Chapman Ross

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  • Article
    Trans-dimensional inversion of modal dispersion data on the New England Mud Patch
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2019-02-19) Bonnel, Julien ; Dosso, Stan ; Eleftherakis, Dimitrios ; Chapman, Ross
    This paper presents single receiver geoacoustic inversion of two independent data sets recorded during the 2017 seabed characterization experiment on the New England Mud Patch. In the experimental area, the water depth is around 70 m, and the seabed is characterized by an upper layer of fine grained sediments with clay (i.e., mud). The first data set considered in this paper is a combustive sound source signal, and the second is a chirp emitted by a J15 source. These two data sets provide differing information on the geoacoustic properties of the seabed, as a result of their differing frequency content, and the dispersion properties of the environment. For both data sets, source/receiver range is about 7 km, and modal time-frequency dispersion curves are estimated using warping. Estimated dispersion curves are then used as input data for a Bayesian trans-dimensional inversion algorithm. Subbottom layering and geoacoustic parameters (sound speed and density) are thus inferred from the data. This paper highlights important properties of the mud, consistent with independent in situ measurements. It also demonstrates how information content differs for two data sets collected on reciprocal tracks, but with different acoustic sources and modal content.
  • Article
    Shallow Water ’06 : a joint acoustic propagation/nonlinear internal wave physics experiment
    (Oceanography Society, 2007-12) Tang, Dajun ; Moum, James N. ; Lynch, James F. ; Abbot, Philip A. ; Chapman, Ross ; Dahl, Peter H. ; Duda, Timothy F. ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Glenn, Scott M. ; Goff, John A. ; Graber, Hans C. ; Kemp, John N. ; Maffei, Andrew R. ; Nash, Jonathan D. ; Newhall, Arthur E.
    Since the end of the Cold War, the US Navy has had an increasing interest in continental shelves and slopes as operational areas. To work in such areas requires a good understanding of ocean acoustics, coastal physical oceanography, and, in the modern era, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) operations.
  • Article
    Nonlinear time-warping made simple: a step-by-step tutorial on underwater acoustic modal separation with a single hydrophone
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-03-25) Bonnel, Julien ; Thode, Aaron ; Wright, Dana ; Chapman, Ross
    Classical ocean acoustic experiments involve the use of synchronized arrays of sensors. However, the need to cover large areas and/or the use of small robotic platforms has evoked interest in single-hydrophone processing methods for localizing a source or characterizing the propagation environment. One such processing method is “warping,” a non-linear, physics-based signal processing tool dedicated to decomposing multipath features of low-frequency transient signals (frequency f < 500 Hz), after their propagation through shallow water (depth D < 200 m) and their reception on a distant single hydrophone (range r > 1 km). Since its introduction to the underwater acoustics community in 2010, warping has been adopted in the ocean acoustics literature, mostly as a pre-processing method for single receiver geoacoustic inversion. Warping also has potential applications in other specialties, including bioacoustics; however, the technique can be daunting to many potential users unfamiliar with its intricacies. Consequently, this tutorial article covers basic warping theory, presents simulation examples, and provides practical experimental strategies. Accompanying supplementary material provides matlab code and simulated and experimental datasets for easy implementation of warping on both impulsive and frequency-modulated signals from both biotic and man-made sources. This combined material should provide interested readers with user-friendly resources for implementing warping methods into their own research.
  • Article
    An experimental benchmark for geoacoustic inversion methods
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020-01-17) Bonnel, Julien ; Pecknold, Sean ; Hines, Paul C. ; Chapman, Ross
    Over the past 25 years, there has been significant research activity in development and application of methods for inverting acoustical field data to estimate parameters of geoacoustic models of the ocean bottom. Although the performance of various geoacoustic inversion methods has been benchmarked on simulated data, their performance with experimental data remains an open question. This article constitutes the first attempt of an experimental benchmark of geoacoustic inversion methods. To do so, the article focuses on data from experiments carried out at a common site during the Shallow Water 2006 (SW06) experiment. The contribution of the article is twofold. First, the article provides an overview of experimental inversion methods and results obtained with SW06 data. Second, the article proposes and uses quantitative metrics to assess the experimental performance of inversion methods. From a sonar performance point of view, the benchmark shows that no particular geoacoustic inversion method is definitely better than any other of the ones that were tested. All the inversion methods generated adequate sound-speed profiles, but only a few methods estimated attenuation and density. Also, acoustical field prediction performance drastically reduces with range for all geoacoustic models, and this performance loss dominates over intermodel variability. Overall, the benchmark covers the two main objectives of geoacoustic inversion: obtaining geophysical information about the seabed, and/or predicting acoustic propagation in a given area.
  • Article
    Geoacoustic inversion on the New England Mud Patch using warping and dispersion curves of high-order modes
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2018-05-24) Bonnel, Julien ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Eleftherakis, Dimitrios ; Goff, John A. ; Dosso, Stan ; Chapman, Ross ; Miller, James H. ; Potty, Gopu R.
    This paper presents single receiver geoacoustic inversion of a combustive sound source signal, recorded during the 2017 Seabed Characterization Experiment on the New England Mud Patch, in an area where water depth is around 70 m. There are two important features in this study. First, it is shown that high-order modes can be resolved and estimated using warping (up to mode number 18 over the frequency band 20–440 Hz). However, it is not possible to determine mode numbers from the data, so that classical inversion methods that require mode identification cannot be applied. To solve this issue, an inversion algorithm that jointly estimates geoacoustic properties and identifies mode number is proposed. It is successfully applied on a range-dependent track, and provides a reliable range-average estimation of geoacoustic properties of the mud layer, an important feature of the seabed on the experimental area.