Ozgokmen
Tamay M.
Ozgokmen
Tamay M.
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ArticleChaotic advection in a steady, threedimensional, Ekmandriven eddy(Cambridge University Press, 20131205) Pratt, Lawrence J. ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Wang, P. ; Childs, H. ; Bebieva, Y.We investigate and quantify stirring due to chaotic advection within a steady, threedimensional, Ekmandriven, rotating cylinder flow. The flow field has vertical overturning and horizontal swirling motion, and is an idealization of motion observed in some ocean eddies. The flow is characterized by strong background rotation, and we explore variations in Ekman and Rossby numbers, E and Ro, over ranges appropriate for the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale. A highresolution spectral element model is used in conjunction with linear analytical theory, weakly nonlinear resonance analysis and a kinematic model in order to map out the barriers, manifolds, resonance layers and other objects that provide a template for chaotic stirring. As expected, chaos arises when a radially symmetric background state is perturbed by a symmetrybreaking disturbance. In the background state, each trajectory lives on a torus and some of the latter survive the perturbation and act as barriers to chaotic transport, a result consistent with an extension of the KAM theorem for threedimensional, volumepreserving flow. For shallow eddies, where E is O(1), the flow is dominated by thin resonant layers sandwiched between KAMtype barriers, and the stirring rate is weak. On the other hand, eddies with moderately small E experience thicker resonant layers, widerspread chaos and much more rapid stirring. This trend reverses for sufficiently small E, corresponding to deep eddies, where the vertical rigidity imposed by strong rotation limits the stirring. The bulk stirring rate, estimated from a passive tracer release, confirms the nonmonotonic variation in stirring rate with E. This result is shown to be consistent with linear Ekman layer theory in conjunction with a resonant width calculation and the Taylor–Proudman theorem. The theory is able to roughly predict the value of E at which stirring is maximum. For large disturbances, the stirring rate becomes monotonic over the range of Ekman numbers explored. We also explore variation in the eddy aspect ratio.

ArticleThe LatMix summer campaign : submesoscale stirring in the upper ocean(American Meteorological Society, 201508) Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Sundermeyer, Miles A. ; Kunze, Eric ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Badin, Gualtiero ; Birch, Daniel ; BrunnerSuzuki, AnneMarie E. G. ; Callies, Joern ; Cervantes, Brandy T. Kuebel ; Claret, Mariona ; Concannon, Brian ; Early, Jeffrey ; Ferrari, Raffaele ; Goodman, Louis ; Harcourt, Ramsey R. ; Klymak, Jody M. ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lelong, M.Pascale ; Levine, Murray D. ; Lien, RenChieh ; Mahadevan, Amala ; McWilliams, James C. ; Molemaker, M. Jeroen ; Mukherjee, Sonaljit ; Nash, Jonathan D. ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Pierce, Stephen D. ; Ramachandran, Sanjiv ; Samelson, Roger M. ; Sanford, Thomas B. ; Shearman, R. Kipp ; Skyllingstad, Eric D. ; Smith, K. Shafer ; Tandon, Amit ; Taylor, John R. ; Terray, Eugene A. ; Thomas, Leif N. ; Ledwell, James R.Lateral stirring is a basic oceanographic phenomenon affecting the distribution of physical, chemical, and biological fields. Eddy stirring at scales on the order of 100 km (the mesoscale) is fairly well understood and explicitly represented in modern eddyresolving numerical models of global ocean circulation. The same cannot be said for smallerscale stirring processes. Here, the authors describe a major oceanographic field experiment aimed at observing and understanding the processes responsible for stirring at scales of 0.1–10 km. Stirring processes of varying intensity were studied in the Sargasso Sea eddy field approximately 250 km southeast of Cape Hatteras. Lateral variability of watermass properties, the distribution of microscale turbulence, and the evolution of several patches of inert dye were studied with an array of shipboard, autonomous, and airborne instruments. Observations were made at two sites, characterized by weak and moderate background mesoscale straining, to contrast different regimes of lateral stirring. Analyses to date suggest that, in both cases, the lateral dispersion of natural and deliberately released tracers was O(1) m2 s–1 as found elsewhere, which is faster than might be expected from traditional shear dispersion by persistent mesoscale flow and linear internal waves. These findings point to the possible importance of kilometerscale stirring by submesoscale eddies and nonlinear internalwave processes or the need to modify the traditional sheardispersion paradigm to include higherorder effects. A unique aspect of the Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence (LatMix) field experiment is the combination of direct measurements of dye dispersion with the concurrent multiscale hydrographic and turbulence observations, enabling evaluation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed dispersion at a new level.

ArticleDiagnosing frontal dynamics from observations using a variational approach(American Geophysical Union, 20220930) Cutolo, Eugenio ; Pascual, Ananda ; Ruiz, Simón ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Freilich, Mara ; Mahadevan, Amala ; Shcherbina, Andrey ; Poulain, Pierre‐Marie ; Ozgokmen, Tamay ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; D’Asaro, EricIntensive hydrographic and horizontal velocity measurements collected in the Alboran Sea enabled us to diagnose the three‐dimensional dynamics of a frontal system. The sampled domain was characterized by a 40 km diameter anticyclonic eddy, with an intense front on its eastern side, separating the Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Here, we implemented a multi‐variate variational analysis (VA) to reconstruct the hydrographic fields, combining the 1‐km horizontal resolution of the Underway Conductivity‐Temperature‐Depth (CTD) system with information on the flow shape from the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocities. One advantage of the VA is given by the physical constraint, which preserves fine‐scale gradients better than the classical optimal interpolation (OI). A comparison between real drifter trajectories and virtual particles advected in the mapping quantified the improvements in the VA over the OI, with a 15% larger skill score. Quasi‐geostrophic (QG) and semi‐geostrophic (SG) omega equations enabled us to estimate the vertical velocity (w) which reached 40 m/day on the dense side of the front. How nutrients and other passive tracers leave the mixed‐layer and subduct is estimated with 3D advection from the VA, which agreed with biological sampling from traditional CTD casts at two eddy locations. Downwelling warm filaments are further evidence of subduction, in line with the w from SG, but not with QG. SG better accounted for the along‐isopycnal component of w in agreement with another analysis made on isopycnal coordinates. The multi‐platform approach of this work and the use of variational methods improved the characterization and understanding of (sub)‐mesoscale frontal dynamics.

ArticleApplying dynamical systems techniques to real ocean drifters(European Geosciences Union, 20221007) Rypina, Irina I ; Getscher, Timothy ; Pratt, Lawrence J ; Ozgokmen, TamayThis paper presents the first comprehensive comparison of several different dynamicalsystemsbased measures of stirring and Lagrangian coherence, computed from real ocean drifters. Seven commonly used methods (finitetime Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), trajectory path length, trajectory correlation dimension, trajectory encounter volume, Lagrangianaveraged vorticity deviation, dilation, and spectral clustering) were applied to 144 surface drifters in the Gulf of Mexico in order to map out the dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. Among the detected structures were regions of hyperbolic nature resembling stable manifolds from classical examples, divergent and convergent zones, and groups of drifters that moved more coherently and stayed closer together than the rest of the drifters. Many methods highlighted the same structures, but there were differences too. Overall, five out of seven methods provided useful information about the geometry of transport within the domain spanned by the drifters, whereas the path length and correlation dimension methods were less useful than others.

ArticleImproving oceanic overflow representation in climate models : the Gravity Current Entrainment Climate Process Team(American Meteorological Society, 200905) Legg, Sonya ; Ezer, Tal ; Jackson, Laura ; Briegleb, Bruce P. ; Danabasoglu, Gokhan ; Large, William G. ; Wu, Wanli ; Chang, Yeon ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Peters, Hartmut ; Xu, Xiaobiao ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Gordon, Arnold L. ; Griffies, Stephen M. ; Hallberg, Robert ; Price, James F. ; Riemenschneider, Ulrike ; Yang, JiayanOceanic overflows are bottomtrapped density currents originating in semienclosed basins, such as the Nordic seas, or on continental shelves, such as the Antarctic shelf. Overflows are the source of most of the abyssal waters, and therefore play an important role in the largescale ocean circulation, forming a component of the sinking branch of the thermohaline circulation. As they descend the continental slope, overflows mix vigorously with the surrounding oceanic waters, changing their density and transport significantly. These mixing processes occur on spatial scales well below the resolution of ocean climate models, with the result that deep waters and deep western boundary currents are simulated poorly. The Gravity Current Entrainment Climate Process Team was established by the U.S. Climate Variability and Prediction (CLIVAR) Program to accelerate the development and implementation of improved representations of overflows within largescale climate models, bringing together climate model developers with those conducting observational, numerical, and laboratory process studies of overflows. Here, the organization of the Climate Process Team is described, and a few of the successes and lessons learned during this collaboration are highlighted, with some emphasis on the wellobserved Mediterranean overflow. The Climate Process Team has developed several different overflow parameterizations, which are examined in a hierarchy of ocean models, from comparatively wellresolved regional models to the largestscale global climate models.

ArticleA regional modeling study of the entraining Mediterranean outflow(American Geophysical Union, 20071212) Xu, X. ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Price, James F. ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Peters, HartmutWe have evaluated a regionalscale simulation of the Mediterranean outflow by comparison with field data obtained in the 1988 Gulf of Cádiz Expedition. Our ocean model is based upon the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and includes the Richardson number–dependent entrainment parameterization of Xu et al. (2006). Given realistic topography and sufficient resolution, the model reproduces naturally the major, observed features of the Mediterranean outflow in the Gulf of Cádiz: the downstream evolution of temperature, salinity, and velocity profiles, the mean path and the spreading of the outflow plume, and most importantly, the localized, strong entrainment that has been observed to occur just west of the Strait of Gibraltar. As in all numerical solutions, there is some sensitivity to horizontal and vertical resolution. When the resolution is made coarser, the simulated currents are less vigorous and there is consequently less entrainment. Our Richardson number–dependent entrainment parameterization is therefore not recommended for direct application in coarseresolution climate models. We have used the highresolution regional model to investigate the response of the Mediterranean outflow to a change in the freshwater balance over the Mediterranean basin. The results are found in close agreement with the marginal sea boundary condition (MSBC): A more saline and dense Mediterranean deep water generates a significantly greater volume transport of the Mediterranean product water having only very slightly greater salinity.

ArticleOver what area did the oil and gas spread during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill?(The Oceanography Society, 201609) Ozgokmen, Tamay ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Dawson, Clint N. ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Jacobs, Gregg ; Ledwell, James R. ; GarciaPineda, Oscar ; MacDonald, Ian R. ; Morey, Steven L. ; Olascoaga, Maria Josefina ; Poje, Andrew ; Reed, Mark ; Skancke, JørgenThe 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in the collection of a vast amount of situ and remotely sensed data that can be used to determine the spatiotemporal extent of the oil spill and test advances in oil spill models, verifying their utility for future operational use. This article summarizes observations of hydrocarbon dispersion collected at the surface and at depth and our current understanding of the factors that affect the dispersion, as well as our improved ability to model and predict oil and gas transport. As a direct result of studying the area where oil and gas spread during the DWH oil spill, our forecasting capabilities have been greatly enhanced. Stateoftheart oil spill models now include the ability to simulate the rise of a buoyant plume of oil from sources at the seabed to the surface. A number of efforts have focused on improving our understanding of the influences of the nearsurface oceanic layer and the atmospheric boundary layer on oil spill dispersion, including the effects of waves. In the future, oil spill modeling routines will likely be included in Earth system modeling environments, which will link physical models (hydrodynamic, surface wave, and atmospheric) with marine sediment and biogeochemical components.

Technical ReportCALYPSO 2019 Cruise Report: field campaign in the Mediterranean(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 202001) Mahadevan, Amala ; D'Asaro, Eric A. ; Allen, John T. ; Almaraz García, Pablo ; AlouFont, Eva ; Aravind, Harilal Meenambika ; Balaguer, Pau ; Caballero, Isabel ; Calafat, Noemi ; Carbornero, Andrea ; Casas, Benjamin ; Castilla, Carlos ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Conley, Margaret ; Cristofano, Gino ; Cutolo, Eugenio ; Dever, Mathieu ; Enrique Navarro, Angélica ; Falcieri, Francesco ; Freilich, Mara ; Goodwin, Evan ; Graham, Raymond ; Guigand, Cedric ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Huntley, Helga ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J. ; Lizaran, Irene ; Mirabito, Chris ; Miralles, A. ; Mourre, Baptiste ; Navarro, Gabriel ; Ohmart, Michael ; Ouala, Said ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Pascual, Ananda ; Pou, Joan Mateu Horrach ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Ren, Alice ; Tarry, Daniel R. ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Rubio, M. ; Ruiz, Simon ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Tintore, Joaquin ; Send, Uwe ; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Torner, Marc ; SalvadorVieira, Guilherme ; Wirth, Nikolaus ; Zarokanellos, NikolaosThis cruise aimed to identify transport pathways from the surface into the interior ocean during the late winter in the Alborán sea between the Strait of Gibraltar (5°40’W) and the prime meridian. Theory and previous observations indicated that these pathways likely originated at strong fronts, such as the one that separates salty Mediterranean water and the fresher water in owing from the Atlantic. Our goal was to map such pathways and quantify their transport. Since the outcropping isopycnals at the front extend to the deepest depths during the late winter, we planned the cruise at the end of the Spring, prior to the onset of thermal stratification of the surface mixed layer.

ArticleFrontal convergence and vertical velocity measured by drifters in the Alboran Sea(American Geophysical Union, 20210324) Tarry, Daniel R. ; Essink, Sebastian ; Pascual, Ananda ; Ruiz, Simon ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Mahadevan, Amala ; D'Asaro, Eric A.Horizontal and vertical motions associated with mesoscale (10–100 km) and submesoscale (1–10 km) features, such as fronts, meanders, eddies, and filaments, play a critical role in redistributing physical and biogeochemical properties in the ocean. This study makes use of a multiplatform data set of 82 drifters, a Lagrangian float, and profile timeseries of temperature and salinity, obtained in a ∼1m/s semipermanent frontal jet in the Alboran Sea as part of CALYPSO (Coherent Lagrangian Pathways from the Surface Ocean to Interior). Drifters drogued at ∼1m and 15m depth capture the mesoscale and submesoscale circulation aligning along the perimeter of fronts due to horizontal shear. Clusters of drifters are used to estimate the kinematic properties, such as vorticity and divergence, of the flow by fitting a bivariate plane to the horizontal drifter velocities. Clusters with submesoscale length scales indicate normalized vorticity ζ/f > 1 with Coriolis frequency f and normalized divergence of (1) occurring in patches along the front, with error variance around 10%. By computing divergence from drifter clusters at two different depths, we estimate minimum vertical velocity of (−100 m day−1) in the upper 10 m of the water column. These results are at least twice as large as previous estimates of vertical velocity in the region. Location, magnitude, and timing of the convergence are consistent with behavior of a Lagrangian float subducting in the center of a drifter cluster. These results improve our understanding of frontal subduction and quantify convergence and vertical velocity using Lagrangian tools.

ArticleDrifter observations reveal intense vertical velocity in a surface ocean front(American Geophysical Union, 20220903) Tarry, Daniel R. ; Ruiz, Simon ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Poulain, Pierre Marie ; Ozgokmen, Tamay M. ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Berta, Maristella ; Esposito, Giovanni ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Mahadevan, Amala ; Pascual, AnandaMeasuring vertical motions represent a challenge as they are typically 3–4 orders of magnitude smaller than the horizontal velocities. Here, we show that surface vertical velocities are intensified at submesoscales and are dominated by high frequency variability. We use drifter observations to calculate divergence and vertical velocities in the upper 15 m of the water column at two different horizontal scales. The drifters, deployed at the edge of a mesoscale eddy in the Alboran Sea, show an area of strong convergence (urn:xwiley:00948276:media:grl64766:grl64766math0001(f)) associated with vertical velocities of −100 m day−1. This study shows that a multilayereddrifter array can be an effective tool for estimating vertical velocity near the ocean surface.

ArticleInertial oscillations and frontal processes in an Alboran Sea Jet: effects on divergence and vertical transport(American Geophysical Union, 20230215) Esposito, Giovanni ; Donnet, Sebastien ; Berta, Maristella ; Shcherbina, Andrey Y. ; Freilich, Mara ; Centurioni, Luca ; D’Asaro, Eric A. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Johnston, T. M. Shaun ; Mahadevan, Amala ; Özgökmen, Tamay ; Pascual, Ananda ; Poulain, Pierre‐Marie ; Ruiz, Simón ; Tarry, Daniel R. ; Griffa, AnnalisaVertical transport pathways in the ocean are still only partially understood despite their importance for biogeochemical, pollutant, and climate applications. Detailed measurements of a submesoscale frontal jet in the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea) during a period of highly variable winds were made using cross‐frontal velocity, density sections and dense arrays of surface drifters deployed across the front. The measurements show divergences as large as ±f implying vertical velocities of order 100 m/day for a ≈ 20 m thick surface layer. Over the 20 hr of measurement, the divergences made nearly one complete oscillation, suggesting an important role for near‐inertial oscillations. A wind‐forced slab model modified by the observed background frontal structure and with initial conditions matched to the data produces divergence oscillations and pattern compatible with that observed. Significant differences, though, are found in terms of mean divergence, with the data showing a prevalence of negative, convergent values. Despite the limitations in data sampling and model uncertainties, this suggests the contribution of other dynamical processes. Turbulent boundary layer processes are discussed, as a contributor to enhance the observed convergent phase. Water mass properties suggest that symmetric instabilities might also be present but do not play a crucial role, while downward stirring along displaced isopycnals is observed.Plain Language SummaryVertical transport pathways are essential for the exchange of properties between the surface and the deeper layers of the ocean. Despite the recognized role of vertical dynamics in biogeochemical and climate applications, it is still only partially understood. This is principally due to observational challenges. Vertical transport pathways are generally very localized processes and are associated with vertical velocities comparable to instrumental uncertainty. In this work, we focus on vertical processes occurring along a front at the edge of an eddy in the Mediterranean Sea. The paper combines the analysis of multiple observations with the use of an idealized numerical model to isolate and study surface divergence patterns. These analyses allow the investigation of the role of the wind forcing and of small‐scale ocean processes in vertical transport.Key PointsDivergence and vertical velocity oscillations are observed at a submesoscale front on the edge of an anticyclone in the Alboran SeaNear‐inertial oscillations play a major role in the observed divergence oscillatory pattern as suggested by a modified slab model of a wind‐forced frontal jetTurbulent boundary layer processes and symmetric instabilities can contribute to differences between modeled and observed vertical dynamics