U.S.S. SEMMES, in conjunction with the submarine, TRITON. This work which began on January 14 at New London, Conn. and ended on February 14 at Key West, Fla. included a week of operations with the East Coast Sound School out of Key West. The bathythermograph, an instrument for measuring the sea water temperature continuously from the surface down to 75 fathoms, was used for oceanographic observations.
  • Technical Report
    Examples and outline of certain modifications in isentropic analysis
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1941-01-31) Montgomery, Raymond B. ; Spilhaus, Athelstan Fred
    Isentropic analysis in this country originated with a particular purpose in view, namely as a means of using moisture distribution to determine flow patterns in the atmosphere It revealed, very successfully, certain theoretically anticipated patterns. Subsequently it has come into general use in connection with upper-air analysis but for the most part its application is dominated by the original particular purpose. A rather different approach is to use isentropic analysis in a more purely descriptive fashion as the principal tool for upper-air analysis. This demands that an isentropic chart represent synoptically as much useful information as possible and that all phases of its preparation receive due care.
  • Technical Report
    Overturning of the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP): RAFOS Float Data Report June 2014 - January 2019
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-12) Ramsey, Andree L. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) is an international effort started in 2014 dedicated to achieving a better understanding of the link between dense-water formation and the meridional overturning circulation in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Moorings, gliders, and subsurface acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats have been used to collect temperature, salinity, and current data across the Labrador Sea, Irminger Sea, Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland Basin, Rockall-Hatton Plateau, and Rockall Trough. The specific objective of the OSNAP float program is to gather information on the pathways of the dense overflow waters transported by the deep limb of the overturning circulation and assess the connection of those pathways with currents observed crossing the OSNAP mooring line. This data report details the observations collected by 148 floats that were deployed for OSNAP during the summers of 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Deployment locations were in the Iceland Basin, Irminger Sea, and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mission lengths ranged from 540-730 days, and the floats were ballasted to passively drift at a fixed pressure of either 1800, 2000, 2200, 2500, or 2800 dbar to tag the deep overflow water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland-Scotland and Denmark Strait Overflow Waters).
  • Technical Report
    Acoustic release systems
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1968-07) Heinmiller, Robert H.
    In the fall of 1967 an extended program of tests was begun to evaluate several types of acoustic anchor release devices available on the market. This program was.prompted by a.need to isolate and correct problems which came to light after, several years of use of the O.R.E. system. Two other systems, one made by Raytheon and the other by American Machine and Foundry Co., were tested. This report deals with previous use of O.R.E.'s system by the W.H.O.I. Buoy Project and the testing program in 1968 and with the Raytheon and A.M.F. test series. Detailed description of these systems and their operation will not be undertaken in this report. Reference is made to data published by the respective manufacturers.