Popovic Marko

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  • Article
    A versatile and open-source rapid LED switching system for one-photon imaging and photo-activation
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-01-17) Battefeld, Arne ; Popovic, Marko ; van der Werf, Dirk ; Kole, Maarten H. P.
    Combining fluorescence and transmitted light sources for microscopy is an invaluable method in cellular neuroscience to probe the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cells. This approach enables the targeted recording from fluorescent reporter protein expressing neurons or glial cells in brain slices and fluorescence-assisted electrophysiological recordings from subcellular structures. However, the existing tools to mix multiple light sources in one-photon microscopy are limited. Here, we present the development of several microcontroller devices that provide temporal and intensity control of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for computer controlled microscopy illumination. We interfaced one microcontroller with μManager for rapid and dynamic overlay of transmitted and fluorescent images. Moreover, on the basis of this illumination system we implemented an electronic circuit to combine two pulsed LED light sources for fast (up to 1 kHz) ratiometric calcium (Ca2+) imaging. This microcontroller enabled the calibration of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and furthermore the combination of Ca2+ imaging with optogenetic activation. The devices are based on affordable components and open-source hardware and software. Integration into existing bright-field microscope systems will take ∼1 day. The microcontroller based LED imaging substantially advances conventional illumination methods by limiting light exposure and adding versatility and speed.
  • Article
    Functional structure of the mitral cell dendritic tuft in the rat olfactory bulb
    (Society for Neuroscience, 2008-04-09) Djurisic, Maja ; Popovic, Marko ; Carnevale, Nicholas ; Zecevic, Dejan
    The input–output transform performed by mitral cells, the principal projection neurons of the olfactory bulb, is one of the key factors in understanding olfaction. We used combined calcium and voltage imaging from the same neuron and computer modeling to investigate signal processing in the mitral cells, focusing on the glomerular dendritic tuft. The main finding was that the dendritic tuft functions as a single electrical compartment for subthreshold signals within the range of amplitudes detectable by voltage-sensitive dye recording. These evoked EPSPs had uniform characteristics throughout the glomerular tuft. The Ca2+ transients associated with spatially uniform subthreshold synaptic potentials were comparable but not equal in amplitude in all regions. The average range of normalized amplitudes of the EPSP-driven Ca2+ signals from different locations on dendritic branches in the glomerular tuft was relatively narrow and appeared to be independent of the dendritic surface-to-volume ratio. The computer simulations constrained by the imaging data indicated that a synchronized activation of ~100 synapses randomly distributed on tuft branches was sufficient to generate spatially homogenous EPSPs. This number of activated synapses is consistent with the data from anatomical studies. Furthermore, voltage attenuation of the EPSP along the primary dendrite at physiological temperature was weak compared with other cell types. In the model, weak attenuation of the EPSP along the primary dendrite could be accounted for by passive electrical properties of the mitral cell.