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ArticleTargeted ocean sampling guidance for tropical cyclones(John Wiley & Sons, 2017-05-13) Chen, Sue ; Cummings, James A. ; Schmidt, Jerome M. ; Sanabia, Elizabeth ; Jayne, Steven R.A 3-D variational ocean data assimilation adjoint approach is used to examine the impact of ocean observations on coupled tropical cyclone (TC) model forecast error for three recent hurricanes: Isaac (2012), Hilda (2015), and Matthew (2016). In addition, this methodology is applied to develop an innovative ocean observation targeting tool validated using TC model simulations that assimilate ocean temperature observed by Airborne eXpendable Bathy Thermographs and Air-Launched Autonomous Micro-Observer floats. Comparison between the simulated targeted and real observation data assimilation impacts reveals a positive maximum mean linear correlation of 0.53 at 400–500 m, which implies some skill in the targeting application. Targeted ocean observation regions from these three hurricanes, however, show that the largest positive impacts in reducing the TC model forecast errors are sensitive to the initial prestorm ocean conditions such as the location and magnitude of preexisting ocean eddies, storm-induced ocean cold wake, and model track errors.
ArticleThe air-sea response during Hurricane Irma's (2017) rapid intensification over the Amazon-Orinoco River plume as measured by atmospheric and oceanic observations(American Geophysical Union, 2020-06-12) Rudzin, Johna E. ; Chen, Sue ; Sanabia, Elizabeth ; Jayne, Steven R.Hurricane Irma (2017) underwent rapid intensification (RI) while passing over the Amazon‐Orinoco River plume in the tropical Atlantic. The freshwater discharge from the plume creates a vertical salinity gradient that suppresses turbulent heat flux from the cool, ocean subsurface. The stability within the plume reduces sea surface temperature (SST) cooling and promotes energetic air‐sea fluxes. Hence, it is hypothesized that this ocean feature may have facilitated Irma's RI through favorable upper ocean conditions. This hypothesis is validated using a collection of atmospheric and oceanic observations to quantify how the ocean response influences surface flux and atmospheric boundary layer thermodynamics during Hurricane Irma's RI over the river plume. Novel aircraft‐deployed oceanic profiling floats highlight the detailed evolution of the ocean response during Irma's passage over the river plume. Analyses include quantifying the ocean response and identifying how it influenced atmospheric boundary layer temperature, moisture, and equivalent potential temperature (θE). An atmospheric boundary layer recovery analysis indicates that surface fluxes were sufficient to support the enhanced boundary layer θE (moist entropy) observed, which promotes inner‐core convection and facilitates TC intensification. The implicit influence of salinity stratification on Irma's intensity during RI is assessed using theoretical intensity frameworks. Overall, the findings suggest that the salinity stratification sustained SST during Irma's passage, which promoted energetic air‐sea fluxes that aided in boundary layer recovery and facilitated Irma's intensity during RI. Examination of the air‐sea coupling over this river plume, corresponding atmospheric boundary layer response, and feedback on TC intensity was previously absent in literature.
ArticleAtmospheric convection and air-sea interactions over the tropical oceans: scientific progress, challenges, and opportunities(American Meteorological Society, 2020-03-10) Hagos, Samson ; Foltz, Gregory R. ; Zhang, Chidong ; Thompson, Elizabeth ; Seo, Hyodae ; Chen, Sue ; Capotondi, Antonietta ; Reed, Kevin A. ; DeMott, Charlotte ; Protat, AlainOver the past 30 years, the scientific community has made considerable progress in understanding and predicting tropical convection and air–sea interactions, thanks to sustained investments in extensive in situ and remote sensing observations, targeted field experiments, advances in numerical modeling, and vastly improved computational resources and observing technologies. Those investments would not have been fruitful as isolated advancements without the collaborative effort of the atmospheric convection and air–sea interaction research communities. In this spirit, a U.S.- and International CLIVAR–sponsored workshop on “Atmospheric convection and air–sea interactions over the tropical oceans” was held in the spring of 2019 in Boulder, Colorado. The 90 participants were observational and modeling experts from the atmospheric convection and air–sea interactions communities with varying degrees of experience, from early-career researchers and students to senior scientists. The presentations and discussions covered processes over the broad range of spatiotemporal scales (Fig. 1).
ArticleOceanGliders: A component of the integrated GOOS(Frontiers Media, 2019-10-02) Testor, Pierre ; de Young, Brad ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Glenn, Scott ; Hayes, Daniel J. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Pattiaratchi, Charitha ; Hill, Katherine Louise ; Heslop, Emma ; Turpin, Victor ; Alenius, Pekka ; Barrera, Carlos ; Barth, John A. ; Beaird, Nicholas ; Bécu, Guislain ; Bosse, Anthony ; Bourrin, François ; Brearley, J. Alexander ; Chao, Yi ; Chen, Sue ; Chiggiato, Jacopo ; Coppola, Laurent ; Crout, Richard ; Cummings, James A. ; Curry, Beth ; Curry, Ruth G. ; Davis, Richard F. ; Desai, Kruti ; DiMarco, Steven F. ; Edwards, Catherine ; Fielding, Sophie ; Fer, Ilker ; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor ; Gildor, Hezi ; Goni, Gustavo J. ; Gutierrez, Dimitri ; Haugan, Peter M. ; Hebert, David ; Heiderich, Joleen ; Henson, Stephanie A. ; Heywood, Karen J. ; Hogan, Patrick ; Houpert, Loïc ; Huh, Sik ; Inall, Mark E. ; Ishii, Masao ; Ito, Shin-ichi ; Itoh, Sachihiko ; Jan, Sen ; Kaiser, Jan ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Kirkpatrick, Barbara ; Klymak, Jody M. ; Kohut, Josh ; Krahmann, Gerd ; Krug, Marjolaine ; McClatchie, Sam ; Marin, Frédéric ; Mauri, Elena ; Mehra, Avichal ; Meredith, Michael P. ; Meunier, Thomas ; Miles, Travis ; Morell, Julio M. ; Mortier, Laurent ; Nicholson, Sarah ; O'Callaghan, Joanne ; O'Conchubhair, Diarmuid ; Oke, Peter ; Pallás-Sanz, Enric ; Palmer, Matthew D. ; Park, Jong Jin ; Perivoliotis, Leonidas ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Perry, Ruth ; Queste, Bastien ; Rainville, Luc ; Rehm, Eric ; Roughan, Moninya ; Rome, Nicholas ; Ross, Tetjana ; Ruiz, Simon ; Saba, Grace ; Schaeffer, Amandine ; Schönau, Martha ; Schroeder, Katrin ; Shimizu, Yugo ; Sloyan, Bernadette M. ; Smeed, David A. ; Snowden, Derrick ; Song, Yumi ; Swart, Sebastiaan ; Tenreiro, Miguel ; Thompson, Andrew ; Tintore, Joaquin ; Todd, Robert E. ; Toro, Cesar ; Venables, Hugh J. ; Wagawa, Taku ; Waterman, Stephanie N. ; Watlington, Roy A. ; Wilson, DougThe OceanGliders program started in 2016 to support active coordination and enhancement of global glider activity. OceanGliders contributes to the international efforts of the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) for Climate, Ocean Health, and Operational Services. It brings together marine scientists and engineers operating gliders around the world: (1) to observe the long-term physical, biogeochemical, and biological ocean processes and phenomena that are relevant for societal applications; and, (2) to contribute to the GOOS through real-time and delayed mode data dissemination. The OceanGliders program is distributed across national and regional observing systems and significantly contributes to integrated, multi-scale and multi-platform sampling strategies. OceanGliders shares best practices, requirements, and scientific knowledge needed for glider operations, data collection and analysis. It also monitors global glider activity and supports the dissemination of glider data through regional and global databases, in real-time and delayed modes, facilitating data access to the wider community. OceanGliders currently supports national, regional and global initiatives to maintain and expand the capabilities and application of gliders to meet key global challenges such as improved measurement of ocean boundary currents, water transformation and storm forecast.