Clift Peter D.

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Peter D.

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  • Article
    Evolving east Asian river systems reconstructed by trace element and Pb and Nd isotope variations in modern and ancient Red River-Song Hong sediments
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-04-30) Clift, Peter D. ; Long, Hoang Van ; Hinton, Richard ; Ellam, Robert M. ; Hannigan, Robyn E. ; Tan, Mai Thanh ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Duc, Nguyen Anh
    Rivers in east Asia have been recognized as having unusual geometries, suggestive of drainage reorganization linked to Tibetan Plateau surface uplift. In this study we applied a series of major and trace element proxies, together with bulk Nd and single K-feldspar grain Pb isotope ion probe isotope analyses, to understand the sediment budget of the modern Red River. We also investigate how this may have evolved during the Cenozoic. We show that while most of the modern sediment is generated by physical erosion in the upper reaches in Yunnan there is significant additional flux from the Song Lo, draining Cathaysia and the SW Yangtze Block. Nd isotope data suggest that 40% of the modern delta sediment comes from the Song Lo. Carbonates in the Song Lo basin make this a major control on the Red River Sr budget. Erosion is not a simple function of monsoon precipitation. Active rock uplift is also required to drive strong erosion. Single grain Pb data show a connection in the Eocene between the middle Yangtze and the Red River, and probably with rivers draining the Songpan Garze terrane. However, the isotope data do not support a former connection with the upper Yangtze, Mekong, or Salween rivers. Drainage capture appears to have occurred throughout the Cenozoic, consistent with surface uplift propagating gradually to the southeast. The middle Yangtze was lost from the Red River prior to 24 Ma, while the connection to the Songpan Garze was cut prior to 12 Ma. The Song Lo joined the Red River after 9 Ma. Bulk sample Pb analyses have limited provenance use compared to single grain data, and detailed provenance is only possible with a matrix of different proxies.
  • Article
    Regional Pliocene exhumation of the Lesser Himalaya in the Indus drainage
    (European Geosciences Union, 2019-05-16) Clift, Peter D. ; Zhou, Peng ; Stockli, Daniel F. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S.
    New bulk sediment Sr and Nd isotope data, coupled with U–Pb dating of detrital zircon grains from sediment cored by the International Ocean Discovery Program in the Arabian Sea, allow the reconstruction of erosion in the Indus catchment since ∼17 Ma. Increasing εNd values from 17 to 9.5 Ma imply relatively more erosion from the Karakoram and Kohistan, likely linked to slip on the Karakoram Fault and compression in the southern and eastern Karakoram. After a period of relative stability from 9.5 to 5.7 Ma, there is a long-term decrease in εNd values that corresponds with increasing relative abundance of >300 Ma zircon grains that are most common in Himalayan bedrocks. The continuous presence of abundant Himalayan zircons precludes large-scale drainage capture as the cause of decreasing εNd values in the submarine fan. Although the initial increase in Lesser Himalaya-derived 1500–2300 Ma zircons after 8.3 Ma is consistent with earlier records from the foreland basin, the much greater rise after 1.9 Ma has not previously been recognized and suggests that widespread unroofing of the Crystalline Lesser Himalaya and to a lesser extent Nanga Parbat did not occur until after 1.9 Ma. Because regional erosion increased in the Pleistocene compared to the Pliocene, the relative increase in erosion from the Lesser Himalaya does not reflect slowing erosion in the Karakoram and Greater Himalaya. No simple links can be made between erosion and the development of the South Asian Monsoon, implying a largely tectonic control on Lesser Himalayan unroofing.
  • Article
    Thermochronology of the modern Indus River bedload: New insight into the controls on the marine stratigraphic record
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-10-16) Clift, Peter D. ; Campbell, Ian H. ; Pringle, Malcolm S. ; Carter, Andrew ; Zhang, Xifan ; Hodges, Kip V. ; Khan, Ali Athar ; Allen, Charlotte M.
    The Indus River is the only major drainage in the western Himalaya and delivers a long geological record of continental erosion to the Arabian Sea, which may be deciphered and used to reconstruct orogenic growth if the modern bedload can be related to the mountains. In this study we collected thermochronologic data from river sediment collected near the modern delta. U-Pb ages of zircons spanning 3 Gyr show that only ~5% of the eroding crust has been generated since India-Asia collision. The Greater Himalaya are the major source of zircons, with additional contributions from the Karakoram and Lesser Himalaya. The 39Ar/40Ar dating of muscovites gives ages that cluster between 10 and 25 Ma, differing from those recorded in the Bengal Fan. Biotite ages are generally younger, ranging 0–15 Ma. Modern average exhumation rates are estimated at ~0.6 km/m.y. or less, and have slowed progressively since the early Miocene (~20 Ma), although fission track (FT) dating of apatites may indicate a recent moderate acceleration in rates since the Pliocene (~1.0 km/m.y.) driven by climate change. The 39Ar/40Ar and FT techniques emphasize the dominance of high topography in controlling the erosional flux to the ocean. Localized regions of tectonically driven, very rapid exhumation (e.g., Nanga Parbat, S. Karakoram metamorphic domes) do not dominate the erosional record.
  • Article
    On the Holocene evolution of the Ayeyawady megadelta
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2018-06-12) Giosan, Liviu ; Naing, Thet ; Tun, Myo Min ; Clift, Peter D. ; Filip, Florin ; Constantinescu, Stefan ; Khonde, Nitesh ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter ; Stevens, Thomas ; Thwin, Swe
    The Ayeyawady delta is the last Asian megadelta whose evolution has remained essentially unexplored so far. Unlike most other deltas across the world, the Ayeyawady has not yet been affected by dam construction, providing a unique view on largely natural deltaic processes benefiting from abundant sediment loads affected by tectonics and monsoon hydroclimate. To alleviate the information gap and provide a baseline for future work, here we provide a first model for the Holocene development of this megadelta based on drill core sediments collected in 2016 and 2017, dated with radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence, together with a reevaluation of published maps, charts and scientific literature. Altogether, these data indicate that Ayeyawady is a mud-dominated delta with tidal and wave influences. The sediment-rich Ayeyawady River built meander belt alluvial ridges with avulsive characters. A more advanced coast in the western half of the delta (i.e., the Pathein lobe) was probably favored by the more western location of the early course of the river. Radiogenic isotopic fingerprinting of the sediment suggests that the Pathein lobe coast does not receive significant sediment from neighboring rivers. However, the eastern region of the delta (i.e., Yangon lobe) is offset inland and extends east into the mudflats of the Sittaung estuary. Wave-built beach ridge construction during the late Holocene, similar to several other deltas across the Indian monsoon domain, suggests a common climatic control on monsoonal delta morphodynamics through variability in discharge, changes in wave climate or both. Correlation of the delta morphological and stratigraphic architecture information on land with the shelf bathymetry, as well as its tectonic, sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics, provides insight on the peculiar growth style of the Ayeyawady delta. The offset between the western Pathein lobe and the eastern deltaic coast appears to be driven by tectonic–hydrodynamic feedbacks as the extensionally lowered shelf block of the Gulf of Mottama amplifies tidal currents relative to the western part of the shelf. This situation probably activates a perennial shear front between the two regions that acts as a leaky energy fence. Just as importantly, the strong currents in the Gulf of Mottama act as an offshore-directed tidal pump that helps build the deep mid-shelf Mottama clinoform with mixed sediments from the Ayeyawady, Sittaung and Thanlwin rivers. The highly energetic tidal, wind and wave regime of the northern Andaman Sea thus exports most sediment offshore despite the large load of the Ayeyawady River.
  • Article
    Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-27) Li, Chun-Feng ; Xu, Xing ; Lin, Jian ; Sun, Zhen ; Zhu, Jian ; Yao, Yongjian ; Zhao, Xixi ; Liu, Qingsong ; Kulhanek, Denise K. ; Wang, Jian ; Song, Taoran ; Zhao, Junfeng ; Qiu, Ning ; Guan, Yongxian ; Zhou, Zhiyuan ; Williams, Trevor ; Bao, Rui ; Briais, Anne ; Brown, Elizabeth A. ; Chen, Yifeng ; Clift, Peter D. ; Colwell, Frederick S. ; Dadd, Kelsie A. ; Ding, Weiwei ; Almeida, Ivan Hernandez ; Huang, Xiao-Long ; Hyun, Sangmin ; Jiang, Tao ; Koppers, Anthony A. P. ; Li, Qianyu ; Liu, Chuanlian ; Liu, Zhifei ; Nagai, Renata H. ; Peleo-Alampay, Alyssa ; Su, Xin ; Tejada, Maria Luisa G. ; Trinh, Hai Son ; Yeh, Yi-Ching ; Zhang, Chuanlun ; Zhang, Fan ; Zhang, Guo-Liang
    Combined analyses of deep tow magnetic anomalies and International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 cores show that initial seafloor spreading started around 33 Ma in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS), but varied slightly by 1–2 Myr along the northern continent-ocean boundary (COB). A southward ridge jump of ∼20 km occurred around 23.6 Ma in the East Subbasin; this timing also slightly varied along the ridge and was coeval to the onset of seafloor spreading in the Southwest Subbasin, which propagated for about 400 km southwestward from ∼23.6 to ∼21.5 Ma. The terminal age of seafloor spreading is ∼15 Ma in the East Subbasin and ∼16 Ma in the Southwest Subbasin. The full spreading rate in the East Subbasin varied largely from ∼20 to ∼80 km/Myr, but mostly decreased with time except for the period between ∼26.0 Ma and the ridge jump (∼23.6 Ma), within which the rate was the fastest at ∼70 km/Myr on average. The spreading rates are not correlated, in most cases, to magnetic anomaly amplitudes that reflect basement magnetization contrasts. Shipboard magnetic measurements reveal at least one magnetic reversal in the top 100 m of basaltic layers, in addition to large vertical intensity variations. These complexities are caused by late-stage lava flows that are magnetized in a different polarity from the primary basaltic layer emplaced during the main phase of crustal accretion. Deep tow magnetic modeling also reveals this smearing in basement magnetizations by incorporating a contamination coefficient of 0.5, which partly alleviates the problem of assuming a magnetic blocking model of constant thickness and uniform magnetization. The primary contribution to magnetic anomalies of the SCS is not in the top 100 m of the igneous basement.
  • Article
    Origin and significance of the Delaney Dome Formation, Connemara, Ireland
    (Geological Society of London, 2002) Draut, Amy E. ; Clift, Peter D.
    Dalradian meta-sediments of the Laurentian margin and mafic intrusions thereof in SW Connemara, Ireland, tectonically overlie meta-rhyolites of the Delaney Dome Formation. The two units are separated by the Mannin Thrust. A new U–Pb age of 474.6 ± 5.5 Ma shows that the Delaney Dome Formation is a temporal equivalent of arc volcanic rocks preserved in the adjacent South Mayo Trough: the Tourmakeady Volcanic Group, erupted during the collision of an oceanic island arc with the Laurentian margin in the Grampian Orogeny. New rare earth and high field strength element data show that the Delaney Dome Formation and Tourmakeady Volcanic Group are chemically similar and arc-like in character. This suggests that the Delaney Dome Formation is an along-strike equivalent of the Tourmakeady Group, strike-slip faulted south of the South Mayo Trough during or after the Grampian Orogeny. Further correlation of these units with northern Appalachian rhyolites is also possible. The Delaney Dome Formation is an extrusive temporal equivalent of intrusions that penetrate the Connemara Dalradian. Thus, movement along the Mannin Thrust brought mid-crustal plutons and Dalradian country rocks tectonically above the extrusive volcanic sequence. The Mannin Thrust is identified as a major imbricating structure within a continental arc, but not a terrane boundary.
  • Article
    A synthesis of monsoon exploration in the Asian marginal seas
    (Copernicus Publications, 2022-10-28) Clift, Peter D ; Betzler, Christian ; Clemens, Steven C ; Christensen, Beth ; Eberli, Gregor P ; France-Lanord, Christian ; Gallagher, Stephen J. ; Holbourn, Ann ; Kuhnt, Wolfgang ; Murray, Richard W ; Rosenthal, Yair ; Tada, Ryuji ; Wan, Shiming
    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) conducted a series of expeditions between 2013 and 2016 that were designed to address the development of monsoon climate systems in Asia and Australia. Significant progress was made in recovering Neogene sections spanning the region from the Arabian Sea to the Sea of Japan and southward to western Australia. High recovery by advanced piston corer (APC) has provided a host of semi-continuous sections that have been used to examine monsoonal evolution. Use of the half-length APC was successful in sampling sand-rich sediment in Indian Ocean submarine fans. The records show that humidity and seasonality developed diachronously across the region, although most regions show drying since the middle Miocene and especially since ∼ 4 Ma, likely linked to global cooling. A transition from C3 to C4 vegetation often accompanied the drying but may be more linked to global cooling. Western Australia and possibly southern China diverge from the general trend in becoming wetter during the late Miocene, with the Australian monsoon being more affected by the Indonesian Throughflow, while the Asian monsoon is tied more to the rising Himalaya in South Asia and to the Tibetan Plateau in East Asia. The monsoon shows sensitivity to orbital forcing, with many regions having a weaker summer monsoon during times of northern hemispheric Glaciation. Stronger monsoons are associated with faster continental erosion but not weathering intensity, which either shows no trend or a decreasing strength since the middle Miocene in Asia. Marine productivity proxies and terrestrial chemical weathering, erosion, and vegetation proxiesare often seen to diverge. Future work on the almost unknown Paleogene is needed, as well as the potential of carbonate platforms as archives of paleoceanographic conditions.
  • Preprint
    Arc-continent collisions, sediment recycling and the maintenance of the continental crust
    ( 2008-02-13) Clift, Peter D. ; Schouten, Hans A. ; Vannucchi, Paola
    Subduction zones are both the source of most new continental crust and the locations where crustal material is returned to the upper mantle. Globally the total amount of continental crust and sediment subducted below forearcs currently lies close to 3.0 Armstrong Units (1 AU = 1 km3/yr), of which 1.65 AU comprises subducted sediments and 1.33 AU tectonically eroded forearc crust. This compares with average ~0.4 AU lost during subduction of passive margins during Cenozoic continental collision. Individual margins may retreat in a wholesale, steady-state mode, or in a slower way involving the trenchward erosion of the forearc coupled with landward underplating, such as seen in the central and northern Andean margins. Tephra records of magmatism evolution from Central America indicate pulses of recycling through the roots of the arc. While this arc is in a state of long- term mass loss this is achieved in a discontinuous fashion via periods of slow tectonic erosion and even sediment accretion interrupted by catastrophic erosion events, likely caused by seamount subduction. Crustal losses into subduction zones must be balanced by arc magmatism and we estimate global average melt production rates to be 96 and 64 km3/m.y./km in oceanic and continental arc respectively. Key to maintaining the volume of the continental crust is the accretion of oceanic arcs to continental passive margins. Mass balancing across the Taiwan collision zones suggests that almost 90% of the colliding Luzon Arc crust is accreted to the margin of Asia in that region. Rates of exhumation and sediment recycling indicate the complete accretion process spans only 6–8 m.y. Subduction of sediment in both erosive and inefficient accretionary margins provides a mechanism for returning continental crust to the upper mantle. Sea level governs rates of continental erosion and thus sediment delivery to trenches, which in turn controls crustal thicknesses over 107– 109 yrs. Tectonically thickened crust is reduced to normal values (35–38 km) over timescales of 100–200 Ma.
  • Article
    Laurentian crustal recycling in the Ordovician Grampian Orogeny : Nd isotopic evidence from western Ireland
    (Cambridge University Press, 2004-04-21) Draut, Amy E. ; Clift, Peter D. ; Chew, David M. ; Cooper, Matthew J. ; Taylor, Rex N. ; Hannigan, Robyn E.
    Because magmatism associated with subduction is thought to be the principal source for continental crust generation, assessing the relative contribution of pre-existing (subducted and assimilated) continental material to arc magmatism in accreted arcs is important to understanding the origin of continental crust. We present a detailed Nd isotopic stratigraphy for volcanic and volcaniclastic formations from the South Mayo Trough, an accreted oceanic arc exposed in the western Irish Caledonides. These units span an arc–continent collision event, the Grampian (Taconic) Orogeny, in which an intra-oceanic island arc was accreted onto the passive continental margin of Laurentia starting at [similar] 475 Ma (Arenig). The stratigraphy corresponding to pre-, syn- and post-collisional volcanism reveals a progression of [varepsilon]Nd(t) from strongly positive values, consistent with melt derivation almost exclusively from oceanic mantle beneath the arc, to strongly negative values, indicating incorporation of continental material into the melt. Using [varepsilon]Nd(t) values of meta-sediments that represent the Laurentian passive margin and accretionary prism, we are able to quantify the relative proportions of continent-derived melt at various stages of arc formation and accretion. Mass balance calculations show that mantle-derived magmatism contributes substantially to melt production during all stages of arc–continent collision, never accounting for less than 21% of the total. This implies that a significant addition of new, rather than recycled, continental crust can accompany arc–continent collision and continental arc magmatism.
  • Article
    Marine sedimentary records of chemical weathering evolution in the western Himalaya since 17 Ma
    (Geological Society of America, 2021-03-24) Zhou, Peng ; Ireland, Thomas ; Murray, Richard W. ; Clift, Peter D.
    The Indus Fan derives sediment from the western Himalaya and Karakoram. Sediment from International Ocean Discovery Program drill sites in the eastern part of the fan coupled with data from an industrial well near the river mouth allow the weathering history of the region since ca. 16 Ma to be reconstructed. Clay minerals, bulk sediment geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility were used to constrain degrees of chemical alteration. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to measure the abundance of moisture-sensitive minerals hematite and goethite. Indus Fan sediment is more weathered than Bengal Fan material, probably reflecting slow transport, despite the drier climate, which slows chemical weathering rates. Some chemical weathering proxies, such as K/Si or kaolinite/(illite + chlorite), show no temporal evolution, but illite crystallinity and the chemical index of alteration do have statistically measurable decreases over long time periods. Using these proxies, we suggest that sediment alteration was moderate and then increased from 13 to 11 Ma, remained high until 9 Ma, and then reduced from that time until 6 Ma in the context of reduced physical erosion during a time of increasing aridity as tracked by hematite/goethite values. The poorly defined reducing trend in weathering intensity is not clearly linked to global cooling and at least partly reflects regional climate change. Since 6 Ma, weathering has been weak but variable since a final reduction in alteration state after 3.5 Ma that correlates with the onset of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. Reduced or stable chemical weathering at a time of falling sedimentation rates is not consistent with models for Cenozoic global climate change that invoke greater Himalayan weathering fluxes drawing down atmospheric CO2 but are in accord with the idea of greater surface reactivity to weathering.
  • Preprint
    Detrital U–Pb zircon dating of lower Ordovician syn-arc-continent collision conglomerates in the Irish Caledonides
    ( 2008-04-15) Clift, Peter D. ; Carter, Andrew ; Draut, Amy E. ; Long, Hoang Van ; Chew, David M. ; Schouten, Hans A.
    The Early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British Isles represents a classic example of collision between an oceanic island arc and a passive continental margin, starting around 480 Ma. The South Mayo Trough in western Ireland preserves a complete and well-dated sedimentary record of arc collision. We sampled sandstones and conglomerates from the Rosroe, Maumtrasna and Derryveeny Formations in order to assess erosion rates and patterns during and after arc collision. U-Pb dating of zircons reveals a provenance dominated by erosion from the upper levels of the Dalradian Supergroup (Southern Highland and Argyll Groups), with up to 20% influx from the colliding arc into the Rosroe Formation, but only 6% in the Maumtrasna Formation (~465 Ma). The 24 dominant source regions lay to the northeast (e.g. in the vicinity of the Ox Mountains, 50 km distant, along strike). The older portions of the North Mayo Dalradian and its depositional basement (the Annagh Gneiss Complex) do not appear to have been important sources, while the Connemara Dalradian only plays a part after 460 Ma, when it supplies the Derryveeny Formation. By this time all erosion from the arc had effectively ceased and exhumation rates had slowed greatly. The Irish Grampian Orogeny parallels the modern Taiwan collision in showing little role for the colliding arc in the production of sediment. Negligible volumes of arc crust are lost because of erosion during accretion to the continental margin.
  • Article
    Large-scale drainage capture and surface uplift in eastern Tibet–SW China before 24 Ma inferred from sediments of the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-10-10) Clift, Peter D. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Nguyen, Anh Duc
    Current models of drainage evolution suggest that the non-dendritic patterns seen in rivers in SE Asia reflect progressive capture of headwaters away from the Red River during and as a result of surface uplift of Eastern Asia. Mass balancing of eroded and deposited rock volumes demonstrates that the Red River catchment must have been much larger in the past. In addition, the Nd isotope composition of sediments from the Hanoi Basin, Vietnam, interpreted as paleo-Red River sediments, shows rapid change during the Oligocene, before ∼24 Ma. We interpret this change to reflect large-scale drainage capture away from the Red River, possibly involving loss of the middle Yangtze River. Reorganization was triggered by regional tilting of the region towards the east. This study constrains initial surface uplift in eastern Tibet and southwestern China to be no later than 24 Ma, well before major surface uplift and gorge incision after 13 Ma.
  • Article
    Geochemical record of Holocene to Recent sedimentation on the Western Indus continental shelf, Arabian Sea
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-01-14) Limmer, David R. ; Boning, Philipp ; Giosan, Liviu ; Ponton, Camilo ; Kohler, Cornelia M. ; Cooper, Matthew J. ; Tabrez, Ali R. ; Clift, Peter D.
    We present a multiproxy geochemical analysis of two cores recovered from the Indus Shelf spanning the Early Holocene to Recent (<14 ka). Indus-23 is located close to the modern Indus River, while Indus-10 is positioned ∼100 km further west. The Holocene transgression at Indus-10 was over a surface that was strongly weathered during the last glacial sea level lowstand. Lower Holocene sediments at Indus-10 have higher εNd values compared to those at the river mouth indicating some sediment supply from the Makran coast, either during the deposition or via reworking of older sediments outcropping on the shelf. Sediment transport from Makran occurred during transgressive intervals when sea level crossed the mid shelf. The sediment flux from non-Indus sources to Indus-10 peaked between 11 ka and 8 ka. A hiatus at Indus-23 from 8 ka until 1.3 ka indicates non-deposition or erosion of existing Indus Shelf sequences. Higher εNd values seen on the shelf compared to the delta imply reworking of older delta sediments in building Holocene clinoforms. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mg/Al and Sr isotopes are all affected by erosion of detrital carbonate, which reduced through the Holocene. K/Al data suggest that silicate weathering peaked ca. 4–6 ka and was higher at Indus-10 compared to Indus-23. Fine-grained sediments that make up the shelf have geochemical signatures that are different from the coarser grained bulk sediments measured in the delta plain. The Indus Shelf data highlight the complexity of reconstructing records of continental erosion and provenance in marine settings.
  • Preprint
    Arc–continent collision and the formation of continental crust : a new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland
    ( 2008-06-23) Draut, Amy E. ; Clift, Peter D. ; Amato, Jeffrey M. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Schouten, Hans A.
    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth’s history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic Orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U–Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 ± 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 ± 10 Ma from a light-rare-earth-element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material which would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic Orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust.
  • Preprint
    Comment on “Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi - proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the late quaternary” by Ajit Singh, Debajyoti Paul, Rajiv Sinha, Kristina J. Thomsen, Sanjeev Gupta
    ( 2016-03) Clift, Peter D. ; Giosan, Liviu ; East, Amy E.
    Singh et al. (2016) published a geochemical record of sediment compositions from the flood plain of the Ghaggar River in western India and use the changing provenance, particularly as traced by Nd isotope composition, to reconstruct how erosion patterns have changed over the past 100 k.y. In doing so they propose a link between climate change and erosion, and they argue for more erosion from the Higher Himalaya during warmer interglacial periods and more from the Lesser Himalaya during glacial intervals. While we support the concept of erosion patterns being climatically modulated we here take the opportunity to compare the data presented by Singh et al. (2016) to relevant published records within the region greater Ghaggar region and to open a balanced discussion on how climate and erosion are coupled in the western Himalaya.
  • Article
    Seismic stratigraphy of the central South China Sea basin and implications for neotectonics
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-03-16) Li, Chun-Feng ; Li, Jiabiao ; Ding, Weiwei ; Franke, Dieter ; Yao, Yongjian ; Shi, Hesheng ; Pang, Xiong ; Cao, Ying ; Lin, Jian ; Kulhanek, Denise K. ; Williams, Trevor ; Bao, Rui ; Briais, Anne ; Brown, Elizabeth A. ; Chen, Yifeng ; Clift, Peter D. ; Colwell, Frederick S. ; Dadd, Kelsie A. ; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan ; Huang, Xiao-Long ; Hyun, Sangmin ; Jiang, Tao ; Koppers, Anthony A. P. ; Li, Qianyu ; Liu, Chuanlian ; Liu, Qingsong ; Liu, Zhifei ; Nagai, Renata H. ; Peleo-Alampay, Alyssa ; Su, Xin ; Sun, Zhen ; Tejada, Maria Luisa G. ; Trinh, Hai Son ; Yeh, Yi-Ching ; Zhang, Chuanlun ; Zhang, Fan ; Zhang, Guo-Liang ; Zhao, Xixi
    Coring/logging data and physical property measurements from International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 are integrated with, and correlated to, reflection seismic data to map seismic sequence boundaries and facies of the central basin and neighboring regions of the South China Sea. First-order sequence boundaries are interpreted, which are Oligocene/Miocene, middle Miocene/late Miocene, Miocene/Pliocene, and Pliocene/Pleistocene boundaries. A characteristic early Pleistocene strong reflector is also identified, which marks the top of extensive carbonate-rich deposition in the southern East and Southwest Subbasins. The fossil spreading ridge and the boundary between the East and Southwest Subbasins acted as major sedimentary barriers, across which seismic facies changes sharply and cannot be easily correlated. The sharp seismic facies change along the Miocene-Pliocene boundary indicates that a dramatic regional tectonostratigraphic event occurred at about 5 Ma, coeval with the onsets of uplift of Taiwan and accelerated subsidence and transgression in the northern margin. The depocenter or the area of the highest sedimentation rate switched from the northern East Subbasin during the Miocene to the Southwest Subbasin and the area close to the fossil ridge in the southern East Subbasin in the Pleistocene. The most active faulting and vertical uplifting now occur in the southern East Subbasin, caused most likely by the active and fastest subduction/obduction in the southern segment of the Manila Trench and the collision between the northeast Palawan and the Luzon arc. Timing of magmatic intrusions and seamounts constrained by seismic stratigraphy in the central basin varies and does not show temporal pulsing in their activities.
  • Preprint
    Geochemical evidence for initiation of the modern Mekong delta in the southwestern South China Sea after 8 Ma
    ( 2017-01) Liu, Chang ; Clift, Peter D. ; Murray, Richard W. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Ireland, Thomas ; Wan, Shiming ; Ding, Weiwei
    Sedimentary records in the southwestern South China Sea reflect the evolving erosion and drainage systems that have operated in Southeast Asia during the Neogene. Analyses of the chemistry and clay mineral composition of sediments from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1433 allow us to examine these processes over the last 17 Ma. Sediment older than 8 Ma was deposited relatively slowly. Sr and Nd isotopes indicate a variable provenance with sequences of less and more altered material accompanied by strong changes in the proportion of smectite. Sediment flux was probably from Indochina, as well as from a more primitive volcanic source, most likely the Palawan ophiolite and/or Luzon. Sediments younger than 8 Ma show a more stable Sr and Nd isotope character, indicating sources close to those seen in the modern Mekong River, although with some influx from smaller rivers draining the Indochina margin especially from 4–8 Ma. Our data are consistent with seismic estimates for an onset to the Mekong in its present location after 8 Ma, following an avulsion from the Gulf of Thailand.
  • Preprint
    A detailed geochemical study of island arc crust : the Talkeetna Arc section, south–central Alaska
    ( 2005-12-23) Greene, Andrew R. ; Debari, Susan M. ; Kelemen, Peter B. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Clift, Peter D.
    The Early to Middle Jurassic Talkeetna Arc section exposed in the Chugach Mountains of south central Alaska is 5-18 km wide and extends for over 150 km. This accreted island arc includes exposures of upper mantle to volcanic upper crust. The section comprises six lithologic units, in order of decreasing depth: (1) residual upper mantle harzburgite (with lesser proportions of dunite); (2) pyroxenite; (3) basal gabbronorite; (4) lower crustal gabbronorite; (5) mid-crustal plutonic rocks; and (6) volcanic rocks. The pyroxenites overlie residual mantle peridotite, with some interfingering of the two along the contact. The basal gabbronorite overlies pyroxenite, again with some interfingering of the two different units along their contact. Lower crustal gabbronorite (≤10 km thick) includes abundant rocks with well developed modal layering. The mid-crustal plutonic rocks include a heterogeneous assemblage of gabbroic rocks, dioritic to tonalitic rocks (30-40% area), and concentrations of mafic dikes and chilled mafic inclusions. The volcanic rocks (~7 km thick) range from basalt to rhyolite. Many of the evolved volcanic compositions are a result of fractional crystallisation processes whose cumulate products are directly observable in the lower crustal gabbronorites. For example, Ti and Eu enrichments in lower crustal gabbronorites are mirrored by Ti and Eu depletions in evolved volcanics. In addition, calculated parental liquids from ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in lower crustal gabbronorites indicate that the clinopyroxenes crystallised in equilibrium with liquids whose compositions were the same as the compositions of volcanic rocks. The compositional variation of the main series of volcanic and chilled mafic rocks can be modeled through fractionation of observed phase compositions and phase proportions in lower crustal gabbronorite (i.e. cumulates). Primary, mantle-derived melts in the Talkeetna Arc underwent fractionation of pyroxenite at the base of the crust. Our calculations suggest that more than 25 wt % of the primary melts crystallised as pyroxenites at the base of the crust. The discrepancy between the observed proportion of pyroxenites (less than 5% of the arc section) and the proportion required by crystal fractionation modeling (more than 25%) may be best understood as the result of gravitational instability, with dense ultramafic cumulates, probably together with dense garnet granulites, foundering into the underlying mantle during the time when the Talkeetna Arc was magmatically active, or in the initial phases of slow cooling (and sub-solidus garnet growth) immediately after the cessation of arc activity.
  • Article
    Holocene evolution in weathering and erosion patterns in the Pearl River delta
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-07-26) Hu, Dengke ; Clift, Peter D. ; Boning, Philipp ; Hannigan, Robyn E. ; Hillier, Stephen ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Wan, Shiming ; Fuller, Dorian Q.
    Sediments in the Pearl River delta have the potential to record the weathering response of this river basin to climate change since 9.5 ka, most notably weakening of the Asian monsoon since the Early Holocene (∼8 ka). Cores from the Pearl River delta show a clear temporal evolution of weathering intensity, as measured by K/Al, K/Rb, and clay mineralogy, that shows deposition of less weathered sediment at a time of weakening monsoon rainfall in the Early-Mid Holocene (6.0–2.5 ka). This may reflect an immediate response to a less humid climate, or more likely reduced reworking of older deposits from river terraces as the monsoon weakened. Human settlement of the Pearl River basin may have had a major impact on landscape and erosion as a result of the establishment of widespread agriculture. After around 2.5 ka weathering intensity sharply increased, despite limited change in the monsoon, but at a time when anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., Cu, Zn, and Pb) increased and when the flora of the basin changed. 87Sr/86Sr covaries with these other proxies but is also partly influenced by the presence of carbonate. The sediments in the modern Pearl River are even more weathered than the youngest material from the delta cores. We infer that the spread of farming into the Pearl River basin around 2.7 ka was followed by a widespread reworking of old, weathered soils after 2.5 ka, and large-scale disruption of the river system that was advanced by 2.0 ka.
  • Article
    Neoglacial climate anomalies and the Harappan metamorphosis
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2018-11-13) Giosan, Liviu ; Orsi, William D. ; Coolen, Marco J. L. ; Wuchter, Cornelia ; Dunlea, Ann G. ; Thirumalai, Kaustubh ; Munoz, Samuel E. ; Clift, Peter D. ; Donnelly, Jeffrey P. ; Galy, Valier ; Fuller, Dorian Q.
    Climate exerted constraints on the growth and decline of past human societies but our knowledge of temporal and spatial climatic patterns is often too restricted to address causal connections. At a global scale, the inter-hemispheric thermal balance provides an emergent framework for understanding regional Holocene climate variability. As the thermal balance adjusted to gradual changes in the seasonality of insolation, the Intertropical Convergence Zone migrated southward accompanied by a weakening of the Indian summer monsoon. Superimposed on this trend, anomalies such as the Little Ice Age point to asymmetric changes in the extratropics of either hemisphere. Here we present a reconstruction of the Indian winter monsoon in the Arabian Sea for the last 6000 years based on paleobiological records in sediments from the continental margin of Pakistan at two levels of ecological complexity: sedimentary ancient DNA reflecting water column environmental states and planktonic foraminifers sensitive to winter conditions. We show that strong winter monsoons between ca. 4500 and 3000 years ago occurred during a period characterized by a series of weak interhemispheric temperature contrast intervals, which we identify as the early neoglacial anomalies (ENA). The strong winter monsoons during ENA were accompanied by changes in wind and precipitation patterns that are particularly evident across the eastern Northern Hemisphere and tropics. This coordinated climate reorganization may have helped trigger the metamorphosis of the urban Harappan civilization into a rural society through a push–pull migration from summer flood-deficient river valleys to the Himalayan piedmont plains with augmented winter rains. The decline in the winter monsoon between 3300 and 3000 years ago at the end of ENA could have played a role in the demise of the rural late Harappans during that time as the first Iron Age culture established itself on the Ghaggar-Hakra interfluve. Finally, we speculate that time-transgressive land cover changes due to aridification of the tropics may have led to a generalized instability of the global climate during ENA at the transition from the warmer Holocene thermal maximum to the cooler Neoglacial.