de Moor J. Maarten
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ArticleThe helium and carbon isotope characteristics of the Andean Convergent Margin(Frontiers Media, 2022-06-13) Barry, Peter H. ; de Moor, J. Maarten ; Chiodi, Agostina ; Aguilera, Felipe ; Hudak, Michael R. ; Bekaert, David V. ; Turner, Stephen ; Curtice, Joshua ; Seltzer, Alan M. ; Jessen, Gerdhard L. ; Osses, Esteban ; Blamey, Jenny M. ; Amenabar, Maximiliano J. ; Selci, Matteo ; Cascone, Martina ; Bastianoni, Alessia ; Nakagawa, Mayuko ; Filipovich, Rubén ; Bustos, Emilce ; Schrenk, Matthew O. ; Buongiorno, Joy ; Ramirez, Carlos J. ; Rogers, Timothy J. ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Giovannelli, DonatoSubduction zones represent the interface between Earth’s interior (crust and mantle) and exterior (atmosphere and oceans), where carbon and other volatile elements are actively cycled between Earth reservoirs by plate tectonics. Helium is a sensitive tracer of volatile sources and can be used to deconvolute mantle and crustal sources in arcs; however it is not thought to be recycled into the mantle by subduction processes. In contrast, carbon is readily recycled, mostly in the form of carbon-rich sediments, and can thus be used to understand volatile delivery via subduction. Further, carbon is chemically-reactive and isotope fractionation can be used to determine the main processes controlling volatile movements within arc systems. Here, we report helium isotope and abundance data for 42 deeply-sourced fluid and gas samples from the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) and Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of the Andean Convergent Margin (ACM). Data are used to assess the influence of subduction parameters (e.g., crustal thickness, subduction inputs, and convergence rate) on the composition of volatiles in surface volcanic fluid and gas emissions. He isotopes from the CVZ backarc range from 0.1 to 2.6 RA (n = 23), with the highest values in the Puna and the lowest in the Sub-Andean foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Atmosphere-corrected He isotopes from the SVZ range from 0.7 to 5.0 RA (n = 19). Taken together, these data reveal a clear southeastward increase in 3He/4He, with the highest values (in the SVZ) falling below the nominal range associated with pure upper mantle helium (8 ± 1 RA), approaching the mean He isotope value for arc gases of (5.4 ± 1.9 RA). Notably, the lowest values are found in the CVZ, suggesting more significant crustal inputs (i.e., assimilation of 4He) to the helium budget. The crustal thickness in the CVZ (up to 70 km) is significantly larger than in the SVZ, where it is just ∼40 km. We suggest that crustal thickness exerts a primary control on the extent of fluid-crust interaction, as helium and other volatiles rise through the upper plate in the ACM. We also report carbon isotopes from (n = 11) sites in the CVZ, where δ13C varies between −15.3‰ and −1.2‰ [vs. Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB)] and CO2/3He values that vary by over two orders of magnitude (6.9 × 108–1.7 × 1011). In the SVZ, carbon isotope ratios are also reported from (n = 13) sites and vary between −17.2‰ and −4.1‰. CO2/3He values vary by over four orders of magnitude (4.7 × 107–1.7 × 1012). Low δ13C and CO2/3He values are consistent with CO2 removal (e.g., calcite precipitation and gas dissolution) in shallow hydrothermal systems. Carbon isotope fractionation modeling suggests that calcite precipitation occurs at temperatures coincident with the upper temperature limit for life (122°C), suggesting that biology may play a role in C-He systematics of arc-related volcanic fluid and gas emissions.
ArticleHelium, inorganic and organic carbon isotopes of fluids and gases across the Costa Rica convergent margin(Nature Research, 2019-11-25) Barry, Peter H. ; Nakagawa, Mayuko ; Giovannelli, Donato ; de Moor, J. Maarten ; Schrenk, Matthew O. ; Seltzer, Alan M. ; Manini, Elena ; Fattorini, Daniele ; di Carlo, Marta ; Regoli, Francesco ; Fullerton, Katherine ; Lloyd, Karen G.In 2017, fluid and gas samples were collected across the Costa Rican Arc. He and Ne isotopes, C isotopes as well as total organic and inorganic carbon concentrations were measured. The samples (n = 24) from 2017 are accompanied by (n = 17) samples collected in 2008, 2010 and 2012. He-isotopes ranged from arc-like (6.8 RA) to crustal (0.5 RA). Measured dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) δ13CVPDB values varied from 3.55 to −21.57‰, with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) following the trends of DIC. Gas phase CO2 only occurs within ~20 km of the arc; δ13CVPDB values varied from −0.84 to −5.23‰. Onsite, pH, conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured; pH ranged from 0.9–10.0, conductivity from 200–91,900 μS/cm, temperatures from 23–89 °C and DO from 2–84%. Data were used to develop a model which suggests that ~91 ± 4.0% of carbon released from the slab/mantle beneath the Costa Rican forearc is sequestered within the crust by calcite deposition with an additional 3.3 ± 1.3% incorporated into autotrophic biomass.
ArticleHigh (3)He/(4)He in central Panama reveals a distal connection to the Galápagos plume(National Academy of Sciences, 2021-11-23) Bekaert, David V. ; Gazel, Esteban ; Turner, Stephen ; Behn, Mark D. ; de Moor, J. Maarten ; Zahirovic, Sabin ; Manea, Vlad C. ; Hoernle, Kaj A. ; Fischer, Tobias P. ; Hammerstrom, Alexander ; Seltzer, Alan M. ; Kulongoski, Justin T. ; Patel, Bina S. ; Schrenk, Matthew O. ; Halldórsson, Saemundur ; Nakagawa, Mayuko ; Ramírez, Carlos J. ; Krantz, John A. ; Yucel, Mustafa ; Ballentine, Christopher J. ; Giovannelli, Donato ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Barry, Peter H.It is well established that mantle plumes are the main conduits for upwelling geochemically enriched material from Earth's deep interior. The fashion and extent to which lateral flow processes at shallow depths may disperse enriched mantle material far (>1,000 km) from vertical plume conduits, however, remain poorly constrained. Here, we report He and C isotope data from 65 hydrothermal fluids from the southern Central America Margin (CAM) which reveal strikingly high 3He/4He (up to 8.9RA) in low-temperature (≤50 °C) geothermal springs of central Panama that are not associated with active volcanism. Following radiogenic correction, these data imply a mantle source 3He/4He >10.3RA (and potentially up to 26RA, similar to Galápagos hotspot lavas) markedly greater than the upper mantle range (8 ± 1RA). Lava geochemistry (Pb isotopes, Nb/U, and Ce/Pb) and geophysical constraints show that high 3He/4He values in central Panama are likely derived from the infiltration of a Galápagos plume–like mantle through a slab window that opened ∼8 Mya. Two potential transport mechanisms can explain the connection between the Galápagos plume and the slab window: 1) sublithospheric transport of Galápagos plume material channeled by lithosphere thinning along the Panama Fracture Zone or 2) active upwelling of Galápagos plume material blown by a “mantle wind” toward the CAM. We present a model of global mantle flow that supports the second mechanism, whereby most of the eastward transport of Galápagos plume material occurs in the shallow asthenosphere. These findings underscore the potential for lateral mantle flow to transport mantle geochemical heterogeneities thousands of kilometers away from plume conduits.
ArticleSampling across large-scale geological gradients to study geosphere–biosphere interactions(Frontiers Media, 2022-10-31) Giovannelli, Donato ; Barry, Peter H. ; de Moor, J. Maarten ; Jessen, Gerdhard L. ; Schrenk, Matthew O. ; Lloyd, Karen G.Despite being one of the largest microbial ecosystems on Earth, many basic open questions remain about how life exists and thrives in the deep subsurface biosphere. Much of this ambiguity is due to the fact that it is exceedingly difficult and often prohibitively expensive to directly sample the deep subsurface, requiring elaborate drilling programs or access to deep mines. We propose a sampling approach which involves collection of a large suite of geological, geochemical, and biological data from numerous deeply-sourced seeps—including lower temperature sites—over large spatial scales. This enables research into interactions between the geosphere and the biosphere, expanding the classical local approach to regional or even planetary scales. Understanding the interplay between geology, geochemistry and biology on such scales is essential for building subsurface ecosystem models and extrapolating the ecological and biogeochemical roles of subsurface microbes beyond single site interpretations. This approach has been used successfully across the Central and South American Convergent Margins, and can be applied more broadly to other types of geological regions (i.e., rifting, intraplate volcanic, and hydrothermal settings). Working across geological spatial scales inherently encompasses broad temporal scales (e.g., millions of years of volatile cycling across a convergent margin), providing access to a framework for interpreting evolution and ecosystem functions through deep time and space. We propose that tectonic interactions are fundamental to maintaining planetary habitability through feedbacks that stabilize the ecosphere, and deep biosphere studies are fundamental to understanding geo-bio feedbacks on these processes on a global scale.
ArticleUltrahigh-precision noble gas isotope analyses reveal pervasive subsurface fractionation in hydrothermal systems(American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2023-03-16) Bekaert, David V. ; Barry, Peter H. ; Broadley, Michael W. ; Byrne, David J. ; Marty, Bernard ; Ramírez, Carlos J. ; de Moor, J Maarten ; Rodriguez, Alejandro ; Hudak, Michael R. ; Subhas, Adam V. ; Halldórsson, Saemundur A. ; Stefánsson, Andri ; Caracausi, Antonio ; Lloyd, Karen G. ; Giovannelli, Donato ; Seltzer, Alan M.Mantle-derived noble gases in volcanic gases are powerful tracers of terrestrial volatile evolution, as they contain mixtures of both primordial (from Earth's accretion) and secondary (e.g., radiogenic) isotope signals that characterize the composition of deep Earth. However, volcanic gases emitted through subaerial hydrothermal systems also contain contributions from shallow reservoirs (groundwater, crust, atmosphere). Deconvolving deep and shallow source signals is critical for robust interpretations of mantle-derived signals. Here, we use a novel dynamic mass spectrometry technique to measure argon, krypton, and xenon isotopes in volcanic gas with ultrahigh precision. Data from Iceland, Germany, United States (Yellowstone, Salton Sea), Costa Rica, and Chile show that subsurface isotope fractionation within hydrothermal systems is a globally pervasive and previously unrecognized process causing substantial nonradiogenic Ar-Kr-Xe isotope variations. Quantitatively accounting for this process is vital for accurately interpreting mantle-derived volatile (e.g., noble gas and nitrogen) signals, with profound implications for our understanding of terrestrial volatile evolution.