Erickson Matthew

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Erickson
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Matthew
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Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
  • Preprint
    Particle export from the upper ocean over the continental shelf of the west Antarctic Peninsula: A long-term record, 1992–2007
    ( 2008-03) Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Kelly, Joann ; Montes-Hugo, Martin ; Ribic, Christine A. ; Smith, Raymond C. ; Stammerjohn, Sharon E. ; Karl, David M.
    We report on results of a long-term (1993-2007) time series sediment trap moored at 170 m to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula in the mid-continental shelf region (350 m depth; 64º30’ S, 66º00’ W). This is a region characterized by late spring-summer diatom blooms, moderately high seasonal primary productivity (50-150 mmol C m-2 d-1 in December-February) and high phytoplankton and krill biomass in the seasonal sea ice zone. The mass flux ranged from near 0 to over 1 g m-2 d-1 and was near 0 to >30% organic carbon (mean 8%). Sedimentation from the upper ocean as estimated by the trap collections at 170 m exhibited strong seasonality with high fluxes (1-10 mmol C m-2 d-1) in November-March following ice retreat and very low fluxes (<0.001 mmol C m-2 d-1) during the Austral winter and under sea ice cover. An average of 85% of the annual export of 212 mmol C m-2 occurred during the seasonal peak flux episodes. Over the trap record, the annual peak flux episode has tended to occur later in the Austral summer, advancing by about 40 days since 1993. The time-integrated sedimentation during the peak flux episode was <1 – 50% of the SeaWiFS-estimated primary production (mean 4%) at the trap site over the period 1998-2006. The elemental composition of material captured in the traps had an average C:N:P of 212:28:1, greater than the canonical Redfield values. High C:P ratios (400- 600) corresponded with the annual flux peak, indicating preferential loss of P from the sinking particles in the summer, ice-free period. The composition of the exported material more closely approximated the Redfield composition during the low-flux, winter period.
  • Article
    Single-cell physiological structure and growth rates of heterotrophic bacteria in a temperate estuary (Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts)
    (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2011-01) Moran, Xose Anxelu G. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew
    Flow cytometric determinations of membrane integrity, nucleic acid content, and respiratory activity were combined with dilution cultures in Waquoit Bay Estuary (Massachusetts) to estimate specific growth rates of total, live, high (HNA), and low (LNA) nucleic acid content and actively respiring (CTC+) cells. Bacterial abundance ranged from 106 to 107 cells mL-1, with live cells generally contributing > 85% to total numbers, 42-82% HNA cells, and 3-36% CTC+ cells. Specific growth rates (µ) from all physiological groups were positively correlated, but they showed different temperature dependences, with activation energies ranging from 0.28 (live) to 0.97 eV (LNA). The µ values of live cells (0.14-2.40 d-1) were similar to those of total bacteria (0.06-1.53 d-1). LNA bacteria were not dormant but showed positive growth in most experiments, although HNA cells greatly outgrew LNA cells (µ ranges of 0.28-2.26 d-1 vs. 0-0.69 d-1), and CTC+ cells showed the highest values (0.12-2.65 d-1). Positive correlations of HNA bacteria µ with total and phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic carbon support the previously hypothesized strong bottom-up control of HNA cells. Bacterial production estimated from leucine incorporation and empirical conversion factors agreed well with estimates based on growth rates. HNA cells were always responsible for the largest share of bacterial production in the estuary. The contribution of CTC+ cells significantly increased with temperature in the 7-27°C range, reaching values of 40% at temperatures higher than 20°C.
  • Preprint
    Multiscale control of bacterial production by phytoplankton dynamics and sea ice along the western Antarctic Peninsula : a regional and decadal investigation
    ( 2012-03-07) Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Schofield, Oscar M. E. ; Vernet, Maria ; Stammerjohn, Sharon E. ; Erickson, Matthew
    We present results on phytoplankton and bacterial production and related hydrographic properties collected on nine annual summer cruises along the western Antarctic Peninsula. This region is strongly influenced by interannual variations in the duration and extent of sea ice cover, necessitating a decade-scale study. Our study area transitions from a nearshore region influenced by summer runoff from glaciers to an offshore, slope region dominated by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The summer bacterial assemblage is the product of seasonal warming and freshening following spring sea ice retreat and the plankton succession occurring in that evolving water mass. Bacterial production rates averaged 20 mgC m-2 d-1 and were a low (5%) fraction of the primary production (PP). There was significant variation in BP between regions and years, reflecting the variability in sea ice, Chlorophyll and PP. Leucine incorporation was significantly correlated (r2 ranging 0.2-0.7, p<0.001) with both chlorophyll and PP across depths, regions and years indicating strong phytoplankton-bacteria coupling. Relationships with temperature were variable, including positive, negative and insignificant relationships (r2 <0.2 for regressions with p<0.05). Bacterial production is regulated indirectly by variations in sea ice cover within regions and over years, setting the levels of phytoplankton biomass accumulation and PP rates; these in turn fuel BP, to which PP is coupled via direct release from phytoplankton or other less direct pathways.
  • Article
    The freshwater system west of the Antarctic Peninsula : spatial and temporal changes
    (American Meteorological Society, 2013-03-01) Meredith, Michael P. ; Venables, Hugh J. ; Clarke, Andrew ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Leng, Melanie J. ; Lenaerts, Jan T. M. ; van den Broeke, Michiel R.
    Climate change west of the Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapid of anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere, with associated changes in the rates and distributions of freshwater inputs to the ocean. Here, results from the first comprehensive survey of oxygen isotopes in seawater in this region are used to quantify spatial patterns of meteoric water (glacial discharge and precipitation) separately from sea ice melt. High levels of meteoric water are found close to the coast, due to orographic effects on precipitation and strong glacial discharge. Concentrations decrease offshore, driving significant southward geostrophic flows (up to ~30 cm s−1). These produce high meteoric water concentrations at the southern end of the sampling grid, where collapse of the Wilkins Ice Shelf may also have contributed. Sea ice melt concentrations are lower than meteoric water and patchier because of the mobile nature of the sea ice itself. Nonetheless, net sea ice production in the northern part of the sampling grid is inferred; combined with net sea ice melt in the south, this indicates an overall southward ice motion. The survey is contextualized temporally using a decade-long series of isotope data from a coastal Antarctic Peninsula site. This shows a temporal decline in meteoric water in the upper ocean, contrary to expectations based on increasing precipitation and accelerating deglaciation. This is driven by the increasing occurrence of deeper winter mixed layers and has potential implications for concentrations of trace metals supplied to the euphotic zone by glacial discharge. As the regional freshwater system evolves, the continuing isotope monitoring described here will elucidate the ongoing impacts on climate and the ecosystem.
  • Dataset
    Buzzards Bay Water Quality Data from the Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Program 1992-2018 December 2020 version
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-12-08) Jakuba, Rachel W. ; Williams, Tony ; Neill, Christopher ; Costa, Joseph E. ; McHorney, Richard ; Scott, Lindsay ; Howes, Brian L. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Rasmussen, Mark
    The Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Monitoring Program collected summertime water quality information at more than 150 stations around Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts from 1992 to 2018. Baywatchers monitoring data document nutrient-related water quality and the effects of nitrogen pollution. The large majority of stations are located in sub-estuaries of the main Bay, although stations in central Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound were added beginning in 2007. Measurements include temperature, salinity, Secchi depth and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate organic carbon, ortho-phosphate, chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and in lower salinity waters, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon. The Baywatchers dataset provides a long-term record of the water quality of Buzzards Bay and its sub-estuaries. The data have been used to identify impaired waters, evaluate discharge permits, support the development of nitrogen total maximum daily loads, develop strategies for reducing nitrogen inputs, and increase public awareness and generate support for management actions to control nutrient pollution and improve water quality. The Readme, STN_EQUIV, Stations and Methods, S_D for WFH, and Acknowledge tabs were updated and corrections were made for Time and POC on 2018 Upper Bay samples and deleted CH1 from sonde method column where no CHL data existed, moved words like "sample lost" from Chl and Pheo data columns to comments column.
  • Article
    Two decades of inorganic carbon dynamics along the West Antarctic Peninsula
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2015-11-26) Hauri, Claudine ; Doney, Scott C. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Erickson, Matthew ; Jiang, G. ; Ducklow, Hugh W.
    We present 20 years of seawater inorganic carbon measurements collected along the western shelf and slope of the Antarctic Peninsula. Water column observations from summertime cruises and seasonal surface underway pCO2 measurements provide unique insights into the spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability in this dynamic system. Discrete measurements from depths > 2000 m align well with World Ocean Circulation Experiment observations across the time series and underline the consistency of the data set. Surface total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon data showed large spatial gradients, with a concomitant wide range of Ωarag (< 1 up to 3.9). This spatial variability was mainly driven by increasing influence of biological productivity towards the southern end of the sampling grid and meltwater input along the coast towards the northern end. Large inorganic carbon drawdown through biological production in summer caused high near-shore Ωarag despite glacial and sea-ice meltwater input. In support of previous studies, we observed Redfield behavior of regional C / N nutrient utilization, while the C / P (80.5 ± 2.5) and N / P (11.7 ± 0.3) molar ratios were significantly lower than the Redfield elemental stoichiometric values. Seasonal salinity-based predictions of Ωarag suggest that surface waters remained mostly supersaturated with regard to aragonite throughout the study. However, more than 20 % of the predictions for winters and springs between 1999 and 2013 resulted in Ωarag < 1.2. Such low levels of Ωarag may have implications for important organisms such as pteropods. Even though we did not detect any statistically significant long-term trends, the combination of on\-going ocean acidification and freshwater input may soon induce more unfavorable conditions than the ecosystem experiences today.
  • Article
    A metagenomic assessment of winter and summer bacterioplankton from Antarctica Peninsula coastal surface waters
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2012-04-26) Grzymski, Joseph J. ; Riesenfeld, Christian S. ; Williams, Timothy J. ; Dussaq, Alex M. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Cavicchioli, Ricardo ; Murray, Alison E.
    Antarctic surface oceans are well-studied during summer when irradiance levels are high, sea ice is melting and primary productivity is at a maximum. Coincident with this timing, the bacterioplankton respond with significant increases in secondary productivity. Little is known about bacterioplankton in winter when darkness and sea-ice cover inhibit photoautotrophic primary production. We report here an environmental genomic and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) analysis of winter and summer Antarctic Peninsula coastal seawater bacterioplankton. Intense inter-seasonal differences were reflected through shifts in community composition and functional capacities encoded in winter and summer environmental genomes with significantly higher phylogenetic and functional diversity in winter. In general, inferred metabolisms of summer bacterioplankton were characterized by chemoheterotrophy, photoheterotrophy and aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis while the winter community included the capacity for bacterial and archaeal chemolithoautotrophy. Chemolithoautotrophic pathways were dominant in winter and were similar to those recently reported in global ‘dark ocean’ mesopelagic waters. If chemolithoautotrophy is widespread in the Southern Ocean in winter, this process may be a previously unaccounted carbon sink and may help account for the unexplained anomalies in surface inorganic nitrogen content.
  • Article
    Water quality measurements in Buzzards Bay by the Buzzards Bay Coalition Baywatchers Program from 1992 to 2018
    (Nature Research, 2021-03-05) Jakuba, Rachel W. ; Williams, Tony ; Neill, Christopher ; Costa, Joseph E. ; McHorney, Richard ; Scott, Lindsay ; Howes, Brian L. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Rasmussen, Mark
    The Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Monitoring Program (Baywatchers) collected summertime water quality information at more than 150 stations around Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts from 1992 to 2018. Baywatchers documents nutrient-related water quality and the effects of nitrogen pollution. The large majority of stations are located in sub-estuaries of the main Bay, although stations in central Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound were added beginning in 2007. Measurements include temperature, salinity, Secchi depth and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate organic carbon, ortho-phosphate, chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and in lower salinity waters, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon. The Baywatchers dataset provides a long-term record of the water quality of Buzzards Bay and its sub-estuaries. The data have been used to identify impaired waters, evaluate discharge permits, support the development of nitrogen total maximum daily loads, develop strategies for reducing nitrogen inputs, and increase public awareness and generate support for management actions to control nutrient pollution and improve water quality.
  • Article
    Microzooplankton grazing along the Western Antarctic Peninsula
    (Inter-Research, 2013-09-18) Garzio, Lori M. ; Steinberg, Deborah K. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Ducklow, Hugh W.
    The significance of microzooplankton as grazers in pelagic ecosystems has been established, yet relatively few studies of microzooplankton grazing, compared to that of macrozooplankton, have been conducted in the Southern Ocean. We report phytoplankton and bacterial growth and grazing mortality rates along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), a region of rapid climate change. Growth and grazing rates were determined by dilution experiments at select stations along the WAP in January of 2009 to 2011 and in the nearshore waters near Palmer Station in February and March 2011. Microzooplankton exerted higher grazing pressure on bacteria compared to phytoplankton along the WAP and also selectively grazed on smaller phytoplankton (picoautotrophs and nanophytoplankton) and on the more actively growing (high nucleic acid) bacterial cells. Among all phytoplankton size classes, growth rates ranged from undetectable (i.e. not significant; NS) to 0.99 d-1, grazing mortality rates were NS to 0.56 d-1, and microzooplankton removed <100% of daily phytoplankton production in all but one experiment. For high and low nucleic acid content bacteria, growth rates were NS to 0.95 d-1, and grazing mortality rates were NS to 0.43 d-1; microzooplankton often removed >100% of daily bacterial production. There was a significant (albeit weak) exponential relationship between temperature and phytoplankton mortality, although the range of experimental temperatures was small. The present study provides a reference point of microzooplankton grazing impact along the WAP in the summer and contributes valuable information to studies modeling the flow of carbon through the WAP food web, improving our ability to predict climate-induced changes in the WAP ecosystem.
  • Dataset
    Buzzards Bay Water Quality Data from the Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Program 1992-2020
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-07-09) Jakuba, Rachel W. ; Williams, Tony ; Neill, Christopher ; Costa, Joseph E. ; McHorney, Richard ; Scott, Lindsay ; Howes, Brian L. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Rasmussen, Mark
    The Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Monitoring Program collected summertime water quality information at more than 150 stations around Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts from 1992 to 2020. Baywatchers monitoring data document nutrient-related water quality and the effects of nitrogen pollution. The large majority of stations are located in sub-estuaries of the main Bay, although stations in central Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound were added beginning in 2007. Measurements include temperature, salinity, Secchi depth and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate organic carbon, ortho-phosphate, chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and in lower salinity waters, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon. The Baywatchers dataset provides a long-term record of the water quality of Buzzards Bay and its sub-estuaries. The data have been used to identify impaired waters, evaluate discharge permits, support the development of nitrogen total maximum daily loads, develop strategies for reducing nitrogen inputs, and increase public awareness and generate support for management actions to control nutrient pollution and improve water quality. The Readme, STN_EQUIV, Stations and Methods, S_D for WFH, and Acknowledge tabs were updated and corrections were made for Time and POC on 2018 Upper Bay samples and deleted CH1 from sonde method column where no CHL data existed, moved words like "sample lost" from Chl and Pheo data columns to comments column.
  • Dataset
    Buzzards Bay Water Quality Data from the Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Program 1992-2018 August 2020 version
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-08-28) Jakuba, Rachel W. ; Williams, Tony ; Neill, Christopher ; Costa, Joseph E. ; McHorney, Richard ; Scott, Lindsay ; Howes, Brian L. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Rasmussen, Mark
    The Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Monitoring Program collected summertime water quality information at more than 150 stations around Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts from 1992 to 2018. Baywatchers monitoring data document nutrient-related water quality and the effects of nitrogen pollution. The large majority of stations are located in sub-estuaries of the main Bay, although stations in central Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound were added beginning in 2007. Measurements include temperature, salinity, Secchi depth and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate organic carbon, ortho-phosphate, chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and in lower salinity waters, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon. The Baywatchers dataset provides a long-term record of the water quality of Buzzards Bay and its sub-estuaries. The data have been used to identify impaired waters, evaluate discharge permits, support the development of nitrogen total maximum daily loads, develop strategies for reducing nitrogen inputs, and increase public awareness and generate support for management actions to control nutrient pollution and improve water quality. The Readme, STN_EQUIV, Stations and Methods, S_D for WFH, and Acknowledge tabs were updated and corrections were made for Time and POC on 2018 Upper Bay samples and deleted CH1 from sonde method column where no CHL data existed, moved words like "sample lost" from Chl and Pheo data columns to comments column.
  • Dataset
    Buzzards Bay Water Quality Data from the Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Program 1992-2018
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-05-04) Jakuba, Rachel W. ; Williams, Tony ; Neill, Christopher ; Costa, Joseph E. ; McHorney, Richard ; Scott, Lindsay ; Howes, Brian L. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Rasmussen, Mark
    The Buzzards Bay Coalition’s Baywatchers Monitoring Program collected summertime water quality information at more than 150 stations around Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts from 1992 to 2018. Baywatchers monitoring data document nutrient-related water quality and the effects of nitrogen pollution. The large majority of stations are located in sub-estuaries of the main Bay, although stations in central Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound were added beginning in 2007. Measurements include temperature, salinity, Secchi depth and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate organic carbon, ortho-phosphate, chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and in lower salinity waters, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon. The Baywatchers dataset provides a long-term record of the water quality of Buzzards Bay and its sub-estuaries. The data have been used to identify impaired waters, evaluate discharge permits, support the development of nitrogen total maximum daily loads, develop strategies for reducing nitrogen inputs, and increase public awareness and generate support for management actions to control nutrient pollution and improve water quality.
  • Article
    Response of a summertime Antarctic marine ­bacterial community to glucose and ammonium enrichment
    (Inter-Research, 2011-09-20) Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Myers, Kristen M. S. ; Erickson, Matthew ; Ghiglione, Jean-Francois ; Murray, Alison E.
    Along the western Antarctic Peninsula, marine bacterioplankton respond to the spring phytoplankton bloom with increases in abundance, production and growth rates, and a seasonal succession in bacterial community composition (BCC). We investigated the response of the bacterial community to experimental additions of glucose and ammonium, alone or in combination, incubated in replicate carboys (each: 50 l) over 10 d in November 2006. Changes in bulk properties (abundance, production rates) in the incubations resembled observations in the nearshore environment over 8 seasons (2001 to 2002 through 2008 to 2009) at Palmer Stn (64.8°S, 64.1°W). Changes in bulk properties and BCC in ammonium-amended carboys were small relative to controls, compared to the glucose-amended treatments. The BCC in Day 0 and Day 10 controls and ammonium treatments were >72% similar when assessed by denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) and capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting techniques. Bacterial abundance increased 2- to 10-fold and leucine incorporation rates increased 2- to 30-fold in the glucose treatments over 6 d. The BCC in carboys receiving glucose (with or without ammonium) remained >60% similar to that in Day 0 controls at 6 d and evolved to <20% similar to that in Day 0 controls after 10 d incubation. The increases in bacterial production rates, and the changes in BCC, suggest that selection for glucose-utilizing bacteria was slow under the ambient environmental conditions. The results suggest that organic carbon enrichment is a major factor influencing the observed winter-to-summer increase in bacterial abundance and activity. In contrast, the BCC was relatively robust, changing little until after repeated additions of glucose and prolonged (~10 d) incubation.