Smith Jamison

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  • Article
    Sedation at sea of entangled North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) to enhance disentanglement
    (Public Library of Science, 2010-03-09) Moore, Michael J. ; Walsh, Michael ; Bailey, James ; Brunson, David ; Gulland, Frances M. ; Landry, Scott ; Mattila, David K. ; Mayo, Charles A. ; Slay, Christopher K. ; Smith, Jamison ; Rowles, Teresa K.
    The objective of this study was to enhance removal of fishing gear from right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) at sea that evade disentanglement boat approaches. Titrated intra muscular injections to achieve sedation were undertaken on two free swimming right whales. Following initial trials with beached whales, a sedation protocol was developed for right whales. Mass was estimated from sighting and necropsy data from comparable right whales. Midazolam (0.01 to 0.025 mg/kg) was first given alone or with meperidine (0.17 to 0.25 mg/kg) either once or four times over two hours to whale #1102 by cantilevered pole syringe. In the last attempt on whale #1102 there appeared to be a mild effect in 20–30 minutes, with duration of less than 2 hours that included exhalation before the blowhole fully cleared the water. Boat avoidance, used as a measure of sedation depth, was not reduced. A second severely entangled animal in 2009, whale #3311, received midazolam (0.03 mg/kg) followed by butorphanol (0.03 mg/kg) an hour later, delivered ballistically. Two months later it was then given midazolam (0.07 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.07 mg/kg) simultaneously. The next day both drugs at 0.1 mg/kg were given as a mixture in two darts 10 minutes apart. The first attempt on whale #3311 showed increased swimming speed and boat avoidance was observed after a further 20 minutes. The second attempt on whale #3311 showed respiration increasing mildly in frequency and decreasing in strength. The third attempt on whale #3311 gave a statistically significant increase in respiratory frequency an hour after injection, with increased swimming speed and marked reduction of boat evasion that enabled decisive cuts to entangling gear. We conclude that butorphanol and midazolam delivered ballistically in appropriate dosages and combinations may have merit in future refractory free swimming entangled right whale cases until other entanglement solutions are developed.
  • Article
    Rope trauma, sedation, disentanglement, and monitoring-tag associated lesions in a terminally entangled North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2012-08-28) Moore, Michael J. ; Andrews, Russel ; Austin, Trevor ; Bailey, James ; Costidis, Alexander M. ; George, Clay ; Jackson, Katharine ; Pitchford, Thomas ; Landry, Scott ; Ligon, Allan ; McLellan, William A. ; Morin, David ; Smith, Jamison ; Rotstein, David S. ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Slay, Christopher K. ; Walsh, Michael
    A chronically entangled North Atlantic right whale, with consequent emaciation was sedated, disentangled to the extent possible, administered antibiotics, and satellite tag tracked for six subsequent days. It was found dead 11 d after the tag ceased transmission. Chronic constrictive deep rope lacerations and emaciation were found to be the proximate cause of death, which may have ultimately involved shark predation. A broadhead cutter and a spring-loaded knife used for disentanglement were found to induce moderate wounds to the skin and blubber. The telemetry tag, with two barbed shafts partially penetrating the blubber was shed, leaving barbs embedded with localized histological reaction. One of four darts administered shed the barrel, but the needle was found postmortem in the whale with an 80º bend at the blubber-muscle interface. This bend occurred due to epaxial muscle movement relative to the overlying blubber, with resultant necrosis and cavitation of underlying muscle. This suggests that rigid, implanted devices that span the cetacean blubber muscle interface, where the muscle moves relative to the blubber, could have secondary health impacts. Thus we encourage efforts to develop new tag telemetry systems that do not penetrate the subdermal sheath, but still remain attached for many months.
  • Preprint
    Behavioral impacts of disentanglement of a right whale under sedation and the energetic cost of entanglement
    ( 2013-03) van der Hoop, Julie ; Moore, Michael J. ; Fahlman, Andreas ; Bocconcelli, Alessandro ; George, Clay ; Jackson, Katharine ; Miller, Carolyn A. ; Morin, David ; Pitchford, Thomas ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Smith, Jamison ; Zoodsma, Barb
    Protracted entanglement in fishing gear often leads to emaciation through reduced mobility and foraging ability, and energy budget depletion from the added drag of towing gear for months or years. We examined changes in kinematics of a tagged entangled North Atlantic right whale (Eg 3911), before, during and after disentanglement on 15 Jan 2011. To calculate the additional drag forces and energetic demand associated with various gear configurations, we towed three sets of gear attached to a load-cell tensiometer at multiple speeds. Tag analyses revealed significant increases in dive depth and duration; ascent, descent and fluke stroke rates; and decreases in root mean square fluke amplitude (a proxy for thrust) following disentanglement. Conservative drag coefficients while entangled in all gear configurations (mean ± SD Cd,e,go = 3.4x10-3 ± 0.0003, Cd,e,gb = 3.7x10-3 ± 0.0003, Cd,e,sl = 3.8x10-3 ± 0.0004) were significantly greater than in the nonentangled case (Cd,n = 3.2x10-3±0.0003; P = 0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0078 respectively). Increases in total power input (including standard metabolism) over the nonentangled condition ranged 1.6%-120.9% for all gear configurations tested; locomotory power requirements increased 60.0%-164.6%. These results highlight significant alteration to swimming patterns, and the magnitude of energy depletion in a chronically entangled whale.