Wu Lixin

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Article
    Influence of the Kuroshio interannual variability on the summertime precipitation over the East China Sea and adjacent area
    (American Meteorological Society, 2019-04-01) Gan, Bolan ; Kwon, Young-Oh ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; Chen, Ke ; Wu, Lixin
    Much attention has been paid to the climatic impacts of changes in the Kuroshio Extension, instead of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea (ECS). This study, however, reveals the prominent influences of the lateral shift of the Kuroshio at interannual time scale in late spring [April–June (AMJ)] on the sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation in summer around the ECS, based on high-resolution satellite observations and ERA-Interim. A persistent offshore displacement of the Kuroshio during AMJ can result in cold SST anomalies in the northern ECS and the Japan/East Sea until late summer, which correspondingly causes anomalous cooling of the lower troposphere. Consequently, the anomalous cold SST in the northern ECS acts as a key driver to robustly enhance the precipitation from the Yangtze River delta to Kyushu in early summer (May–August) and over the central ECS in late summer (July–September). In view of the moisture budget analysis, two different physical processes modulated by the lateral shift of the Kuroshio are identified to account for the distinct responses of precipitation in early and late summer, respectively. First, the anomalous cold SST in the northern ECS induced by the Kuroshio offshore shift is likely conducive to the earlier arrival of the mei-yu–baiu front at 30°–32°N and its subsequent slower northward movement, which may prolong the local rainy season, leading to the increased rain belt in early summer. Second, the persistent cold SST anomalies in late summer strengthen the near-surface baroclinicity and the associated strong atmospheric fronts embedded in the extratropical cyclones over the central ECS, which in turn enhances the local rainfall.
  • Preprint
    Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents
    ( 2011-11) Wu, Lixin ; Cai, Wenju ; Zhang, Liping ; Nakamura, Hisashi ; Timmermann, Axel ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Alexander, Michael A. ; Qiu, Bo ; Visbeck, Martin ; Chang, Ping ; Giese, Benjamin
    Subtropical western boundary currents are warm, fast flowing currents that form on the western side of ocean basins. They carry warm tropical water to the mid-latitudes and vent large amounts of heat and moisture to the atmosphere along their paths, affecting atmospheric jet streams and mid-latitude storms, as well as ocean carbon uptake. The possibility that these highly energetic and nonlinear currents might change under greenhouse gas forcing has raised significant concerns, but detecting such changes is challenging owing to limited observations. Here, using reconstructed sea surface temperature datasets and newly developed century-long ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products, we find that the post-1900 surface ocean warming rate over the path of these currents is two to three times faster than the global mean surface ocean warming rate. The accelerated warming is associated with a synchronous poleward shift and/or intensification of global subtropical western boundary currents in conjunction with a systematic change in winds over both hemispheres. This enhanced warming may reduce ocean's ability to absorb anthropogenic carbon dioxide over these regions. However, uncertainties in detection and attribution of these warming trends remain, pointing to a need for a long-term monitoring network of the global western boundary currents and their extensions.
  • Article
    Remineralization dominating the δ13 C decrease in the mid-depth Atlantic during the last deglaciation
    (Elsevier, 2021-07-20) Gu, Sifan ; Liu, Zhengyu ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean ; Jahn, Alexandra ; Zhang, Jiaxu ; Lindsay, Keith ; Wu, Lixin
    δ 13 C records from the mid-depth Atlantic show a pronounced decrease during the Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), a deglacial episode of dramatically weakened Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC). Proposed explanations for this mid-depth decrease include a greater fraction of δ 13 C -depleted southern sourced water (SSW), a δ 13 C decrease in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) end-member, and accumulation of the respired organic carbon. However, the relative importance of these proposed mechanisms cannot be quantitatively constrained from current available observations alone. Here we diagnose the individual contributions to the deglacial Atlantic mid-depth δ 13 C change from these mechanisms using a transient simulation with carbon isotopes and idealized tracers. We find that although the fraction of the low- δ 13 C SSW increases in response to a weaker AMOC during HS1, the water mass mixture change only plays a minor role in the mid-depth Atlantic δ 13 C decrease. Instead, increased remineralization due to the AMOC-induced mid-depth ocean ventilation decrease is the dominant cause. In this study, we differentiate between the deep end-members, which are assigned to deep water regions used in previous paleoceanography studies, and the surface end-members, which are from the near-surface water defined from the physical origin of deep water masses. We find that the deep NADW end-member includes additional remineralized material accumulated when sinking from the surface (surface NADW end-member). Therefore, the surface end-members should be used in diagnosing mechanisms of changes. Furthermore, our results suggest that remineralization in the surface end-member is more critical than the remineralization along the transport pathway from the near-surface formation region to the deep ocean, especially during the early deglaciation.
  • Article
    Fluctuation of 400-Hz sound intensity in the 2001 ASIAEX South China Sea experiment
    (IEEE, 2004-10) Duda, Timothy F. ; Lynch, James F. ; Newhall, Arthur E. ; Wu, Lixin ; Chiu, Ching-Sang
    We present analyses of fluctuations seen in acoustic signals transmitted by two 400-Hz sources moored as part of the ASIAEX 2001 South China Sea (SCS) experiment. One source was near the bottom in 350-m deep water 31.3 km offshore from the receiving array, and the other was near the bottom in 135-m deep water 20.6 km alongshore from the array. Time series of signal intensity measured at individual phones of a 16-element vertical line array are analyzed, as well as time series of intensity averaged over the array. Signals were recorded from 2 May to 17 May 2001. Fluctuations were observed at periods ranging from subtidal (days) to the shortest periods resolved with our signaling (10 s). Short-period fluctuations of depth- and time-averaged intensity have scintillation indexes (computed within 3-h long windows) which peak at values near 0.5 during an interval of numerous high-amplitude internal gravity waves, and which are lower during intervals with fewer internal waves. The decorrelation times of the averaged intensity (energy level) are also closely related to internal wave properties. Scintillation indexes computed for unaveraged pulses arriving at individual phones often exceed unity.
  • Article
    Assessing the potential capability of reconstructing glacial Atlantic water masses and AMOC using multiple proxies in CESM
    (Elsevier, 2020-05-06) Gu, Sifan ; Liu, Zhengyu ; Oppo, Delia W. ; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean ; Jahn, Alexandra ; Zhang, Jiaxu ; Wu, Lixin
    Reconstructing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is essential for understanding glacial-interglacial climate change and the carbon cycle. However, despite many previous studies, uncertainties remain regarding the glacial water mass distributions in the Atlantic and the AMOC intensity. Here we use an isotope enabled ocean model with multiple geotracers (δ 13 C,E Νd,231 Pa/ 230Th,δ 18 Ο and Δ 14 C) and idealized water tracers to study the potential constraints on LGM ocean circulation from multiple proxies. Our model suggests that the glacial Atlantic water mass distribution can be accurately constrained by the air-sea gas exchange signature of water masses (δ13 C AS), but E Nd might overestimate the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) percentage in the deep Atlantic probably because of the boundary source of Nd. A sensitivity experiment with an AMOC of similar geometry but much weaker strength suggests that the correct AMOC geometry is more important than the AMOC strength for simulating the observed glacial δ13 C AS and E Nd and distributions. The kinematic tracer 231Pa/230Th is sensitive to AMOC intensity, but the interpretation might be complicated by the AMOC geometry and AABW transport changes during the LGM. δ 18 Ο in the benthic foraminifera (δ 18 Οc) from the Florida Straits provides a consistent measure of the upper ocean boundary current in the model, which potentially provides an unambiguous method to reconstruct glacial AMOC intensity. Finally, we propose that the moderate difference between AMOC intensity at LGM and PD, if any, is caused by the competition of the responses to CO2 forcing and continental ice sheet forcing.
  • Article
    Modeling the dispersion of dissolved natural gas condensates from the Sanchi incident
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-11) Chen, Lei ; Yang, Jiayan ; Wu, Lixin
    An Iranian tanker with 136,000 tons of natural gas condensates collided with a freighter in the East China Sea in January 2018 and, after drifting ablaze for 8 days and over 200 km, capsized on the edge of the shelf near the Kuroshio Current. Different from the crude oil, the condensates consist of hydrocarbons that have relatively high solubility in seawater. We postulate that the leakage from the remaining condensate cargo at 110 m depth may result in a bottom layer of condensate‐enriched water in the vicinity of the resting tanker. A model is constructed in this study to simulate the dispersion of contaminated water through the processes of oceanic advection, diffusion, biodegradation, and volatilization. It is found that the scope and magnitude of the dispersion are most sensitive to the biodegradation. Even though the biodegradation time scale depends on several factors that are not well quantified in this region, using any value within the estimated range from a previous study results in significant contamination in the broad area. The dispersion is particularly effective in this incident because the tanker capsized near the Kuroshio Current—a fast‐moving western boundary current. The Kuroshio acts as a fast conduit to spread the contaminant to the east coast of Japan and the interior Pacific Ocean. In addition, we identify that the Tsushima Warm Current, a perennial flow into the Japan Sea, is the second major conduit for spreading the polluted water. This study indicates that dissolved hydrocarbons are the main environmental risk for maritime spills of natural gas condensates.
  • Article
    Global in situ observations of essential climate and ocean variables at the air-sea interface
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-25) Centurioni, Luca R. ; Turton, Jon ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Braasch, Lancelot ; Brassington, Gary ; Chao, Yi ; Charpentier, Etienne ; Chen, Zhaohui ; Corlett, Gary ; Dohan, Kathleen ; Donlon, Craig ; Gallage, Champika ; Hormann, Verena ; Ignatov, Alexander ; Ingleby, Bruce ; Jensen, Robert ; Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A. ; Koszalka, Inga M. ; Lin, Xiaopei ; Lindstrom, Eric ; Maximenko, Nikolai ; Merchant, Christopher J. ; Minnett, Peter J. ; O’Carroll, Anne ; Paluszkiewicz, Theresa ; Poli, Paul ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Reverdin, Gilles ; Sun, Xiujun ; Swail, Val ; Thurston, Sidney ; Wu, Lixin ; Yu, Lisan ; Wang, Bin ; Zhang, Dongxiao
    The air–sea interface is a key gateway in the Earth system. It is where the atmosphere sets the ocean in motion, climate/weather-relevant air–sea processes occur, and pollutants (i.e., plastic, anthropogenic carbon dioxide, radioactive/chemical waste) enter the sea. Hence, accurate estimates and forecasts of physical and biogeochemical processes at this interface are critical for sustainable blue economy planning, growth, and disaster mitigation. Such estimates and forecasts rely on accurate and integrated in situ and satellite surface observations. High-impact uses of ocean surface observations of essential ocean/climate variables (EOVs/ECVs) include (1) assimilation into/validation of weather, ocean, and climate forecast models to improve their skill, impact, and value; (2) ocean physics studies (i.e., heat, momentum, freshwater, and biogeochemical air–sea fluxes) to further our understanding and parameterization of air–sea processes; and (3) calibration and validation of satellite ocean products (i.e., currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, ocean color, wind, and waves). We review strengths and limitations, impacts, and sustainability of in situ ocean surface observations of several ECVs and EOVs. We draw a 10-year vision of the global ocean surface observing network for improved synergy and integration with other observing systems (e.g., satellites), for modeling/forecast efforts, and for a better ocean observing governance. The context is both the applications listed above and the guidelines of frameworks such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) (both co-sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, IOC–UNESCO; the World Meteorological Organization, WMO; the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP; and the International Science Council, ISC). Networks of multiparametric platforms, such as the global drifter array, offer opportunities for new and improved in situ observations. Advances in sensor technology (e.g., low-cost wave sensors), high-throughput communications, evolving cyberinfrastructures, and data information systems with potential to improve the scope, efficiency, integration, and sustainability of the ocean surface observing system are explored.
  • Article
    Topography effects on the seasonal variability of ocean bottom pressure in the North Pacific Ocean
    (American Meteorological Society, 2023-03-01) Chen, Lei ; Yang, Jiayan ; Wu, Lixin
    Ocean bottom pressure p B is an important oceanic variable that is dynamically related to the abyssal ocean circulation through geostrophy. In this study we examine the seasonal p B variability in the North Pacific Ocean by analyzing satellite gravimetric observations from the GRACE program and a data-assimilated ocean-state estimate from ECCOv4. The seasonal p B variability is characterized by alternations of low and high anomalies among three regions, the subpolar and subtropical basins as well as the equatorial region. A linear two-layer wind-driven model is used to examine forcing mechanisms and topographic effects on seasonal p B variations. The model control run, which uses a realistic topography, is able to simulate a basinwide seasonal p B variability that is remarkably similar to that from GRACE and ECCOv4. Since the model is driven by wind stress alone, the good model–data agreement indicates that wind stress is the leading forcing for seasonal changes in p B . An additional model simulation was conducted by setting the water depth uniformly at 5000 m. The magnitude of seasonal p B anomaly is amplified significantly in the flat-bottom simulation as compared with that in the control run. The difference can be explained in terms of the topographic Sverdrup balance. In addition, the spatial pattern of the seasonal p B variability is also profoundly affected by topography especially on continental margins, ridges, and trenches. Such differences are due to topographic effects on the propagation pathways of Rossby waves.