Kiene Ronald P.

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Ronald P.

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  • Article
    The sulfur cycle
    (Oceanography Society, 2007-06) Sievert, Stefan M. ; Kiene, Ronald P. ; Schultz-Vogt, Heide N.
    The ocean represents a major reservoir of sulfur on Earth, with large quantities in the form of dissolved sulfate and sedimentary minerals (e.g., gypsum and pyrite). Sulfur occurs in a variety of valence states, ranging from –2 (as in sulfide and reduced organic sulfur) to +6 (as in sulfate). Sulfate is the most stable form of sulfur on today’s oxic Earth; weathering and leaching of rocks and sediments are its main sources to the ocean. In addition, the reduced inorganic forms of sulfur, with oxidation states of –2 and 0 (as in elemental sulfur) are quite common in anoxic environments, with sulfur compounds of mixed valence states (e.g., thiosulfate and polythionates) produced transiently. The natural release of volatile organic sulfur compounds from the ocean, mainly as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), transports sulfur from the ocean to terrestrial regions, and it also affects atmospheric chemistry and the climate system. While they remain very important, natural sulfur emissions have currently been overtaken by anthropogenic emissions, primarily from the burning of fossil fuels.
  • Dataset
    Standing stocks and rates for organic sulfur compounds during summer in the subarctic Northeast Pacific
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact:, 2021-06-28) Kiene, Ronald P. ; Dacey, John ; Rellinger, Alison N. ; Williams, Tara E.
    Data include standing stocks and rates for organic sulfur compounds during summer in the subarctic Northeast Pacific. Water samples were collected on R/V Oceanus cruises OC1607A in July 2016 and OC1708A in August 2017. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at:
  • Article
    The Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project (MMETSP) : illuminating the functional diversity of eukaryotic life in the oceans through transcriptome sequencing
    (Public Library of Science, 2014-06-24) Keeling, Patrick J. ; Burki, Fabien ; Wilcox, Heather M. ; Allam, Bassem ; Allen, Eric E. ; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A. ; Armbrust, E. Virginia ; Archibald, John M. ; Bharti, Arvind K. ; Bell, Callum J. ; Beszteri, Bank ; Bidle, Kay D. ; Cameron, Connor T. ; Campbell, Lisa ; Caron, David A. ; Cattolico, Rose Ann ; Collier, Jackie L. ; Coyne, Kathryn J. ; Davy, Simon K. ; Deschamps, Phillipe ; Dyhrman, Sonya T. ; Edvardsen, Bente ; Gates, Ruth D. ; Gobler, Christopher J. ; Greenwood, Spencer J. ; Guida, Stephanie M. ; Jacobi, Jennifer L. ; Jakobsen, Kjetill S. ; James, Erick R. ; Jenkins, Bethany D. ; John, Uwe ; Johnson, Matthew D. ; Juhl, Andrew R. ; Kamp, Anja ; Katz, Laura A. ; Kiene, Ronald P. ; Kudryavtsev, Alexander N. ; Leander, Brian S. ; Lin, Senjie ; Lovejoy, Connie ; Lynn, Denis ; Marchetti, Adrian ; McManus, George ; Nedelcu, Aurora M. ; Menden-Deuer, Susanne ; Miceli, Cristina ; Mock, Thomas ; Montresor, Marina ; Moran, Mary Ann ; Murray, Shauna A. ; Nadathur, Govind ; Nagai, Satoshi ; Ngam, Peter B. ; Palenik, Brian ; Pawlowski, Jan ; Petroni, Giulio ; Piganeau, Gwenael ; Posewitz, Matthew C. ; Rengefors, Karin ; Romano, Giovanna ; Rumpho, Mary E. ; Rynearson, Tatiana A. ; Schilling, Kelly B. ; Schroeder, Declan C. ; Simpson, Alastair G. B. ; Slamovits, Claudio H. ; Smith, David R. ; Smith, G. Jason ; Smith, Sarah R. ; Sosik, Heidi M. ; Stief, Peter ; Theriot, Edward ; Twary, Scott N. ; Umale, Pooja E. ; Vaulot, Daniel ; Wawrik, Boris ; Wheeler, Glen L. ; Wilson, William H. ; Xu, Yan ; Zingone, Adriana ; Worden, Alexandra Z.
    Microbial ecology is plagued by problems of an abstract nature. Cell sizes are so small and population sizes so large that both are virtually incomprehensible. Niches are so far from our everyday experience as to make their very definition elusive. Organisms that may be abundant and critical to our survival are little understood, seldom described and/or cultured, and sometimes yet to be even seen. One way to confront these problems is to use data of an even more abstract nature: molecular sequence data. Massive environmental nucleic acid sequencing, such as metagenomics or metatranscriptomics, promises functional analysis of microbial communities as a whole, without prior knowledge of which organisms are in the environment or exactly how they are interacting. But sequence-based ecological studies nearly always use a comparative approach, and that requires relevant reference sequences, which are an extremely limited resource when it comes to microbial eukaryotes. In practice, this means sequence databases need to be populated with enormous quantities of data for which we have some certainties about the source. Most important is the taxonomic identity of the organism from which a sequence is derived and as much functional identification of the encoded proteins as possible. In an ideal world, such information would be available as a large set of complete, well-curated, and annotated genomes for all the major organisms from the environment in question. Reality substantially diverges from this ideal, but at least for bacterial molecular ecology, there is a database consisting of thousands of complete genomes from a wide range of taxa, supplemented by a phylogeny-driven approach to diversifying genomics. For eukaryotes, the number of available genomes is far, far fewer, and we have relied much more heavily on random growth of sequence databases, raising the question as to whether this is fit for purpose.
  • Article
    Patterns and drivers of dimethylsulfide concentration in the northeast subarctic Pacific across multiple spatial and temporal scales.
    (European Geosciences Union, 2019-04-25) Herr, Alysia E. ; Kiene, Ronald P. ; Dacey, John W. H. ; Tortell, Philippe D.
    The northeast subarctic Pacific (NESAP) is a globally important source of the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS), yet the processes driving DMS variability across this region are poorly understood. Here we examine the spatial distribution of DMS at various spatial scales in contrasting oceanographic regimes of the NESAP. We present new high-spatial-resolution measurements of DMS across hydrographic frontal zones along the British Columbia continental shelf, together with key environmental variables and biological rate measurements. We combine these new data with existing observations to produce a revised summertime DMS climatology for the NESAP, yielding a broader context for our sub-mesoscale process studies. Our results demonstrate sharp DMS concentration gradients across hydrographic frontal zones and suggest the presence of two distinct DMS cycling regimes in the NESAP, corresponding to microphytoplankton-dominated waters along the continental shelf and nanoplankton-dominated waters in the cross-shelf transitional zone. DMS concentrations across the continental shelf transition (range < 1–10 nM, mean 3.9 nM) exhibited positive correlations to salinity (r=0.80), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA; r=0.51), and the relative abundance of prymnesiophyte and dinoflagellates (r=0.89). In contrast, DMS concentrations in nearshore coastal transects (range < 1–24 nM, mean 6.1 nM) showed a negative correlation with salinity (r=−0.69; r=−0.78) and SSHA (r=−0.81; r=−0.75) and a positive correlation to relative diatom abundance (r=0.88; r=0.86). These results highlight the importance of bloom-driven DMS production in continental shelf waters of this region and the role of prymnesiophytes and dinoflagellates in DMS cycling further offshore. In all areas, the rate of DMS consumption appeared to be an important control on observed concentration gradients, with higher DMS consumption rate constants associated with lower DMS concentrations. We compiled a data set of all available summertime DMS observations for the NESAP (including previously unpublished results) to examine the performance of several existing algorithms for predicting regional DMS concentrations. None of these existing algorithms was able to accurately reproduce observed DMS distributions across the NESAP, although performance was improved by the use of regionally tuned coefficients. Based on our compiled observations, we derived an average summertime distribution map for DMS concentrations and sea–air fluxes across the NESAP, estimating a mean regional flux of 0.30 Tg of DMS-derived sulfur to the atmosphere during the summer season.
  • Article
    High dimethylsulfide photolysis rates in nitrate-rich Antarctic waters
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-06-09) Toole, Dierdre A. ; Kieber, David J. ; Kiene, Ronald P. ; White, E. M. ; Bisgrove, J. ; del Valle, Daniela A. ; Slezak, D.
    The photochemistry of dimethylsulfide (DMS) was examined in the Southern Ocean to assess its impact on the biogeochemical dynamics of DMS in Antarctic waters. Very high DMS photolysis rate constants (0.16–0.23 h−1) were observed in surface waters exposed to full sunlight. DMS photolysis rates increased linearly with added nitrate concentrations, and 35% of the DMS loss in unamended samples was attributed to the photochemistry of ambient nitrate (29 μM). Experiments with optical filters showed that the UV-A band of sunlight (320–400 nm) accounted for ~65% of DMS photolysis suggesting that dissolved organic matter was the main photosensitizer for DMS photolysis. During the austral spring, DMS photolysis was the dominant loss mechanism under non-bloom and non-ice cover conditions owing to the high doses and deep penetration of UV radiation in the water column, low observed microbial consumption rates, and high in situ nitrate concentrations.