Rich Jeremy J.
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PreprintSimilar temperature responses suggest future climate warming will not alter partitioning between denitrification and anammox in temperate marine sediments( 2016-05-09) Brin, Lindsay D. ; Giblin, Anne E. ; Rich, Jeremy J.Removal of biologically available nitrogen (N) by the microbially mediated processes denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) affects ecosystem N availability. Although few studies have examined temperature responses of denitrification and anammox, previous work suggests that denitrification could become more important than anammox in response to climate warming. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether temperature responses of denitrification and anammox differed in shelf and estuarine sediments from coastal Rhode Island over a seasonal cycle. The influence of temperature and organic C availability was further assessed in a 12-week laboratory microcosm experiment. Temperature responses, as characterized by thermal optima (Topt) and apparent activation energy (Ea), were determined by measuring potential rates of denitrification and anammox at 31 discrete temperatures ranging from 3 to 59°C. With a few exceptions, Topt and Ea of denitrification and anammox did not differ in Rhode Island sediments over the seasonal cycle. In microcosm sediments, Ea was somewhat lower for anammox compared to denitrification across all treatments. However, Topt did not differ between processes, and neither Ea nor Topt changed with warming or carbon addition. Thus, the two processes behaved similarly in terms of temperature response, and this response was not influenced by warming. This led us to reject the hypothesis that anammox is more cold-adapted than denitrification in our study system. Overall, our study suggests that temperature responses of both processes can be accurately modeled for temperate regions in the future using a single set of parameters, which are likely not to change over the next century as a result of predicted climate warming. We further conclude that climate warming will not directly alter the partitioning of N flow through anammox and denitrification.
PreprintEffects of experimental warming and carbon addition on nitrate reduction and respiration in coastal sediments( 2015-04) Brin, Lindsay D. ; Giblin, Anne E. ; Rich, Jeremy J.Climate change may have differing effects on microbial processes that control coastal N availability. We conducted a microcosm experiment to explore effects of warming and carbon availability on nitrate reduction pathways in marine sediments. Sieved continental shelf sediments were incubated for 12 weeks under aerated seawater amended with nitrate (~50 μM), at winter (4°C) or summer (17°C) temperatures, with or without biweekly particulate organic C additions. Treatments increased diffusive oxygen consumption as expected, with somewhat higher effects of C addition compared to warming. Combined warming and C addition had the strongest effect on nitrate flux across the sediment water interface, with a complete switch early in the experiment from influx to sustained efflux. Supporting this result, vial incubations with added 15N-nitrate indicated that C addition stimulated potential rates of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), but not denitrification. Overall capacity for both denitrification and DNRA was reduced in warmed treatments, possibly reflecting C losses due to increased respiration with warming. Anammox potential rates were much lower than DNRA or denitrification, and were slightly negatively affected by warming or C addition. Overall, results indicate that warming and C addition increased ammonium production through remineralization and possibly DNRA. This stimulated nitrate production through nitrification, but without a comparable increase in nitrate consumption through denitrification. The response to C of potential DNRA rates over denitrification, along with a switch to nitrate efflux, raises the possibility that DNRA is an important and previously overlooked source of internal N cycling in shelf sediments.
ArticleSeasonal succession of free-living bacterial communities in coastal waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula(Frontiers Media, 2016-11-03) Luria, Catherine M. ; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Rich, Jeremy J.The marine ecosystem along the Western Antarctic Peninsula undergoes a dramatic seasonal transition every spring, from almost total darkness to almost continuous sunlight, resulting in a cascade of environmental changes, including phytoplankton blooms that support a highly productive food web. Despite having important implications for the movement of energy and materials through this ecosystem, little is known about how these changes impact bacterial succession in this region. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we measured changes in free-living bacterial community composition and richness during a 9-month period that spanned winter to the end of summer. Chlorophyll a concentrations were relatively low until summer when a major phytoplankton bloom occurred, followed 3 weeks later by a high peak in bacterial production. Richness in bacterial communities varied between ~1,200 and 1,800 observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) before the major phytoplankton bloom (out of ~43,000 sequences per sample). During peak bacterial production, OTU richness decreased to ~700 OTUs. The significant decrease in OTU richness only lasted a few weeks, after which time OTU richness increased again as bacterial production declined toward pre-bloom levels. OTU richness was negatively correlated with bacterial production and chlorophyll a concentrations. Unlike the temporal pattern in OTU richness, community composition changed from winter to spring, prior to onset of the summer phytoplankton bloom. Community composition continued to change during the phytoplankton bloom, with increased relative abundance of several taxa associated with phytoplankton blooms, particularly Polaribacter. Bacterial community composition began to revert toward pre-bloom conditions as bacterial production declined. Overall, our findings clearly demonstrate the temporal relationship between phytoplankton blooms and seasonal succession in bacterial growth and community composition. Our study highlights the importance of high-resolution time series sampling, especially during the relatively under-sampled Antarctic winter and spring, which enabled us to discover seasonal changes in bacterial community composition that preceded the summertime phytoplankton bloom.