Bao Rui

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Soothsaying DOM: A current perspective on the future of oceanic dissolved organic carbon
    (Frontiers Media, 2020-05-25) Wagner, Sasha ; Schubotz, Florence ; Kaiser, Karl ; Hallmann, Christian ; Waska, Hannelore ; Rossel, Pamela ; Hansman, Roberta L. ; Elvert, Marcus ; Middelburg, Jack J. ; Engel, Anja ; Blattmann, Thomas M. ; Catalá, Teresa S. ; Lennartz, Sinikka T. ; Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V. ; Pantoja-Gutiérrez, Silvio ; Bao, Rui ; Galy, Valier
    The vast majority of freshly produced oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is derived from marine phytoplankton, then rapidly recycled by heterotrophic microbes. A small fraction of this DOC survives long enough to be routed to the interior ocean, which houses the largest and oldest DOC reservoir. DOC reactivity depends upon its intrinsic chemical composition and extrinsic environmental conditions. Therefore, recalcitrance is an emergent property of DOC that is analytically difficult to constrain. New isotopic techniques that track the flow of carbon through individual organic molecules show promise in unveiling specific biosynthetic or degradation pathways that control the metabolic turnover of DOC and its accumulation in the deep ocean. However, a multivariate approach is required to constrain current carbon fluxes so that we may better predict how the cycling of oceanic DOC will be altered with continued climate change. Ocean warming, acidification, and oxygen depletion may upset the balance between the primary production and heterotrophic reworking of DOC, thus modifying the amount and/or composition of recalcitrant DOC. Climate change and anthropogenic activities may enhance mobilization of terrestrial DOC and/or stimulate DOC production in coastal waters, but it is unclear how this would affect the flux of DOC to the open ocean. Here, we assess current knowledge on the oceanic DOC cycle and identify research gaps that must be addressed to successfully implement its use in global scale carbon models.
  • Article
    Ages and magnetic structures of the South China Sea constrained by deep tow magnetic surveys and IODP Expedition 349
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-12-27) Li, Chun-Feng ; Xu, Xing ; Lin, Jian ; Sun, Zhen ; Zhu, Jian ; Yao, Yongjian ; Zhao, Xixi ; Liu, Qingsong ; Kulhanek, Denise K. ; Wang, Jian ; Song, Taoran ; Zhao, Junfeng ; Qiu, Ning ; Guan, Yongxian ; Zhou, Zhiyuan ; Williams, Trevor ; Bao, Rui ; Briais, Anne ; Brown, Elizabeth A. ; Chen, Yifeng ; Clift, Peter D. ; Colwell, Frederick S. ; Dadd, Kelsie A. ; Ding, Weiwei ; Almeida, Ivan Hernandez ; Huang, Xiao-Long ; Hyun, Sangmin ; Jiang, Tao ; Koppers, Anthony A. P. ; Li, Qianyu ; Liu, Chuanlian ; Liu, Zhifei ; Nagai, Renata H. ; Peleo-Alampay, Alyssa ; Su, Xin ; Tejada, Maria Luisa G. ; Trinh, Hai Son ; Yeh, Yi-Ching ; Zhang, Chuanlun ; Zhang, Fan ; Zhang, Guo-Liang
    Combined analyses of deep tow magnetic anomalies and International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 cores show that initial seafloor spreading started around 33 Ma in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS), but varied slightly by 1–2 Myr along the northern continent-ocean boundary (COB). A southward ridge jump of ∼20 km occurred around 23.6 Ma in the East Subbasin; this timing also slightly varied along the ridge and was coeval to the onset of seafloor spreading in the Southwest Subbasin, which propagated for about 400 km southwestward from ∼23.6 to ∼21.5 Ma. The terminal age of seafloor spreading is ∼15 Ma in the East Subbasin and ∼16 Ma in the Southwest Subbasin. The full spreading rate in the East Subbasin varied largely from ∼20 to ∼80 km/Myr, but mostly decreased with time except for the period between ∼26.0 Ma and the ridge jump (∼23.6 Ma), within which the rate was the fastest at ∼70 km/Myr on average. The spreading rates are not correlated, in most cases, to magnetic anomaly amplitudes that reflect basement magnetization contrasts. Shipboard magnetic measurements reveal at least one magnetic reversal in the top 100 m of basaltic layers, in addition to large vertical intensity variations. These complexities are caused by late-stage lava flows that are magnetized in a different polarity from the primary basaltic layer emplaced during the main phase of crustal accretion. Deep tow magnetic modeling also reveals this smearing in basement magnetizations by incorporating a contamination coefficient of 0.5, which partly alleviates the problem of assuming a magnetic blocking model of constant thickness and uniform magnetization. The primary contribution to magnetic anomalies of the SCS is not in the top 100 m of the igneous basement.
  • Article
    Seismic stratigraphy of the central South China Sea basin and implications for neotectonics
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-03-16) Li, Chun-Feng ; Li, Jiabiao ; Ding, Weiwei ; Franke, Dieter ; Yao, Yongjian ; Shi, Hesheng ; Pang, Xiong ; Cao, Ying ; Lin, Jian ; Kulhanek, Denise K. ; Williams, Trevor ; Bao, Rui ; Briais, Anne ; Brown, Elizabeth A. ; Chen, Yifeng ; Clift, Peter D. ; Colwell, Frederick S. ; Dadd, Kelsie A. ; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan ; Huang, Xiao-Long ; Hyun, Sangmin ; Jiang, Tao ; Koppers, Anthony A. P. ; Li, Qianyu ; Liu, Chuanlian ; Liu, Qingsong ; Liu, Zhifei ; Nagai, Renata H. ; Peleo-Alampay, Alyssa ; Su, Xin ; Sun, Zhen ; Tejada, Maria Luisa G. ; Trinh, Hai Son ; Yeh, Yi-Ching ; Zhang, Chuanlun ; Zhang, Fan ; Zhang, Guo-Liang ; Zhao, Xixi
    Coring/logging data and physical property measurements from International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 are integrated with, and correlated to, reflection seismic data to map seismic sequence boundaries and facies of the central basin and neighboring regions of the South China Sea. First-order sequence boundaries are interpreted, which are Oligocene/Miocene, middle Miocene/late Miocene, Miocene/Pliocene, and Pliocene/Pleistocene boundaries. A characteristic early Pleistocene strong reflector is also identified, which marks the top of extensive carbonate-rich deposition in the southern East and Southwest Subbasins. The fossil spreading ridge and the boundary between the East and Southwest Subbasins acted as major sedimentary barriers, across which seismic facies changes sharply and cannot be easily correlated. The sharp seismic facies change along the Miocene-Pliocene boundary indicates that a dramatic regional tectonostratigraphic event occurred at about 5 Ma, coeval with the onsets of uplift of Taiwan and accelerated subsidence and transgression in the northern margin. The depocenter or the area of the highest sedimentation rate switched from the northern East Subbasin during the Miocene to the Southwest Subbasin and the area close to the fossil ridge in the southern East Subbasin in the Pleistocene. The most active faulting and vertical uplifting now occur in the southern East Subbasin, caused most likely by the active and fastest subduction/obduction in the southern segment of the Manila Trench and the collision between the northeast Palawan and the Luzon arc. Timing of magmatic intrusions and seamounts constrained by seismic stratigraphy in the central basin varies and does not show temporal pulsing in their activities.
  • Article
    Organic carbon aging during across‐shelf transport
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-08-22) Bao, Rui ; Uchida, Masao ; Zhao, Meixun ; Haghipour, Negar ; Montlucon, Daniel B. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Hayes, John M. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Compound‐specific radiocarbon analysis was performed on different grain‐size fractions of surficial sediments to examine and compare lateral transport times (LTTs) of organic carbon. 14C aging of long‐chain leaf wax fatty acids along two dispersal pathways of fluvially derived material on adjacent continental margins implies LTTs over distances of ~30 to 500 km that range from hundreds to thousands of years. The magnitude of aging differs among grain size fractions. Our finding suggests that LTTs vary both temporally and spatially as a function of the specific properties of different continental shelf settings. Observations suggest that 14C aging is widespread during lateral transport over continental shelves, with hydrodynamic particle sorting inducing age variations among organic components residing in different grain sizes. Consideration of these phenomena is of importance for understanding carbon cycle processes and interpretation on sedimentary records on continental margins.
  • Article
    On the origin of aged sedimentary organic matter along a river-shelf-deep ocean transect
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-08-12) Bao, Rui ; Zhao, Meixun ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Wu, Ying ; Guo, Xinyu ; Haghipour, Negar ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    To assess the influences of carbon sources and transport processes on the 14C age of organic matter (OM) in continental margin sediments, we examined a suite of samples collected along a river‐shelf‐deep ocean transect in the East China Sea (ECS). Ramped pyrolysis‐oxidiation was conducted on suspended particulate matter in the Yangtze River and on surface sediments from the ECS shelf and northern Okinawa Trough. 14C ages were determined on OM decomposition products within different temperature windows. These measurements suggest that extensive amounts of pre‐old (i.e., millennial age) organic carbon (OC) are subject to degradation within and beyond the Yangtze River Delta, and this process is accompanied by an exchange of terrestrial and marine OM. These results, combined with fatty acid concentration data, suggest that both the nature and extent of OM preservation/degradation as well as the modes of transport influence the 14C ages of sedimentary OM. Additionally, we find that the age of (thermally) refractory OC increases during across‐shelf transport and that the age offset between the lowest and highest temperature OC decomposition fractions also increases along the shelf‐to‐trough transect. Amplified interfraction spread or 14C heterogeneity is the greatest in the Okinawa Trough. Aged sedimentary OM across the transect may be a consequence of several reasons including fossil OC input, selective degradation of younger OC, hydrodynamic sorting processes, and aging during lateral transport. Consequently, each of them should be considered in assessing the 14C results of sedimentary OM and its implications for the carbon cycle and interpretation of sedimentary records.
  • Article
    Tectonically-triggered sediment and carbon export to the Hadal zone
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-01-09) Bao, Rui ; Strasser, Michael ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Wefer, Gerold ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Sediments in deep ocean trenches may contain crucial information on past earthquake history and constitute important sites of carbon burial. Here we present 14C data on bulk organic carbon (OC) and its thermal decomposition fractions produced by ramped pyrolysis/oxidation for a core retrieved from the >7.5 km-deep Japan Trench. High-resolution 14C measurements, coupled with distinctive thermogram characteristics of OC, reveal hemipelagic sedimentation interrupted by episodic deposition of pre-aged OC in the trench. Low δ13C values and diverse 14C ages of thermal fractions imply that the latter material originates from the adjacent margin, and the co-occurrence of pre-aged OC with intervals corresponding to known earthquake events implies tectonically triggered, gravity-flow-driven supply. We show that 14C ages of thermal fractions can yield valuable chronological constraints on sedimentary sequences. Our findings shed new light on links between tectonically driven sedimentological processes and marine carbon cycling, with implications for carbon dynamics in hadal environments.