Mackenzie Fred T.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name
Fred T.

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Preprint
    Comparison of CO2 dynamics and air-sea exchange in differing tropical reef environments
    ( 2013-01-17) Drupp, Patrick S. ; De Carlo, Eric H. ; Mackenzie, Fred T. ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Shamberger, Kathryn E. F.
    An array of MAPCO2 buoys, CRIMP-2, Ala Wai, and Kilo Nalu, deployed in the coastal waters of Hawaii have produced multiyear high temporal resolution CO2 records in three different coral reef environments off the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This study, which includes data from June 2008-December 2011, is part of an integrated effort to understand the factors that influence the dynamics of CO2-carbonic acid system parameters in waters surrounding Pacific high island coral reef ecosystems and subject to differing natural and anthropogenic stresses. The MAPCO2 buoys are located on the Kaneohe Bay backreef, and fringing reef sites on the south shore of O’ahu, Hawai’i. The buoys measure CO2 and O2 in seawater and in the atmosphere at 3-hour intervals, as well as other physical and biogeochemical parameters (CTD, chlorophyll-a, turbidity). The buoy records, combined with data from synoptic spatial sampling, have allowed us to examine the interplay between biological cycles of productivity/respiration and calcification/dissolution and biogeochemical and physical forcings on hourly to inter-annual time scales. Air-sea CO2 gas exchange was also calculated to determine if the locations were sources or sinks of CO2 over seasonal, annual, and interannual time periods. Net annualized fluxes for CRIMP-2, Ala Wai, and Kilo Nalu over the entire study period were 1.15 mol C m-2 yr-1, 0.045 mol C m-2 yr-1, and -0.0056 mol C m-2 yr-1, respectively, where positive values indicate a source or a CO2 flux from the water to the atmosphere, and negative values indicate a sink or flux of CO2 from the atmosphere into the water. These values are of similar magnitude to previous estimates in Kaneohe Bay as well as those reported from other tropical reef environments. Total alkalinity (AT) was measured in conjunction with pCO2 and the carbonic acid system was calculated to compare with other reef systems and open ocean values around Hawaii. These findings emphasize the need for high-resolution data of multiple parameters when attempting to characterize the carbonic-acid system in locations of highly variable physical, chemical, and biological parameters (e.g. coastal systems, reefs).
  • Article
    Hawaii coastal seawater CO2 network: A statistical evaluation of a decade of observations on tropical coral reefs.
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-05-07) Terlouw, Gerianne J. ; Knor, Lucie A. C. M. ; De Carlo, Eric H. ; Drupp, Patrick S. ; Mackenzie, Fred T. ; Li, Yuan Hui ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Sabine, Christopher L.
    A statistical evaluation of nearly 10 years of high-resolution surface seawater carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) time-series data collected from coastal moorings around O’ahu, Hawai’i suggest that these coral reef ecosystems were largely a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere between 2008 and 2016. The largest air-sea flux (1.24 ± 0.33 mol m−2 yr−1) and the largest variability in seawater pCO2 (950 μatm overall range or 8x the open ocean range) were observed at the CRIMP-2 site, near a shallow barrier coral reef system in Kaneohe Bay O’ahu. Two south shore sites, Kilo Nalu and Ala Wai, also exhibited about twice the surface water pCO2 variability of the open ocean, but had net fluxes that were much closer to the open ocean than the strongly calcifying system at CRIMP-2. All mooring sites showed the opposite seasonal cycle from the atmosphere, with the highest values in the summer and lower values in the winter. Average coastal diurnal variabilities ranged from a high of 192 μatm/day to a low of 32 μatm/day at the CRIMP-2 and Kilo Nalu sites, respectively, which is one to two orders of magnitude greater than observed at the open ocean site. Here we examine the modes and drivers of variability at the different coastal sites. Although daily to seasonal variations in pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes are strongly affected by localized processes, basin-scale climate oscillations also affect the variability on interannual time scales.