Grear Jason S.

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Jason S.

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  • Article
    Progress and challenges in coupled hydrodynamic-ecological estuarine modeling
    (Springer, 2015-07-07) Ganju, Neil K. ; Brush, Mark J. ; Rashleigh, Brenda ; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L. ; del Barrio, Pilar ; Grear, Jason S. ; Harris, Lora A. ; Lake, Samuel J. ; McCardell, Grant ; O’Donnell, James ; Ralston, David K. ; Signell, Richard P. ; Testa, Jeremy M. ; Vaudrey, Jamie M. P.
    Numerical modeling has emerged over the last several decades as a widely accepted tool for investigations in environmental sciences. In estuarine research, hydrodynamic and ecological models have moved along parallel tracks with regard to complexity, refinement, computational power, and incorporation of uncertainty. Coupled hydrodynamic-ecological models have been used to assess ecosystem processes and interactions, simulate future scenarios, and evaluate remedial actions in response to eutrophication, habitat loss, and freshwater diversion. The need to couple hydrodynamic and ecological models to address research and management questions is clear because dynamic feedbacks between biotic and physical processes are critical interactions within ecosystems. In this review, we present historical and modern perspectives on estuarine hydrodynamic and ecological modeling, consider model limitations, and address aspects of model linkage, skill assessment, and complexity. We discuss the balance between spatial and temporal resolution and present examples using different spatiotemporal scales. Finally, we recommend future lines of inquiry, approaches to balance complexity and uncertainty, and model transparency and utility. It is idealistic to think we can pursue a “theory of everything” for estuarine models, but recent advances suggest that models for both scientific investigations and management applications will continue to improve in terms of realism, precision, and accuracy.
  • Article
    Community science for coastal acidification monitoring and research
    (Taylor and Francis, 2021-07-26) Gassett, Parker Randall ; O’Brien-Clayton, Katie ; Bastidas, Carolina ; Rheuban, Jennie E. ; Hunt, Christopher W. ; Turner, Elizabeth ; Liebman, Matthew ; Silva, Emily ; Pimenta, Adam R. ; Grear, Jason S. ; Motyka, Jackie ; McCorkle, Daniel C. ; Stancioff, Esperanza ; Brady, Damian C. ; Strong, Aaron L.
    Ocean and coastal acidification (OCA) present a unique set of sustainability challenges at the human-ecological interface. Extensive biogeochemical monitoring that can assess local acidification conditions, distinguish multiple drivers of changing carbonate chemistry, and ultimately inform local and regional response strategies is necessary for successful adaptation to OCA. However, the sampling frequency and cost-prohibitive scientific equipment needed to monitor OCA are barriers to implementing the widespread monitoring of dynamic coastal conditions. Here, we demonstrate through a case study that existing community-based water monitoring initiatives can help address these challenges and contribute to OCA science. We document how iterative, sequential outreach, workshop-based training, and coordinated monitoring activities through the Northeast Coastal Acidification Network (a) assessed the capacity of northeastern United States community science programs and (b) engaged community science programs productively with OCA monitoring efforts. Our results (along with the companion manuscript) indicate that community science programs are capable of collecting robust scientific information pertinent to OCA and are positioned to monitor in locations that would critically expand the coverage of current OCA research. Furthermore, engaging community stakeholders in OCA science and outreach enabled a platform for dialogue about OCA among other interrelated environmental concerns and fostered a series of co-benefits relating to public participation in resource and risk management. Activities in support of community science monitoring have an impact not only by increasing local understanding of OCA but also by promoting public education and community participation in potential adaptation measures.
  • Article
    Ocean and coastal acidification off New England and Nova Scotia
    (The Oceanography Society, 2015-06) Gledhill, Dwight K. ; White, Meredith M. ; Salisbury, Joseph E. ; Thomas, Helmuth ; Mlsna, Ivy ; Liebman, Matthew ; Mook, Bill ; Grear, Jason S. ; Candelmo, Allison C. ; Chambers, R. Christopher ; Gobler, Christopher J. ; Hunt, Christopher W. ; King, Andrew L. ; Price, Nichole N. ; Signorini, Sergio R. ; Stancioff, Esperanza ; Stymiest, Cassie ; Wahle, Richard A. ; Waller, Jesica D. ; Rebuck, Nathan D. ; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck ; Capson, Todd L. ; Morrison, J. Ruairidh ; Cooley, Sarah R. ; Doney, Scott C.
    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acidify the region’s poorly buffered coastal waters. Despite the apparent vulnerability of these waters, and fisheries’ and mariculture’s significant dependence on calcifying species, the community lacks the ability to confidently predict how the region’s ecosystems will respond to continued ocean and coastal acidification. Here, we discuss ocean and coastal acidification processes specific to New England coastal and Nova Scotia shelf waters and review current understanding of the biological consequences most relevant to the region. We also identify key research and monitoring needs to be addressed and highlight existing capacities that should be leveraged to advance a regional understanding of ocean and coastal acidification.