Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry (MC&G)

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Research in MC&G ranges from the glacial history of the Antarctic ice sheet and the formation of surface films in the upper micron of the ocean to the cycling of carbon through various ocean reservoirs, the history of ocean circulation recorded in the growth bands of coral, and the role of hydrothermal vents and seawater-rock interactions on the composition of the oceans.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 1584
  • Article
    Sex as a biological variable in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
    (Annual Reviews, 2023-04-27) Allen, Josephine B. ; Ludtka, Christopher ; James, Bryan D.
    Although sex differences have been noted in cellular function and behavior, therapy efficacy, and disease incidence and outcomes, the adoption of sex as a biological variable in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine remains limited. Furthering the development of personalized, precision medicine requires considering biological sex at the bench and in the clinic. This review provides the basis for considering biological sex when designing tissue-engineered constructs and regenerative therapies by contextualizing sex as a biological variable within the tissue engineering triad of cells, matrices, and signals. To achieve equity in biological sex within medicine requires a cultural shift in science and engineering research, with active engagement by researchers, clinicians, companies, policymakers, and funding agencies.
  • Article
    Continental and glacial runoff fingerprints in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the Inuit Nunangat Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-04-25) Rogalla, Birgit ; Allen, Susan E. ; Colombo, Manuel ; Myers, Paul G. ; Orians, Kristin J.
    Rising temperatures and an acceleration of the hydrological cycle due to climate change are increasing river discharge, causing permafrost thaw, glacial melt, and a shift to a groundwater‐dominated system in the Arctic. These changes are funneled to coastal regions of the Arctic Ocean where the implications for the distributions of nutrients and biogeochemical constituents are unclear. In this study, we investigate the impact of terrestrial runoff on marine biogeochemistry in Inuit Nunangat (the Canadian Arctic Archipelago)—a key pathway for transport and modification of waters from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic—using sensitivity experiments from 2002 to 2020 with an ocean model of manganese (Mn). The micronutrient Mn traces terrestrial runoff and the modification of geochemical constituents of runoff during transit. The heterogeneity in Arctic runoff composition creates distinct terrestrial fingerprints of influence in the ocean: continental runoff influences Mn in the southwestern Archipelago, glacial runoff dominates the northeast, and their influence co‐occurs in central Parry Channel. Glacial runoff carries micronutrients southward from Nares Strait in the late summer and may help support longer phytoplankton blooms in the Pikialasorsuaq polynya. Enhanced glacial runoff may increase micronutrients delivered downstream to Baffin Bay, accounting for up to 18% of dissolved Mn fluxes seasonally and 6% annually. These findings highlight how climate induced changes to terrestrial runoff may impact the geochemical composition of the marine environment, and will help to predict the extent of these impacts from ongoing alterations of the Arctic hydrological cycle.Plain Language SummaryIn the Arctic, climate change is expected to increase river flow and alter the composition of river water through permafrost thaw and glacial melt. Many rivers and land areas drain to the coastal Arctic Ocean; the impact of changes to the nutrients carried by river water to these regions are unclear. In this study, we focus on Inuit Nunangat (the Canadian Arctic Archipelago)—a series of shallow channels that connects the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic—and look at where in the ocean the material in the river water ends up and how much of the material travels downstream. We use experiments with an ocean model from 2002 to 2020 and track an element found in river water: manganese (Mn), which is also an important nutrient in the ocean. While continental rivers mainly influence Mn in the southwestern Archipelago, glaciers influence the northeastern Archipelago and supply nutrients to Pikialasorsuaq, one of the Arctic's most biologically active areas. Glaciers can contribute up to 18% to Mn transported downstream of Nares Strait seasonally and 6% yearly. Our findings highlight how climate related changes in the composition of river water impact the marine system of Inuit Nunangat and how these changes can funnel downstream.Key PointsThe heterogeneity in Arctic drainage basins creates a north‐south separation in Mn contributions to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago oceanGlacial runoff from Nares Strait supplies micronutrients such as Mn to the Pikialasorsuaq or North Water polynyaChanges in glacial runoff composition in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and northwestern Greenland are conveyed downstream into Baffin Bay
  • Article
    Global surface ocean acidification indicators from 1750 to 2100
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-03-23) Jiang, Li-Qing ; Dunne, John ; Carter, Brendan R. ; Tjiputra, Jerry F. ; Terhaar, Jens ; Sharp, Jonathan D. ; Olsen, Are ; Alin, Simone ; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre ; Hogan, Patrick ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Lange, Nico ; Lauvset, Siv K. ; Lewis, Ernie R. ; Lovato, Tomas ; Palmieri, Julien ; Santana-Falcon, Yeray ; Schwinger, Joerg ; Seferian, Roland ; Strand, Gary ; Swart, Neil ; Tanhua, Toste ; Tsujino, Hiroyuki ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watanabe, Michio ; Yamamoto, Akitomo ; Ziehn, Tilo
    Accurately predicting future ocean acidification (OA) conditions is crucial for advancing OA research at regional and global scales, and guiding society's mitigation and adaptation efforts. This study presents a new model-data fusion product covering 10 global surface OA indicators based on 14 Earth System Models (ESMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), along with three recent observational ocean carbon data products. The indicators include fugacity of carbon dioxide, pH on total scale, total hydrogen ion content, free hydrogen ion content, carbonate ion content, aragonite saturation state, calcite saturation state, Revelle Factor, total dissolved inorganic carbon content, and total alkalinity content. The evolution of these OA indicators is presented on a global surface ocean 1° × 1° grid as decadal averages every 10 years from preindustrial conditions (1750), through historical conditions (1850–2010), and to five future Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (2020–2100): SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5. These OA trajectories represent an improvement over previous OA data products with respect to data quantity, spatial and temporal coverage, diversity of the underlying data and model simulations, and the provided SSPs. The generated data product offers a state-of-the-art research and management tool for the 21st century under the combined stressors of global climate change and ocean acidification. The gridded data product is available in NetCDF at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information:, and global maps of these indicators are available in jpeg at:
  • Article
    Diffusion-Ordered spectroscopy for rapid and facile determination of consumer plastic molecular weight
    (American Chemical Society, 2023-05-25) Nelson, Taylor F. ; Ward, Collin P.
    Molecular weight (MW) is a key control of plastic polymer properties and their fate in the environment. However, the primary tool used to determine plastic MW, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), has major limitations, such as low precision and accuracy, requirements for dedicated instrumentation, production of high volumes of hazardous waste, and large sample sizes. In this study, we describe, validate, and apply a diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) method for polymer MW determinations, with a focus on applications for consumer plastics. Several experimental conditions were systematically optimized and tested to validate the DOSY method, including the selection of pulse sequences, the effect of sample concentration, cross-validation with multiple sets of external standards, and long-term instrumental stability. Validation was performed for a wide range of polymers, solvents, and temperatures, highlighting its potential for broad applicability. A preliminary screening of polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate consumer products revealed widely varying MWs (up to two-fold) for products made of the same polymer type. A preliminary experiment was also conducted to track the decrease in polystyrene MW via photochemical chain scission reactions, finding a 20% reduction in MW after less than 1 week of irradiation. Collectively, our results demonstrate the potential for DOSY to provide high-throughput, accurate, and precise measures of polymer MW, as well as the evolution of polymer MW during environmental weathering processes, such as photochemical degradation. We conclude with a discussion of (i) the many advantages of DOSY compared to GPC, (ii) future developments to enhance the depth of information obtained from DOSY, and (iii) approaches to broaden the accessibility of this promising analytical method to the research community.
  • Article
    Global patterns of radiocarbon depletion in subsoil linked to rock-derived organic carbon
    (European Association of Geochemistry, 2023-04-19) Grant, Katherine E. ; Hilton, Robert G. ; Galy, Valier V.
    Organic matter stored in sedimentary rocks is one of the largest stocks of carbon at Earth’s surface. The fate of this rock organic carbon (OCpetro) during weathering in soils influences the geological carbon cycle, and impacts soil radiocarbon content that is used to quantify soil carbon turnover. Here, we assess the potential contribution of OCpetro to soils, using a mixing model generated by a global dataset of soil radiocarbon measurements (14C). Soils developed on sedimentary rocks (rather than on igneous substrate) have a paired OC content and 14C values consistent with OCpetro input, giving rise to apparent increase in soil residence time. We call for renewed assessment of OCpetro input to soils, in terms of its impact on soil radiocarbon inventories, and its potential to release carbon dioxide.
  • Article
    Stony coral tissue loss disease induces transcriptional signatures of in situ degradation of dysfunctional Symbiodiniaceae
    (Nature Research, 2023-05-22) Beavers, Kelsey M. ; Van Buren, Emily W. ; Rossin, Ashley M. ; Emery, Madison A. ; Veglia, Alex J. ; Karrick, Carly E. ; MacKnight, Nicholas J. ; Dimos, Bradford A. ; Meiling, Sonora S. ; Smith, Tyler B. ; Apprill, Amy ; Muller, Erinn M. ; Holstein, Daniel M. ; Correa, Adrienne M. S. ; Brandt, Marilyn E. ; Mydlarz, Laura D.
    Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD), one of the most pervasive and virulent coral diseases on record, affects over 22 species of reef-building coral and is decimating reefs throughout the Caribbean. To understand how different coral species and their algal symbionts (family Symbiodiniaceae) respond to this disease, we examine the gene expression profiles of colonies of five species of coral from a SCTLD transmission experiment. The included species vary in their purported susceptibilities to SCTLD, and we use this to inform gene expression analyses of both the coral animal and their Symbiodiniaceae. We identify orthologous coral genes exhibiting lineage-specific differences in expression that correlate to disease susceptibility, as well as genes that are differentially expressed in all coral species in response to SCTLD infection. We find that SCTLD infection induces increased expression of rab7, an established marker of in situ degradation of dysfunctional Symbiodiniaceae, in all coral species accompanied by genus-level shifts in Symbiodiniaceae photosystem and metabolism gene expression. Overall, our results indicate that SCTLD infection induces symbiophagy across coral species and that the severity of disease is influenced by Symbiodiniaceae identity.
  • Article
    Sulfur cycling connects microbiomes and biogeochemistry in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes
    (Springer Nature, 2023-05-13) Zhou, Zhichao ; Tran, Patricia Q. ; Adams, Alyssa M. ; Kieft, Kristopher ; Breier, John A. ; Fortunato, Caroline S. ; Sheik, Cody S. ; Huber, Julie A. ; Li, Meng ; Dick, Gregory J. ; Anantharaman, Karthik
    In globally distributed deep-sea hydrothermal vent plumes, microbiomes are shaped by the redox energy landscapes created by reduced hydrothermal vent fluids mixing with oxidized seawater. Plumes can disperse over thousands of kilometers and their characteristics are determined by geochemical sources from vents, e.g., hydrothermal inputs, nutrients, and trace metals. However, the impacts of plume biogeochemistry on the oceans are poorly constrained due to a lack of integrated understanding of microbiomes, population genetics, and geochemistry. Here, we use microbial genomes to understand links between biogeography, evolution, and metabolic connectivity, and elucidate their impacts on biogeochemical cycling in the deep sea. Using data from 36 diverse plume samples from seven ocean basins, we show that sulfur metabolism defines the core microbiome of plumes and drives metabolic connectivity in the microbial community. Sulfur-dominated geochemistry influences energy landscapes and promotes microbial growth, while other energy sources influence local energy landscapes. We further demonstrated the consistency of links among geochemistry, function, and taxonomy. Amongst all microbial metabolisms, sulfur transformations had the highest MW-score, a measure of metabolic connectivity in microbial communities. Additionally, plume microbial populations have low diversity, short migration history, and gene-specific sweep patterns after migrating from background seawater. Selected functions include nutrient uptake, aerobic oxidation, sulfur oxidation for higher energy yields, and stress responses for adaptation. Our findings provide the ecological and evolutionary bases of change in sulfur-driven microbial communities and their population genetics in adaptation to changing geochemical gradients in the oceans.
  • Article
    Influence of amino acids on bacterioplankton production, biomass and community composition at Ocean Station Papa in the subarctic Pacific
    (University of California Press, 2023-05-02) Stephens, Brandon M. ; Fox, James ; Liu, Shuting ; Halsey, Kimberly H. ; Nicholson, David P. ; Traylor, Shawnee ; Carlson, Craig A.
    Bacterioplankton play a central role in carbon cycling, yet their relative contributions to carbon production and removal can be difficult to constrain. As part of the Export Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EXPORTS) program, this study identifies potential influences of bacterioplankton community and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition on carbon cycling at Ocean Station Papa in August 2018. Surface (5–35 m) bacterioplankton production rates and stocks spanned a 2- to 3-fold range over the 3-week cruise and correlated positively with the DOM degradation state, estimated using the mole proportion of total dissolved amino acids. When the DOM was more degraded, 16S rRNA gene amplicon data revealed a less diverse bacterioplankton community with a significant contribution from members of the Flavobacteriaceae family. Over the course of 7–10 d, as the DOM quality improved (became less degraded) and bacterioplankton productivity increased, the responding bacterioplankton community became more diverse, with increased relative contributions from members of the SAR86, SAR11 and AEGEAN-169 clades. The cruise mean for mixed layer, depth-integrated bacterioplankton carbon demand (gross bacterioplankton production) was 5.2 mmol C m−2 d−1, representing 60% of net primary production, where the difference between net primary production and bacterioplankton carbon demand was less than sinking flux at 50 m. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (cruise average of 58.5 µM C) did not exhibit a systematic change over the cruise period. Therefore, we hypothesize that carbon supplied from gross carbon production, values that were 2- to 3-fold greater than net primary production, provided the carbon necessary to account for the sinking flux and bacterioplankton carbon demand that were in excess of net primary production. These findings highlight the central contributions of bacterioplankton to carbon cycling at Ocean Station Papa, a site of high carbon recycling.
  • Article
    Geography, not lifestyle, explains the population structure of free-living and host-associated deep-sea hydrothermal vent snail symbionts
    (BioMed Central, 2023-05-16) Hauer, Michelle A. ; Breusing, Corinna ; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth ; Huber, Julie A. ; Beinart, Roxanne A.
    Marine symbioses are predominantly established through horizontal acquisition of microbial symbionts from the environment. However, genetic and functional comparisons of free-living populations of symbionts to their host-associated counterparts are sparse. Here, we assembled the first genomes of the chemoautotrophic gammaproteobacterial symbionts affiliated with the deep-sea snail Alviniconcha hessleri from two separate hydrothermal vent fields of the Mariana Back-Arc Basin. We used phylogenomic and population genomic methods to assess sequence and gene content variation between free-living and host-associated symbionts.Our phylogenomic analyses show that the free-living and host-associated symbionts of A. hessleri from both vent fields are populations of monophyletic strains from a single species. Furthermore, genetic structure and gene content analyses indicate that these symbiont populations are differentiated by vent field rather than by lifestyle.Together, this work suggests that, despite the potential influence of host-mediated acquisition and release processes on horizontally transmitted symbionts, geographic isolation and/or adaptation to local habitat conditions are important determinants of symbiont population structure and intra-host composition. Video Abstract.
  • Article
    Constraints on the timing and extent of deglacial grounding line retreat in West Antarctica
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-04-26) Venturelli, Ryan A. ; Boehman, Brenna ; Davis, Christina ; Hawkings, Jon R. ; Johnston, Sarah E. ; Gustafson, Chloe D. ; Michaud, Alexander B. ; Mosbeux, Cyrille ; Siegfried, Matthew R. ; Vick‐Majors, Trista J. ; Galy, Valier ; Spencer, Robert G. M. ; Warny, Sophie ; Christner, Brent C. ; Fricker, Helen A. ; Harwood, David M. ; Leventer, Amy ; Priscu, John C. ; Rosenheim, Brad E.
    Projections of Antarctica's contribution to future sea level rise are associated with significant uncertainty, in part because the observational record is too short to capture long‐term processes necessary to estimate ice mass changes over societally relevant timescales. Records of grounding line retreat from the geologic past offer an opportunity to extend our observations of these processes beyond the modern record and to gain a more comprehensive understanding of ice‐sheet change. Here, we present constraints on the timing and inland extent of deglacial grounding line retreat in the southern Ross Sea, Antarctica, obtained via direct sampling of a subglacial lake located 150 km inland from the modern grounding line and beneath >1 km of ice. Isotopic measurements of water and sediment from the lake enabled us to evaluate how the subglacial microbial community accessed radiocarbon‐bearing organic carbon for energy, as well as where it transferred carbon metabolically. Using radiocarbon as a natural tracer, we found that sedimentary organic carbon was microbially translocated to dissolved carbon pools in the subglacial hydrologic system during the 4.5‐year period of water accumulation prior to our sampling. This finding indicates that the grounding line along the Siple Coast of West Antarctica retreated more than 250 km inland during the mid‐Holocene (6.3 ± 1.0 ka), prior to re‐advancing to its modern position.
  • Article
    Chitin utilization by marine picocyanobacteria and the evolution of a planktonic lifestyle
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2023-05-16) Capovilla, Giovanna ; Braakman, Rogier ; Fournier, Gregory P. ; Hackl, Thomas ; Schwartzman, Julia ; Lu, Xinda ; Yelton, Alexis ; Longnecker, Krista ; Soule, Melissa C. Kido ; Thomas, Elaina ; Swarr, Gretchen ; Mongera, Alessandro ; Payette, Jack G. ; Castro, Kurt G. ; Waldbauer, Jacob R. ; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B. ; Cordero, Otto X. ; Chisholm, Sallie W.
    Marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, the most abundant photosynthetic cells in the oceans, are generally thought to have a primarily single-celled and free-living lifestyle. However, while studying the ability of picocyanobacteria to supplement photosynthetic carbon fixation with the use of exogenous organic carbon, we found the widespread occurrence of genes for breaking down chitin, an abundant source of organic carbon that exists primarily as particles. We show that cells that encode a chitin degradation pathway display chitin degradation activity, attach to chitin particles, and show enhanced growth under low light conditions when exposed to chitosan, a partially deacetylated soluble form of chitin. Marine chitin is largely derived from arthropods, which underwent major diversifications 520 to 535 Mya, close to when marine picocyanobacteria are inferred to have appeared in the ocean. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that the chitin utilization trait was acquired at the root of marine picocyanobacteria. Together this leads us to postulate that attachment to chitin particles allowed benthic cyanobacteria to emulate their mat-based lifestyle in the water column, initiating their expansion into the open ocean, seeding the rise of modern marine ecosystems. Subsequently, transitioning to a constitutive planktonic life without chitin associations led to cellular and genomic streamlining along a major early branch within Prochlorococcus. Our work highlights how the emergence of associations between organisms from different trophic levels, and their coevolution, creates opportunities for colonizing new environments. In this view, the rise of ecological complexity and the expansion of the biosphere are deeply intertwined processes.
  • Article
    Ramicrusta invasive alga causes mortality in Caribbean coral larvae
    (Frontiers Media, 2023-04-18) Cayemitte, Kayla ; Aoki, Nadège ; Ferguson, Sophie R. ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Apprill, Amy
    The settlement of coral larvae is an important process which contributes to the success and longevity of coral reefs. Coral larvae often recruit to benthic structures covered with crustose coralline algae (CCA) which produce cues that promote settlement and metamorphosis. The Peysonneliaceae Ramicrusta spp. are red-brown encrusting alga that have recently become abundant on shallow Caribbean reefs, replacing CCA habitat, overgrowing corals and potentially threatening coral recruitment. In order to assess the threat of Ramicrusta to coral recruitment, we compared the survival and settlement of Porites astreoides and Favia fragum larvae to 0.5 – 2 mg ml -1 solutions of Ramicrusta sp. or CCA as well as sterile seawater (control). In all cases larval mortality was extremely high in the Ramicrusta treatments compared to the CCA and control treatments. We found 96% (± 8.9% standard deviation, SD) mortality of P. astreoides larvae when exposed to solutions of Ramicrusta and 0 - 4% (± 0 - 8.9% SD) mortality in the CCA treatments. We observed 100% F. fragum larval mortality when exposed to Ramicrusta and 5 – 10% (± 10 – 20% SD) mortality in the CCA treatments. Settlement or surface interaction of larvae in the CCA treatments was 40 - 68% (± 22 - 37% SD) for P. astreoides and 65 - 75% (± 10 - 19% SD) for F. fragum . Two P. astreoides larva that survived Ramicrusta exposure did settle/surface interact, suggesting that some larvae may be tolerant to Ramicrusta . These results suggest that Ramicrusta is a lethal threat to Caribbean coral recruitment.
  • Article
    A North Pacific meridional section (U.S. GEOTRACES GP15) of helium isotopes and noble gases I: deep water distributions
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-04-18) Jenkins, William J. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Seltzer, Alan M. ; German, Christopher R. ; Lott, Dempsey E. ; Cahill, Kevin L.
    The noble gas signature of incoming Pacific Bottom Water (PBW), when compared to North Atlantic Deep Water, indicates the addition of 450 ± 70 GT a−1 glacial melt water to form AABW and subsequently PBW. The downstream evolution of this signature between the southern (20°S to equator) and northern (25°–45°N) bottom waters indicates a decrease in sea level pressure around Antarctica over the past two millennia. Vertical profiles of noble gases in the deep Pacific show exponential relationships with depth with scale heights identical to temperature and salinity. Unlike the other noble gases, helium isotopes show evidence of mid‐depth injection of non‐atmospheric helium. Using observed deviations from exponential behavior, we quantify its magnitude and isotope ratio. There is a clear latitude trend in the isotope ratio of this added helium that decreases from a high exceeding 9 RA (atmospheric 3He/4He ratio) in the south to around 8 RA near the equator. North of 30–40°N, it systematically decreases northward to a low of ∼2 RA north of 50°N. This decline results from a combination of northward decline in seafloor spreading, release of radiogenic helium from increased sediment thickness, and the possible emission of radiogenic helium through cold seeps along the Alaskan and North American margins. Finally, we derive an improved method of computing the excess helium isotope concentrations and that the distributions of bottom water 3HeXS/4HeXS are consistent with what is known about bottom water flow patterns and the input of low 3He/4He sedimentary helium.
  • Article
    Surface bacterioplankton community structure crossing the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Fronts
    (MDPI, 2023-03-09) Cordone, Angelina ; Selci, Matteo ; Barosa, Bernardo ; Bastianoni, Alessia ; Bastoni, Deborah ; Bolinesi, Francesco ; Capuozzo, Rosaria ; Cascone, Martina ; Correggia, Monica ; Corso, Davide ; Di Iorio, Luciano ; Misic, Cristina ; Montemagno, Francesco ; Ricciardelli, Annarita ; Saggiomo, Maria ; Tonietti, Luca ; Mangoni, Olga ; Giovannelli, Donato
    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the major current in the Southern Ocean, isolating the warm stratified subtropical waters from the more homogeneous cold polar waters. The ACC flows from west to east around Antarctica and generates an overturning circulation by fostering deep-cold water upwelling and the formation of new water masses, thus affecting the Earth's heat balance and the global distribution of carbon. The ACC is characterized by several water mass boundaries or fronts, known as the Subtropical Front (STF), Subantarctic Front (SAF), Polar Front (PF), and South Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF), identified by typical physical and chemical properties. While the physical characteristics of these fronts have been characterized, there is still poor information regarding the microbial diversity of this area. Here we present the surface water bacterioplankton community structure based on 16S rRNA sequencing from 13 stations sampled in 2017 between New Zealand to the Ross Sea crossing the ACC Fronts. Our results show a distinct succession in the dominant bacterial phylotypes present in the different water masses and suggest a strong role of sea surface temperatures and the availability of Carbon and Nitrogen in controlling community composition. This work represents an important baseline for future studies on the response of Southern Ocean epipelagic microbial communities to climate change.
  • Article
    Ultrahigh-precision noble gas isotope analyses reveal pervasive subsurface fractionation in hydrothermal systems
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2023-03-16) Bekaert, David V. ; Barry, Peter H. ; Broadley, Michael W. ; Byrne, David J. ; Marty, Bernard ; Ramírez, Carlos J. ; de Moor, J Maarten ; Rodriguez, Alejandro ; Hudak, Michael R. ; Subhas, Adam V. ; Halldórsson, Saemundur A. ; Stefánsson, Andri ; Caracausi, Antonio ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Giovannelli, Donato ; Seltzer, Alan M.
    Mantle-derived noble gases in volcanic gases are powerful tracers of terrestrial volatile evolution, as they contain mixtures of both primordial (from Earth's accretion) and secondary (e.g., radiogenic) isotope signals that characterize the composition of deep Earth. However, volcanic gases emitted through subaerial hydrothermal systems also contain contributions from shallow reservoirs (groundwater, crust, atmosphere). Deconvolving deep and shallow source signals is critical for robust interpretations of mantle-derived signals. Here, we use a novel dynamic mass spectrometry technique to measure argon, krypton, and xenon isotopes in volcanic gas with ultrahigh precision. Data from Iceland, Germany, United States (Yellowstone, Salton Sea), Costa Rica, and Chile show that subsurface isotope fractionation within hydrothermal systems is a globally pervasive and previously unrecognized process causing substantial nonradiogenic Ar-Kr-Xe isotope variations. Quantitatively accounting for this process is vital for accurately interpreting mantle-derived volatile (e.g., noble gas and nitrogen) signals, with profound implications for our understanding of terrestrial volatile evolution.
  • Article
    Organic matter sulfurization and organic carbon burial in the Mesoproterozoic
    (Elsevier, 2023-03-08) Raven, Morgan Reed ; Crockford, Peter W. ; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S.W. ; Lyons, Timothy W. ; Tino, Christopher J. ; Webb, Samuel M.
    Throughout the Proterozoic Era, sedimentary organic carbon burial helped set the pace of global oxygenation and acted as a major modulator of atmospheric CO2 and climate. Although Proterozoic rocks generally contain low concentrations of organic matter (OM), there are key exceptions to this rule, including the relatively OM-rich Arctic Bay shales from Baffin Island, Canada (Bylot Supergroup, Borden Basin, ∼1.05 Ga). The mechanisms driving elevated OM concentrations in these and other Proterozoic shales remain poorly understood. In the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, organic matter sulfurization can be a major driver of enhanced OM burial across a range of redox conditions comparable to those inferred for many Proterozoic environments. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the role of sulfurization in driving OM preservation in the Mesoproterozoic Borden Basin and discuss its relevance to Proterozoic systems in general. We present the first evidence for syngenetic-to-early-diagenetic OM sulfurization in a Proterozoic basin, which begins to fill a several-billion-year gap in our record of organic S across Earth history. We find that OM sulfurization was particularly extensive in shales from a relatively shallow-water section (Alpha River) but less extensive in shales deposited in deeper water (Shale Valley), which is consistent with models that infer sulfidic ‘wedges’ or O2-minimum-zone-type structures on shelf margins at least intermittently at this time. At the shallower site, organic S and pyrite are similarly 34S-depleted and thus likely formed at roughly the same time near the sediment–water interface under conditions previously interpreted to have been ferruginous to intermittently sulfidic. In contrast, at the deeper-water site, large S-isotope differences between pyrite and organic S along with low apparent OM sulfurization intensities indicate that pyrite formation was favored over OM sulfurization during early sedimentation under variable but primarily ferruginous conditions. Although Mesoproterozoic biomass can be substantially sulfurized, indicators of sulfurization intensity are not correlated with OM concentrations, and therefore sulfurization does not appear to have been the primary driver of enhanced OM concentrations in Arctic Bay Formation shales. The link between sulfurization and total OM preservation may have been modulated during the deposition of Arctic Bay Formation shales by differences in iron availability, nutrient cycling, and particle dynamics in the Mesoproterozoic.
  • Article
    Enhanced monsoon-driven upwelling in Southeast Asia during the Little Ice Age
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-04-08) Chen, Mengli ; Martin, Patrick ; Ren, Haojia ; Zhang, Run ; Samanta, Dhrubajyoti ; Chen, Yi-Chi ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Phan, Kim Hoang ; Vo, Si Tuan ; Goodkin, Nathalie F.
    Climate change impacts ocean nutrient availability and will likely alter the marine food web. While climate models predict decreased average ocean productivity, the extent of these changes, especially in the marginal seas upon which large human populations depend, is not well understood. Here, we reconstructed changes in seawater phosphate concentration and nitrate source over the past 400 years, which reveals a more than 50% decline in residence time of seawater phosphate, and 8%?48% decline in subsurface nitrogen supply following the coldest period of Little Ice Age. Our data indicates a link between surface ocean nutrient supply and the East Asian Summer Monsoon strength in an economically important marginal sea. As climate models predict that the East Asian Summer monsoon will strengthen in the future, our study implies that surface ocean primary productivity may increase in the South China Sea, contrary to the predicted decrease in global average ocean productivity.
  • Article
    Optical insight into riverine influences on dissolved and particulate organic carbon in a coastal arctic lagoon system
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-04-04) Catipovic, Luka ; Longnecker, Krista ; Okkonen, Stephen R. ; Koestner, Daniel ; Laney, Samuel R.
    Arctic coastal margins receive organic material input from rivers, melted sea ice, and coastal erosion, phenomena that are all undergoing changes related to global climate. The optical properties of coastal Arctic waters contain information on this organic material, and we examined three optical properties of seawater (absorption, backscatter, and fluorescence) for their relationships to variability in dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) in Stefansson Sound, Alaska, a coastal Arctic embayment. During open water periods in 2018 and 2019, DOC was inversely correlated with salinity (r2 = 0.97) and positively correlated with dissolved organic matter fluorescence (fDOM; r2 = 0.67). DOC showed strong correlation with the nonparticulate absorption coefficient at 440 nm (ag(440)) only in 2018 (r2 = 0.95). The vertical structure of fDOM in Stefansson Sound aligned with density profiles more strongly in 2018 than in 2019, and higher levels of fDOM, ag(440), and backscatter seen near the bottom in 2019 suggest wind‐driven mixing and/or bottom resuspension events. In both years, DOC correlated strongly with the spectral slope of the absorption coefficient between 412 and 550 nm (r2 = 0.70), and POC was well correlated with spectral backscattering at 470, 532, and 660 nm (r2 = 0.90, 0.71, and 0.59). These interannual differences in the spatial and vertical distributions of DOC and POC, and their respective correlations with optical proxies, likely reflect regional climatological factors such as precipitation over the adjacent watersheds, wind patterns, and residual sea ice in late summer.
  • Article
    Technical comment on "Reexamination of 2.5-Ga 'whiff' of oxygen interval points to anoxic ocean before GOE"
    (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2023-03-03) Anbar, Ariel D. ; Buick, Roger ; Gordon, Gwyneth W. ; Johnson, Aleisha C. ; Kendall, Brian ; Lyons, Timothy W. ; Ostrander, Chadlin M. ; Planavsky, Noah J. ; Reinhard, Christopher T. ; Stüeken, Eva E.
    Many lines of inorganic geochemical evidence suggest transient "whiffs" of environmental oxygenation before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Slotznickassert that analyses of paleoredox proxies in the Mount McRae Shale, Western Australia, were misinterpreted and hence that environmental Olevels were persistently negligible before the GOE. We find these arguments logically flawed and factually incomplete.
  • Article
    Gas emissions and subsurface architecture of fault‐controlled geothermal systems: a case study of the North Abaya Geothermal Area
    (American Geophysical Union, 2023-03-30) Hutchison, William ; Ogilvie, Euan R. D. ; Birhane, Yafet G. ; Barry, Peter H. ; Fischer, Tobias P. ; Ballentine, Chris J. ; Hillegonds, Darren J. ; Biggs, Juliet ; Albino, Fabien ; Cervantes, Chelsea ; Guðbrandsson, Snorri
    East Africa hosts significant reserves of untapped geothermal energy. Exploration has focused on geologically young (<1 Ma) silicic calderas, yet there are many sites of geothermal potential where there is no clear link to an active volcano. The origin and architecture of these systems are poorly understood. Here, we combine remote sensing and field observations to investigate a fault‐controlled geothermal play located north of Lake Abaya in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Soil gas CO2 and temperature surveys were used to examine permeable pathways and showed elevated values along a ∼110 m high fault, which marks the western edge of the Abaya graben. Ground temperatures are particularly elevated where multiple intersecting faults form a wedged horst structure. This illustrates that both deep penetrating graben bounding faults and near‐surface fault intersections control the ascent of hydrothermal fluids and gases. Total CO2 emissions along the graben fault are ∼300 t d−1; a value comparable to the total CO2 emission from silicic caldera volcanoes. Fumarole gases show δ13C of −6.4‰ to −3.8‰ and air‐corrected 3He/4He values of 3.84–4.11 RA, indicating a magmatic source originating from an admixture of upper mantle and crustal helium. Although our model of the North Abaya geothermal system requires a deep intrusive heat source, we find no ground deformation evidence for volcanic unrest or recent volcanism along the graben fault. This represents a key advantage over the active silicic calderas that typically host these resources and suggests that fault‐controlled geothermal systems offer viable prospects for geothermal exploration.