Hurricane Sally (2020) shifts the ocean thermal structure across the inner core during rapid intensification over the shelf

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Dzwonkowski, Brian
Fournier, Séverine
Lockridge, Grant R.
Coogan, Jeffrey
Liu, Zhilong
Park, Kyeong
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Atmosphere–ocean interaction
Tropical cyclones
Buoy observations
In situ oceanic observations
Prediction of rapid intensification in tropical cyclones prior to landfall is a major societal issue. While air–sea interactions are clearly linked to storm intensity, the connections between the underlying thermal conditions over continental shelves and rapid intensification are limited. Here, an exceptional set of in situ and satellite data are used to identify spatial heterogeneity in sea surface temperatures across the inner core of Hurricane Sally (2020), a storm that rapidly intensified over the shelf. A leftward shift in the region of maximum cooling was observed as the hurricane transited from the open gulf to the shelf. This shift was generated, in part, by the surface heat flux in conjunction with the along- and across-shelf transport of heat from storm-generated coastal circulation. The spatial differences in the sea surface temperatures were large enough to potentially influence rapid intensification processes suggesting that coastal thermal features need to be accounted for to improve storm forecasting as well as to better understand how climate change will modify interactions between tropical cyclones and the coastal ocean.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 52(11), (2022): 2841–2852,
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Dzwonkowski, B., Fournier, S., Lockridge, G., Coogan, J., Liu, Z., & Park, K. (2022). Hurricane Sally (2020) shifts the ocean thermal structure across the inner core during rapid intensification over the shelf. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 52(11), 2841–2852.
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