Patterson David J.

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David J.

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Now showing 1 - 12 of 12
  • Article
    Broadly sampled multigene trees of eukaryotes
    (BioMed Central, 2008-01-18) Yoon, Hwan Su ; Grant, Jessica ; Tekle, Yonas I. ; Wu, Min ; Chaon, Benjamin C. ; Cole, Jeffrey C. ; Logsdon, John M. ; Patterson, David J. ; Bhattacharya, Debashish ; Katz, Laura A.
    Our understanding of the eukaryotic tree of life and the tremendous diversity of microbial eukaryotes is in flux as additional genes and diverse taxa are sampled for molecular analyses. Despite instability in many analyses, there is an increasing trend to classify eukaryotic diversity into six major supergroups: the 'Amoebozoa', 'Chromalveolata', 'Excavata', 'Opisthokonta', 'Plantae', and 'Rhizaria'. Previous molecular analyses have often suffered from either a broad taxon sampling using only single-gene data or have used multigene data with a limited sample of taxa. This study has two major aims: (1) to place taxa represented by 72 sequences, 61 of which have not been characterized previously, onto a well-sampled multigene genealogy, and (2) to evaluate the support for the six putative supergroups using two taxon-rich data sets and a variety of phylogenetic approaches.
  • Preprint
    Identity of epibiotic bacteria on symbiontid euglenozoans in O2-depleted marine sediments : evidence for symbiont and host co-evolution
    ( 2010-06) Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Breglia, S. A. ; Yubuki, Naoji ; Beaudoin, David J. ; Patterson, David J. ; Leander, Brian S. ; Bernhard, Joan M.
    A distinct subgroup of euglenozoans, referred to as the “Symbiontida,” has been described from oxygen-depleted and sulfidic marine environments. By definition, all members of this group carry epibionts that are intimately associated with underlying mitochondrion-derived organelles beneath the surface of the hosts. We have used molecular phylogenetic and ultrastructural evidence to identify the rod-shaped epibionts of two members of this group, Calkinsia aureus and Bihospites bacati, hand-picked from sediments from two separate oxygen-depleted, sulfidic environments. We identify their epibionts as closely related sulfur or sulfide oxidizing members of the Epsilon proteobacteria. The Epsilon proteobacteria generally play a significant role in deep-sea habitats as primary colonizers, primary producers, and/or in symbiotic associations. The epibionts likely fulfill a role in detoxifying the immediate surrounding environment for these two different hosts. The nearly identical rod-shaped epibionts on these two symbiontid hosts provides evidence for a co-evolutionary history between these two sets of partners. This hypothesis is supported by congruent tree topologies inferred from 18S and 16S rDNA from the hosts and bacterial epibionts, respectively. The eukaryotic hosts likely serve as a motile substrate that delivers the epibionts to the ideal locations with respect to the oxic/anoxic interface whereby their growth rates can be maximized, perhaps also allowing the host to cultivate a food source. Because symbiontid isolates and additional SSU rDNA gene sequences from this clade have now been recovered from many locations worldwide, the Symbiontida are likely more widespread and diverse than presently known.
  • Article
    Taxonomic indexing—extending the role of taxonomy
    (Taylor & Francis, 2006-06) Patterson, David J. ; Remsen, David P. ; Marino, William A. ; Norton, Cathy N.
    Taxonomic indexing refers to a new array of taxonomically intelligent network services that use nomenclatural principles and elements of expert taxonomic knowledge to manage information about organisms. Taxonomic indexing was introduced to help manage the increasing amounts of digital information about biology. It has been designed to form a near basal layer in a layered cyberinfrastructure that deals with biological information. Taxonomic Indexing accommodates the special problems of using names of organisms to index biological material. It links alternative names for the same entity (reconciliation), and distinguishes between uses of the same name for different entities (disambiguation), and names are placed within an indefinite number of hierarchical schemes. In order to access all information on all organisms, Taxonomic indexing must be able to call on a registry of all names in all forms for all organisms. NameBank has been developed to meet that need. Taxonomic indexing is an area of informatics that overlaps with taxonomy, is dependent on the expert input of taxonomists, and reveals the relevance of the discipline to a wide audience.
  • Article
    Biological nomenclature terms for facilitating communication in the naming of organisms
    (Pensoft, 2012-05-08) David, John ; Garrity, George M. ; Greuter, Werner ; Hawksworth, David L. ; Jahn, Regine ; Kirk, Paul M. ; McNeill, John ; Michel, Ellinor ; Knapp, Sandra ; Patterson, David J. ; Tindall, Brian J. ; Todd, Jonathan A. ; Tol, Jan van ; Turland, Nicholas J.
    A set of terms recommended for use in facilitating communication in biological nomenclature is presented as a table showing broadly equivalent terms used in the traditional Codes of nomenclature. These terms are intended to help those engaged in naming across organism groups, and are the result of the work of the International Committee on Bionomenclature, whose aim is to promote harmonisation and communication amongst those naming life on Earth.
  • Article
    Data issues in the life sciences
    (Pensoft Publishers, 2011-11-28) Thessen, Anne E. ; Patterson, David J.
    We review technical and sociological issues facing the Life Sciences as they transform into more data-centric disciplines - the “Big New Biology”. Three major challenges are: 1) lack of comprehensive standards; 2) lack of incentives for individual scientists to share data; 3) lack of appropriate infrastructure and support. Technological advances with standards, bandwidth, distributed computing, exemplar successes, and a strong presence in the emerging world of Linked Open Data are sufficient to conclude that technical issues will be overcome in the foreseeable future. While motivated to have a shared open infrastructure and data pool, and pressured by funding agencies in move in this direction, the sociological issues determine progress. Major sociological issues include our lack of understanding of the heterogeneous data cultures within Life Sciences, and the impediments to progress include a lack of incentives to build appropriate infrastructures into projects and institutions or to encourage scientists to make data openly available.
  • Article
    Scientific names of organisms : attribution, rights, and licensing
    (BioMed Central, 2014-02-04) Patterson, David J. ; Egloff, Willi ; Agosti, Donat ; Eades, David ; Franz, Nico ; Hagedorn, Gregor ; Rees, Jonathan A. ; Remsen, David P.
    As biological disciplines extend into the ‘big data’ world, they will need a names-based infrastructure to index and interconnect distributed data. The infrastructure must have access to all names of all organisms if it is to manage all information. Those who compile lists of species hold different views as to the intellectual property rights that apply to the lists. This creates uncertainty that impedes the development of a much-needed infrastructure for sharing biological data in the digital world. The laws in the United States of America and European Union are consistent with the position that scientific names of organisms and their compilation in checklists, classifications or taxonomic revisions are not subject to copyright. Compilations of names, such as classifications or checklists, are not creative in the sense of copyright law. Many content providers desire credit for their efforts. A ‘blue list’ identifies elements of checklists, classifications and monographs to which intellectual property rights do not apply. To promote sharing, authors of taxonomic content, compilers, intermediaries, and aggregators should receive citable recognition for their contributions, with the greatest recognition being given to the originating authors. Mechanisms for achieving this are discussed.
  • Article
    The taxonomic significance of species that have only been observed once : the genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an example
    (Public Library of Science, 2012-08-30) Thessen, Anne E. ; Patterson, David J. ; Murray, Shauna A.
    Taxonomists have been tasked with cataloguing and quantifying the Earth’s biodiversity. Their progress is measured in code-compliant species descriptions that include text, images, type material and molecular sequences. It is from this material that other researchers are to identify individuals of the same species in future observations. It has been estimated that 13% to 22% (depending on taxonomic group) of described species have only ever been observed once. Species that have only been observed at the time and place of their original description are referred to as oncers. Oncers are important to our current understanding of biodiversity. They may be validly described species that are members of a rare biosphere, or they may indicate endemism, or that these species are limited to very constrained niches. Alternatively, they may reflect that taxonomic practices are too poor to allow the organism to be re-identified or that the descriptions are unknown to other researchers. If the latter are true, our current tally of species will not be an accurate indication of what we know. In order to investigate this phenomenon and its potential causes, we examined the microbial eukaryote genus Gymnodinium. This genus contains 268 extant species, 103 (38%) of which have not been observed since their original description. We report traits of the original descriptions and interpret them in respect to the status of the species. We conclude that the majority of oncers were poorly described and their identity is ambiguous. As a result, we argue that the genus Gymnodinium contains only 234 identifiable species. Species that have been observed multiple times tend to have longer descriptions, written in English. The styles of individual authors have a major effect, with a few authors describing a disproportionate number of oncers. The information about the taxonomy of Gymnodinium that is available via the internet is incomplete, and reliance on it will not give access to all necessary knowledge. Six new names are presented – Gymnodinium campbelli for the homonymous name Gymnodinium translucens Campbell 1973, Gymnodinium antarcticum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Balech 1965, Gymnodinium manchuriensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium autumnale Skvortzov 1968, Gymnodinium christenum for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Christen 1959, Gymnodinium conkufferi for the homonymous name Gymnodinium irregulare Conrad & Kufferath 1954 and Gymnodinium chinensis for the homonymous name Gymnodinium frigidum Skvortzov 1968.
  • Article
    Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity
    (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2006-12-22) Parfrey, Laura Wegener ; Barbero, Erika ; Lasser, Elyse ; Dunthorn, Micah ; Bhattacharya, Debashish ; Patterson, David J. ; Katz, Laura A.
    Perspectives on the classification of eukaryotic diversity have changed rapidly in recent years, as the four eukaryotic groups within the five-kingdom classification—plants, animals, fungi, and protists—have been transformed through numerous permutations into the current system of six ‘‘supergroups.’’ The intent of the supergroup classification system is to unite microbial and macroscopic eukaryotes based on phylogenetic inference. This supergroup approach is increasing in popularity in the literature and is appearing in introductory biology textbooks. We evaluate the stability and support for the current six-supergroup classification of eukaryotes based on molecular genealogies. We assess three aspects of each supergroup: (1) the stability of its taxonomy, (2) the support for monophyly (single evolutionary origin) in molecular analyses targeting a supergroup, and (3) the support for monophyly when a supergroup is included as an out-group in phylogenetic studies targeting other taxa. Our analysis demonstrates that supergroup taxonomies are unstable and that support for groups varies tremendously, indicating that the current classification scheme of eukaryotes is likely premature. We highlight several trends contributing to the instability and discuss the requirements for establishing robust clades within the eukaryotic tree of life.
  • Preprint
    Names are key to the big new biology
    ( 2010-09-20) Patterson, David J. ; Cooper, J. ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Pyle, R. L. ; Remsen, David P.
    Those who seek answers to big, broad questions about biology, especially questions emphasizing the organism (taxonomy, evolution, ecology), will soon benefit from an emerging names-based infrastructure. It will draw on the almost universal association of organism names with biological information to index and interconnect information distributed across the Internet. The result will be a virtual data commons, expanding as further data are shared, allowing biology to become more of a “big science”. Informatics devices will exploit this ‘big new biology’, revitalizing comparative biology with a broad perspective to reveal previously inaccessible trends and discontinuities, so helping us to reveal unfamiliar biological truths. Here, we review the first components of this freely available, participatory, and semantic Global Names Architecture.
  • Article
    uBioRSS : tracking taxonomic literature using RSS
    (Oxford University Press, 2007-03-28) Leary, Patrick R. ; Remsen, David P. ; Norton, Cathy N. ; Patterson, David J. ; Sarkar, Indra Neil
    Web content syndication through standard formats such as RSS and ATOM has become an increasingly popular mechanism for publishers, news sources, and blogs to disseminate regularly updated content. These standardized syndication formats deliver content directly to the subscriber, allowing them to locally aggregate content from a variety of sources instead of having to find the information on multiple websites. The uBioRSS application is a "taxonomically intelligent" service customized for the biological sciences. It aggregates syndicated content from academic publishers and science news feeds, then uses a taxonomic name entity recognition algorithm to identify and index taxonomic names within those data streams. The resulting name index is cross-referenced to current global taxonomic datasets to provide context for browsing the publications by taxonomic group. This process, called taxonomic indexing, draws upon services developed specifically for biological sciences, collectively referred to as "taxonomic intelligence." Such value-added enhancements can provide biologists with accelerated and improved access to current biological content.
  • Article
    Taxonomic informatics tools for the electronic nomenclator zoologicus
    (Marine Biological Laboratory, 2006-02) Remsen, David P. ; Norton, Cathy N. ; Patterson, David J.
    Given the current trends, it seems inevitable that all biological documents will eventually exist in a digital format and be distributed across the internet. New network services and tools need to be developed to increase retrieval rates for documents and to refine data recovery. Biological data have traditionally been well managed using taxonomic principles. As part of a larger initiative to build an array of names-based network services that emulate taxonomic principles for managing biological information, we undertook the digitization of a major taxonomic reference text, Nomenclator Zoologicus. The process involved replicating the text to a high level of fidelity, parsing the content for inclusion within a database, developing tools to enable expert input into the product, and integrating the metadata and factual content within taxonomic network services. The result is a high-quality and freely available web application ( capable of being exploited in an array of biological informatics services.
  • Preprint
    Broadly sampled multigene analyses yield a well-resolved eukaryotic tree of life
    ( 2010-06-01) Parfrey, Laura Wegener ; Grant, Jessica ; Tekle, Yonas I. ; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica ; Morrison, Hilary G. ; Sogin, Mitchell L. ; Patterson, David J. ; Katz, Laura A.
    An accurate reconstruction of the eukaryotic tree of life is essential to identify the innovations underlying the diversity of microbial and macroscopic (e.g. plants and animals) eukaryotes. Previous work has divided eukaryotic diversity into a small number of high-level ‘supergroups’, many of which receive strong support in phylogenomic analyses. However, the abundance of data in phylogenomic analyses can lead to highly supported but incorrect relationships due to systematic phylogenetic error. Further, the paucity of major eukaryotic lineages (19 or fewer) included in these genomic studies may exaggerate systematic error and reduces power to evaluate hypotheses. Here, we use a taxon-rich strategy to assess eukaryotic relationships. We show that analyses emphasizing broad taxonomic sampling (up to 451 taxa representing 72 major lineages) combined with a moderate number of genes yield a well-resolved eukaryotic tree of life. The consistency across analyses with varying numbers of taxa (88-451) and levels of missing data (17-69%) supports the accuracy of the resulting topologies. The resulting stable topology emerges without the removal of rapidly evolving genes or taxa, a practice common to phylogenomic analyses. Several major groups are stable and strongly supported in these analyses (e.g. SAR, Rhizaria, Excavata), while the proposed supergroup ‘Chromalveolata’ is rejected. Further, extensive instability among photosynthetic lineages suggests the presence of systematic biases including endosymbiotic gene transfer from symbiont (nucleus or plastid) to host. Our analyses demonstrate that stable topologies of ancient evolutionary relationships can be achieved with broad taxonomic sampling and a moderate number of genes. Finally, taxonrich analyses such as presented here provide a method for testing the accuracy of relationships that receive high bootstrap support in phylogenomic analyses and enable placement of the multitude of lineages that lack genome scale data.