Pritchard Mark

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  • Technical Report
    Long-term evolution of the coupled boundary layers (STRATUS) mooring recovery and deployment cruise report NOAA Research Vessel R H Brown • cruise RB-01-08 9 October - 25 October 2001
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-02) Vallee, Charlotte ; Weller, Robert A. ; Bouchard, Paul R. ; Ostrom, William M. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Gobat, Jason I. ; Pritchard, Mark ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Hare, Jeffrey E. ; Uttal, Taneil ; Yuter, Sandra ; Rivas, David ; Baumgardner, Darrel ; McCarty, Brandi ; Shannahoff, Jonathan ; Walsh, M. Alexander ; Bahr, Frank B.
    This report documents the work done on cruise RB-01-08 of the NOAA R/V Ron Brown. This was Leg 2 of R/V Ron Brown’s participation in Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001, a study of air-sea interaction, the atmosphere, and the upper ocean in the eastern tropical Pacific. The science party included groups from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL), the University of Washington (UW), the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The work done by these groups is summarized in this report. In addition, the routine underway data collected while aboard R/V Ron Brown is also summarized here.
  • Technical Report
    A compact coastal ocean observing system for Kernel Blitz 2001
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-12) Gobat, Jason I. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Way, Bryan S. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Pritchard, Mark ; Smith, Jason C.
    In this report we describe a compact, easily deployed, moored system for oceanographic and meteorological observations in the coastal ocean. The system consists of a surface and subsurface mooring pair deployed adjacent to one another. Compared to a single catenary surface mooring, this arrangement allows the entire water column to be instrumented. All of the instruments in the system log high resolution time series data. Additionally, the mooring line instruments periodically report averaged data to the buoys via inductive modems. On the subsurface mooring, this averaged data is sent to the surface buoy using an acoustic modem. Inductively coupled mooring line instrumentation includes conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors, acoustic current meters, and optical backscattering and absorption sensors. In addition to mooring line instruments, the surface buoy collects averaged data from meteorological sensors, including wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation, longwave and shortwave radiation, sea surface temperature and conductivity, and wave height and period. Data from both mooring lines and from the surface meteorological sensors is telemetered to shore via line-of-sight radio and satellite. The entire system, including buoys, moorings, instruments, launch and recovery gear, telemetry receive, and data processing facilities can be packed into a single 20 foot shipping container. The system was successfully deployed to provide environmental monitoring for Kernel Blitz 2001, a US Navy fleet exercise off southern California. Results from the deployment are presented.
  • Technical Report
    CBLAST-Low 2001 pilot study mooring deployment cruise and data report ; FV Nobska, June 4 to August 17, 2001
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2002-05) Pritchard, Mark ; Gobat, Jason I. ; Ostrom, William M. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Bouchard, Paul R.
    During the summer of 2001, several moorings and cruises were used as part of the CBLAST-Low (Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer under low wind conditions) pilot experiment in the North Atlantic, south of Martha’s Vineyard Island, MA, USA. Six subsurface tide gauges were deployed around the study site for a period of approximately 3 months during the summer of 2001. Further, two surface buoys equipped with meteorological instrumentation and subsurface arrays that measured temperature, conductivity and velocity were deployed during the months of July and August 2001. For a short intensive operating period during July 2001, a newly manufactured three-dimensional mooring designed to sample three-dimensional properties of the upper ocean was deployed for a period of 6 days. During the Intensive Operating Period (IOP) along-shelf and across-shelf conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sections were completed as well as a drifting array designed to passively collect data from the upper water column released for approximately 24 hours. This report describes the instrumentation and type of moorings deployed by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Upper Ocean Processes (WHOI UOP) group as well as data return and quality from the CBLAST-Low 2001 pilot study. This is summarized in graphical and tabular form in this report.
  • Technical Report
    SecNav / CBLAST 2002 field experiment deployment / recovery cruises and data report, F/V Nobska, June 19-20, 2002, F/V Nobska, September 4 and 9, 2002, mooring data, June 19 - September 9, 2002
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2003-09) Hutto, Lara ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Bouchard, Paul R. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Pritchard, Mark
    During the summer of 2002, six surface moorings and one subsurface mooring were deployed south of Martha's Vineyard, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The moorings were deployed from June to September 2002 to collect meteorological and oceanographic data. This was done both to support the Coupled Boundary Layered Air-Sea Transfer Low wind (CBLAST-Low) cooperative experiment and to address the question of regional predictability in the littoral regime under research supported by a Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Chair. The aim was to capture the mesoscale development and response of inner shelf waters to local synoptic atmospheric, tidal and larger scale oceanic forcing under predominantly low wind conditions. This report covers the operational aspects of the 2002 experiment, including deployment, recovery, and mooring setups, as well as basic data returns.
  • Article
    Observations of internal bores and waves of elevation on the New England inner continental shelf during summer 2001
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-03-23) Pritchard, Mark ; Weller, Robert A.
    During July–August 2001, oceanographic variability on the New England inner continental shelf was investigated with an emphasis on temporal scales shorter than tidal periods. Mooring and ship survey data showed that subtidal variation of inner shelf stratification was in response to regional Ekman upwelling and downwelling wind driven dynamics. High-frequency variability in the vertical structure of the water column at an offshore mooring site was linked to the baroclinic internal tide and the onshore propagation of nonlinear solitary waves of depression. Temperature, salinity, and velocity data measured at an inshore mooring detected a bottom bore that formed on the flood phase of the tide. During the ebb tide, a second bottom discontinuity and series of nonlinear internal waves of elevation (IWOE) formed when the water column became for a time under hydraulic control. A surface manifestation of these internal wave crests was also observed in aircraft remote sensing imagery. The coupling of IWOE formation to the offshore solitary waves packets was investigated through internal wave breaking criterion derived in earlier laboratory studies. Results suggested that the offshore solitons shoaled on the sloping shelf, and transformed from waves of depression to waves of elevation. The coupling of inshore bore formation to the offshore solitary waves and the possible impact of these periodic features on mixing on the inner shelf region are discussed.