Moriarty Julia M.

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Julia M.

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Article
    Impact of seabed resuspension on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics in the northern Gulf of Mexico : a numerical modeling study
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-10-15) Moriarty, Julia M. ; Harris, Courtney K. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Fennel, Katja ; Xu, Kehui
    Resuspension affects water quality in coastal environments by entraining seabed organic matter into the water column, which can increase remineralization, alter seabed fluxes, decrease water clarity, and affect oxygen and nutrient dynamics. Nearly all numerical models of water column biogeochemistry, however, simplify seabed and bottom boundary layer processes and neglect resuspension. Here we implemented HydroBioSed, a coupled hydrodynamic‐sediment transport‐biogeochemical model to examine the role of resuspension in regulating oxygen and nitrogen dynamics on timescales of a day to a month. The model was implemented for the northern Gulf of Mexico, where the extent of summertime hypoxia is sensitive to seabed and bottom boundary layer processes. Results indicated that particulate organic matter remineralization in the bottom water column increased by an order of magnitude during resuspension events. This increased sediment oxygen consumption and ammonium production, which were defined as the sum of seabed fluxes of oxygen and ammonium, plus oxygen consumption and ammonium production in the water column due to resuspended organic matter. The increases in remineralization impacted biogeochemical dynamics to a greater extent than resuspension‐induced seabed fluxes and oxidation of reduced chemical species. The effect of resuspension on bottom water biogeochemistry increased with particulate organic matter availability, which was modulated by sediment transport patterns. Overall, when averaged over the shelf and on timescales of a month in the numerical model, cycles of erosion and deposition accounted for about two thirds of sediment oxygen consumption and almost all of the sediment ammonium production.
  • Article
    Role of tidal wetland stability in lateral fluxes of particulate organic matter and carbon
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-04-23) Ganju, Neil K. ; Defne, Zafer ; Elsey-Quirk, Tracy ; Moriarty, Julia M.
    Tidal wetland fluxes of particulate organic matter and carbon (POM, POC) are important terms in global budgets but remain poorly constrained. Given the link between sediment fluxes and wetland stability, POM and POC fluxes should also be related to stability. We measured POM and POC fluxes in eight microtidal salt marsh channels, with net POM fluxes ranging between −121 ± 33 (export) and 102 ± 28 (import) g OM·m−2·year−1 and net POC fluxes ranging between −52 ± 14 and 43 ± 12 g C·m−2·year−1. A regression employing two measures of stability, the unvegetated‐vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) and elevation, explained >95% of the variation in net fluxes. The regression indicates that marshes with lower elevation and UVVR import POM and POC while higher elevation marshes with high UVVR export POM and POC. We applied these relationships to marsh units within Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, USA, finding a net POM import of 2,355 ± 1,570 Mg OM/year (15 ± 10 g OM·m−2·year−1) and a net POC import of 1,263 ± 632 Mg C/year (8 ± 4 g C·m−2·year−1). The magnitude of this import was similar to an estimate of POM and POC export due to edge erosion (−2,535 Mg OM/year and − 1,291 Mg C/year), suggesting that this system may be neutral from a POM and POC perspective. In terms of a net budget, a disintegrating wetland should release organic material, while a stable wetland should trap material. This study quantifies that concept and demonstrates a linkage between POM/POC flux and geomorphic stability.
  • Article
    Modeling marsh dynamics using a 3-D coupled wave-flow-sediment model
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-11-02) Kalra, Tarandeep S. ; Ganju, Neil K. ; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L. ; Carr, Joel A. ; Defne, Zafer ; Moriarty, Julia M.
    Salt marshes are dynamic biogeomorphic systems that respond to external physical factors, including tides, sediment transport, and waves, as well as internal processes such as autochthonous soil formation. Predicting the fate of marshes requires a modeling framework that accounts for these processes in a coupled fashion. In this study, we implement two new marsh dynamic processes in the 3-D COAWST (coupled-ocean-atmosphere-wave sediment transport) model. The processes added are the erosion of the marsh edge scarp caused by lateral wave thrust from surface waves and vertical accretion driven by biomass production on the marsh platform. The sediment released from the marsh during edge erosion causes a change in bathymetry, thereby modifying the wave-energy reaching the marsh edge. Marsh vertical accretion due to biomass production is considered for a single vegetation species and is determined by the hydroperiod parameters (tidal datums) and the elevation of the marsh cells. Tidal datums are stored at user-defined intervals as a hindcast (on the order of days) and used to update the vertical growth formulation. Idealized domains are utilized to verify the lateral wave thrust formulation and show the dynamics of lateral wave erosion leading to horizontal retreat of marsh edge. The simulations of Reedy and Dinner Creeks within the Barnegat Bay estuary system demonstrate the model capability to account for both lateral wave erosion and vertical accretion due to biomass production in a realistic marsh complex. The simulations show that vertical accretion is dominated by organic deposition in the marsh interior, whereas deposition of mineral estuarine sediments occurs predominantly along the channel edges. The ability of the model to capture the fate of the sediment can be extended to model to simulate the impacts of future storms and relative sea-level rise (RSLR) scenarios on salt-marsh ecomorphodynamics.
  • Article
    Contribution of hurricane-induced sediment resuspension to coastal oxygen dynamics
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-10-24) Bianucci, Laura ; Balaguru, Karthik ; Smith, Richard W. ; Leung, L. Ruby ; Moriarty, Julia M.
    Hurricanes passing over the ocean can mix the water column down to great depths and resuspend massive volumes of sediments on the continental shelves. Consequently, organic carbon and reduced inorganic compounds associated with these sediments can be resuspended from anaerobic portions of the seabed and re-exposed to dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water column. This process can drive DO consumption as sediments become oxidized. Previous studies have investigated the effect of hurricanes on DO in different coastal regions of the world, highlighting the alleviation of hypoxic conditions by extreme winds, which drive vertical mixing and re-aeration of the water column. However, the effect of hurricane-induced resuspended sediments on DO has been neglected. Here, using a diverse suite of datasets for the northern Gulf of Mexico, we find that in the few days after a hurricane passage, decomposition of resuspended shelf sediments consumes up to a fifth of the DO added to the bottom of the water column during vertical mixing. Despite uncertainty in this value, we highlight the potential significance of this mechanism for DO dynamics. Overall, sediment resuspension likely occurs over all continental shelves affected by tropical cyclones, potentially impacting global cycles of marine DO and carbon.