Revisiting the relationship among metrics of tropical expansion

Thumbnail Image
Date
2018-08-08
Authors
Waugh, Darryn W.
Grise, Kevin M.
Seviour, William J. M.
Davis, Sean M.
Davis, Nicholas
Adam, Ori
Son, Seok-Woo
Simpson, Isla R.
Staten, Paul W.
Maycock, Amanda C.
Ummenhofer, Caroline C.
Birner, Thomas
Ming, Alison
Linked Authors
Alternative Title
Date Created
Location
DOI
10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0108.1
Replaced By
Keywords
Hadley circulation
Hydrologic cycle
Meridional overturning circulation
Abstract
There is mounting evidence that the width of the tropics has increased over the last few decades, but there are large differences in reported expansion rates. This is, likely, in part due to the wide variety of metrics that have been used to define the tropical width. Here we perform a systematic investigation into the relationship among nine metrics of the zonal-mean tropical width using preindustrial control and abrupt quadrupling of CO2 simulations from a suite of coupled climate models. It is shown that the latitudes of the edge of the Hadley cell, the midlatitude eddy-driven jet, the edge of the subtropical dry zones, and the Southern Hemisphere subtropical high covary interannually and exhibit similar long-term responses to a quadrupling of CO2. However, metrics based on the outgoing longwave radiation, the position of the subtropical jet, the break in the tropopause, and the Northern Hemisphere subtropical high have very weak covariations with the above metrics and/or respond differently to increases in CO2 and thus are not good indicators of the expansion of the Hadley cell or subtropical dry zone. The differing variability and responses to increases in CO2 among metrics highlights that care is needed when choosing metrics for studies of the width of the tropics and that it is important to make sure the metric used is appropriate for the specific phenomena and impacts being examined.
Description
Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 7565-7581, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0108.1.
Embargo Date
Citation
Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 7565-7581
Cruises
Cruise ID
Cruise DOI
Vessel Name