Rioux Matthew

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  • Article
    Crystallization depth beneath an oceanic detachment fault (ODP Hole 923A, Mid-Atlantic Ridge)
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-01-21) Lissenberg, C. Johan ; Rioux, Matthew ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Bowring, Samuel A. ; Shimizu, Nobumichi
    Oceanic detachment faults are increasingly recognized as playing an integral role in the seafloor spreading process at slow and ultraslow spreading mid-ocean ridges, with significant consequences for the architecture of the oceanic lithosphere. Although melt supply is considered to play a critical control on the formation and evolution of oceanic detachments, much less well understood is how melts and faults interact and influence each other. Few direct constraints on the locus and depth of melt emplacement in the vicinity of detachments are available. Gabbros drilled in ODP Hole 923A near the intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Kane transform fault (23°N; the MARK area) represent magmas emplaced into the footwall of such a detachment fault and unroofed by it. We here present U-Pb zircon dates for these gabbros and associated diorite veins which, when combined with a tectonic reconstruction of the area, allow us to calculate the depths at which the melts crystallized. Th-corrected single zircon U-Pb dates from three samples range from 1.138 ± 0.062 to 1.213 ± 0.021 Ma. We find a crystallization depth of 6.4 +1.7/−1.3 km, and estimate that the melts parental to the gabbros were initially emplaced up to 1.5 km deeper, at <8 km below the seafloor. The tectonic reconstruction implies that the detachment fault responsible for the exposure of the sampled sequence likely crossed the ridge axis at depth, suggesting that melt emplacement into the footwall of oceanic detachment faults is an important process. The deep emplacement depth we find associated with “detachment mode” spreading at ∼1.2 Ma appears to be significantly greater than the depth of magma reservoirs during the current “magmatic mode” of spreading in the area, suggesting that the northern MARK segment preserves a recent switch between two temporally distinct modes of spreading with fundamentally different lithospheric architecture.
  • Preprint
    Protracted timescales of lower crustal growth at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise
    ( 2011-12) Rioux, Matthew ; Lissenberg, C. Johan ; McLean, Noah M. ; Bowring, Samuel A. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Hellebrand, Eric ; Shimizu, Nobumichi
    Formation of the oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges is a fundamental component of plate tectonics. A majority of the crust at many ridges is composed of plutonic rocks that form by crystallization of mantle-derived magmas within the crust. Recent application of U/Pb dating to samples from in-situ oceanic crust has begun to provide exciting new insight into the timing, duration and distribution of magmatism during formation of the plutonic crust1-4. Previous studies have focused on samples from slow-spreading ridges, however, the time scales and processes of crustal growth are expected to vary with plate spreading rate. Here we present the first high-precision dates from plutonic crust formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR). Individual zircon minerals yielded dates from 1.420–1.271 million years ago, with uncertainties of ± 0.006–0.081 million years. Within individual samples, zircons record a range of dates of up to ~0.124 million years, consistent with protracted crystallization or assimilation of older zircons from adjacent rocks. The variability in dates is comparable to data from the Vema lithospheric section on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)3, suggesting that time scales of magmatic processes in the lower crust may be similar at slow- and fast-spreading ridges.
  • Article
    Reconstruction of the Talkeetna intraoceanic arc of Alaska through thermobarometry
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-03-07) Hacker, Bradley R. ; Mehl, Luc ; Kelemen, Peter B. ; Rioux, Matthew ; Behn, Mark D. ; Luffi, Peter
    The Talkeetna arc is one of two intraoceanic arcs where much of the section from the upper mantle through the volcanic carapace is well exposed. We reconstruct the vertical section of the Talkeetna arc by determining the (re)crystallization pressures at various structural levels. The thermobarometry shows that the tonalites and quartz diorites intruded at ∼5–9 km into a volcanic section estimated from stratigraphy to be 7 km thick. The shallowest, Tazlina and Barnette, gabbros crystallized at ∼17–24 km; the Klanelneechena Klippe crystallized at ∼24–26 km; and the base of the arc crystallized at ∼35 km depth. The arc had a volcanic:plutonic ratio of ∼1:3–1:4. However, many or most of the felsic plutonic rocks may represent crystallized liquids rather than cumulates so that the liquid:cumulate ratio might be 1:2 or larger. The current 5- to 7-km structural thickness of the plutonic section of the arc is ∼15–30% of the original 23- to 28-km thickness. The bulk composition of the original Talkeetna arc section was ∼51–58 wt % SiO2.
  • Article
    Intermediate to felsic middle crust in the accreted Talkeetna arc, the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island, Alaska : an analogue for low-velocity middle crust in modern arcs
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-05-08) Rioux, Matthew ; Mattinson, James ; Hacker, Bradley R. ; Kelemen, Peter B. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Hanghoj, Karen ; Gehrels, George
    Seismic profiles of several modern arcs have identified thick, low-velocity midcrustal layers (Vp = 6.0–6.5 km/s) that are interpreted to represent intermediate to felsic plutonic crust. The presence of this silicic crust is surprising given the mafic composition of most primitive mantle melts and could have important implications for the chemical evolution and bulk composition of arcs. However, direct studies of the middle crust are limited by the restricted plutonic exposures in modern arcs. The accreted Talkeetna arc, south central Alaska, exposes a faulted crustal section from residual subarc mantle to subaerial volcanic rocks of a Jurassic intraoceanic arc and is an ideal place to study the intrusive middle crust. Previous research on the arc, which has provided insight into a range of arc processes, has principally focused on western exposures of the arc in the Chugach Mountains. We present new U-Pb zircon dates, radiogenic isotope data, and whole-rock geochemical analyses that provide the first high-precision data on large intermediate to felsic plutonic exposures on Kodiak Island and the Alaska Peninsula. A single chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis from the Afognak pluton yielded an age of 212.87 ± 0.19 Ma, indicating that the plutonic exposures on Kodiak Island represent the earliest preserved record of Talkeetna arc magmatism. Nine new dates from the extensive Jurassic batholith on the Alaska Peninsula range from 183.5 to 164.1 Ma and require a northward shift in the Talkeetna arc magmatic axis following initial emplacement of the Kodiak plutons, paralleling the development of arc magmatism in the Chugach and Talkeetna mountains. Radiogenic isotope data from the Alaska Peninsula and the Kodiak archipelago range from $\varepsilon$Nd(t) = 5.2 to 9.0 and 87Sr/86Srint = 0.703515 to 0.703947 and are similar to age-corrected data from modern intraoceanic arcs, suggesting that the evolved Alaska Peninsula plutons formed by extensive differentiation of arc basalts with little or no involvement of preexisting crustal material. The whole-rock geochemical data and calculated seismic velocities suggest that the Alaska Peninsula represents an analogue for the low-velocity middle crust observed in modern arcs. The continuous temporal record and extensive exposure of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks in the Talkeetna arc indicate that evolved magmas are generated by repetitive or steady state processes and play a fundamental role in the growth and evolution of intraoceanic arcs.