A new structure for the Sea Ice Essential Climate variables of the Global Climate Observing System

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Lavergne, Thomas
Kern, Stefan
Aaboe, Signe
Derby, Lauren
Dybkjaer, Gorm
Garric, Gilles
Heil, Petra
Hendricks, Stefan
Holfort, Jürgen
Howell, Stephen
Key, Jeffrey
Lieser, Jan
Maksym, Ted
Maslowski, Wieslaw
Meier, Walt
Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín
Nicolas, Julien
Ozsoy, Burcu
Rabe, Benjamin
Rack, Wolfgang
Raphael, Marilyn
de Rosnay, Patricia
Smolyanitsky, Vasily
Tietsche, Steffen
Ukita, Jinro
Vichi, Marcello
Wagner, Penelope M.
Willmes, Sascha
Zhao, Xi
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Sea ice
Climate change
Climate records
Climate observations inform about the past and present state of the climate system. They underpin climate science, feed into policies for adaptation and mitigation, and increase awareness of the impacts of climate change. The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), a body of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), assesses the maturity of the required observing system and gives guidance for its development. The Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) are central to GCOS, and the global community must monitor them with the highest standards in the form of Climate Data Records (CDR). Today, a single ECV—the sea ice ECV—encapsulates all aspects of the sea ice environment. In the early 1990s it was a single variable (sea ice concentration) but is today an umbrella for four variables (adding thickness, edge/extent, and drift). In this contribution, we argue that GCOS should from now on consider a set of seven ECVs (sea ice concentration, thickness, snow depth, surface temperature, surface albedo, age, and drift). These seven ECVs are critical and cost effective to monitor with existing satellite Earth observation capability. We advise against placing these new variables under the umbrella of the single sea ice ECV. To start a set of distinct ECVs is indeed critical to avoid adding to the suboptimal situation we experience today and to reconcile the sea ice variables with the practice in other ECV domains.
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2022. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 103(6), (2022): E1502-E1521, https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-d-21-0227.1.
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Lavergne, T., Kern, S., Aaboe, S., Derby, L., Dybkjaer, G., Garric, G., Heil, P., Hendricks, S., Holfort, J., Howell, S., Key, J., Lieser, J., Maksym, T., Maslowski, W., Meier, W., Munoz-Sabater, J., Nicolas, J., Özsoy, B., Rabe, B., Rack, W., Raphael, M., de Rosnay, P., Smolyanitsky, V., Tietsche, S., Ukita, J., Vichi, M., Wagner, P., Willmes, S., & Zhao, X. (2022). A new structure for the Sea Ice Essential Climate variables of the Global Climate Observing System. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 103(6), E1502-E1521.
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