Gutjahr Marcus

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  • Article
    Neodymium isotopes trace marine provenance of Arctic sea ice
    (European Association of Geochemistry, 2022-06-10) Laukert, Georgi ; Peeken, Ilka ; Bauch, Dorothea ; Krumpen, Thomas ; Hathorne, Ed C. ; Werner, Kirstin ; Gutjahr, Marcus ; Frank, Martin
    Radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotopes (ɛNd) have the potential to serve as a geochemical tracer of the marine origin of Arctic sea ice. This capability results from pronounced ɛNd differences between the distinct marine and riverine sources, which feed the surface waters from which the ice forms. The first dissolved Nd isotope and rare earth element (REE) concentration data obtained from Arctic sea ice collected across the Fram Strait during RV Polarstern cruise PS85 in 2014 confirm the incorporation and preservation of the parental surface seawater ɛNd signatures despite efficient REE rejection. The large ɛNd variability between ice floes and within sea ice cores (−32 to −10) reflects changes in water mass distribution during ice growth and drift from the central Arctic Ocean to Fram Strait. In addition to the parental seawater composition, our new approach facilitates the reconstruction of the transfer of matter between the atmosphere, the sea ice and the ocean. In conjunction with satellite-derived drift trajectories, we enable a more accurate assessment of sea ice origin and spatiotemporal evolution, benefiting studies of sea ice biology, biodiversity, and biogeochemistry.
  • Article
    Origin of abyssal NW Atlantic water masses since the Last Glacial Maximum
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-05-31) Pöppelmeier, Frerk ; Gutjahr, Marcus ; Blaser, Patrick ; Keigwin, Lloyd D. ; Lippold, Jörg
    The notion of a shallow northern sourced intermediate water mass is a well evidenced feature of the Atlantic circulation scheme of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, recent observations from stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) at the Corner Rise in the deep northwest Atlantic suggested a significant contribution of a Northern Component Water mass to the abyssal northwest Atlantic basin that has not been described before. Here we test the hypothesis of this northern sourced water mass underlying the southern sourced glacial Antarctic Bottom Water by measuring the authigenic neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition from the same sediments from 5,010‐m water depth. Neodymium isotopes act as a semiconservative water mass tracer capable of distinguishing between Northern and Southern Component Waters at the northwest Atlantic. Our new Nd isotopic record resolves various water mass changes from the LGM to the early Holocene in agreement with existing Nd‐based reconstructions from across the west Atlantic Ocean. Especially pronounced are the Younger Dryas and Bølling‐Allerød with unprecedented changes in the Nd isotopic composition. For the LGM we found Nd isotopic evidence for a northern sourced water mass contributing to abyssal depths, thus being in agreement with previous δ13C data from Corner Rise. Overall, however, the deep northwest Atlantic was still dominated by southern sourced water, since we found signatures that are intermediate between northern and southern end member compositions. Furthermore, this new record indicates that C and Nd isotopes were partly decoupled, pointing to nonconservative behavior of one or more likely of both water mass proxies during the LGM.
  • Preprint
    Retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet tracked by the isotopic composition of Pb in western North Atlantic seawater during termination 1
    ( 2009-07-16) Gutjahr, Marcus ; Frank, Martin ; Halliday, Alex N. ; Keigwin, Lloyd D.
    During the Last Glacial Maximum much of North America was covered by the Laurentide ice sheet. Its melting during termination 1 led to systematic changes in proglacial lake formation, continental runoff, and possibly North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The accompanying change in chemical weathering rates in the interior of North America throughout the deglaciation resulted in a pronounced change in seawater Pb isotope composition in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Here we present the first high-resolution records of seawater Pb isotope variations of North Atlantic Deep Water extracted from authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides in three sediment cores (51GGC, 1790 m depth; 31GGC, 3410 m depth; 12JPC, 4250 m depth) from the Blake Ridge off Florida. These data reveal a striking excursion from relatively unradiogenic 206Pb/204Pb as low as 18.93 towards highly radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that was initiated during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and was most pronounced in both intermediate and deep waters during and after the Younger Dryas (206Pb/204Pb as high as 19.38 at 8.8 ka in 4250 m). This pattern is interpreted to be a direct function of increased inflow of continent-derived radiogenic Pb into the western North Atlantic, supplied through chemical weathering of North American rocks that had been eroded and freshly exposed during the preceding glacial cycle. These sediment-derived data are complemented by new laser ablation Pb isotope data from a ferromanganese crust from the Blake Plateau at 850 m water depth, which show only small glacial-interglacial Pb isotope variations of the Florida Current (206Pb/204Pb between 19.07 and 19.16). The lack of change in the Blake Plateau record at the same time as the radiogenic excursion in the deeper sediments supports a northern origin of the pulse of radiogenic Pb. After the Younger Dryas, the deep western North Atlantic has experienced a persistent highly radiogenic Pb supply that was most pronounced during the first half of the Holocene and still lasts until today.
  • Preprint
    Tracing the Nd isotope evolution of North Atlantic Deep and Intermediate Waters in the western North Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum from Blake Ridge sediments
    ( 2007-10-23) Gutjahr, Marcus ; Frank, Martin ; Stirling, Claudine H. ; Keigwin, Lloyd D. ; Halliday, Alex N.
    A high-resolution authigenic Nd isotope record has been extracted from the Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide fraction of drift sediments along the Blake Ridge in the North Atlantic. These sediments facilitate reconstruction of the timing and extent of major hydrographic changes in the western North Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This is one of the few locations where sediments were deposited in the major flow path of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC), which transports North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) southward at the present day. The hydrodynamic setting, however, also causes problems. Authigenic Nd isotope compositions similar to the typical present-day NADW εNd value of –13.5 ± 0.5 were only extracted from sediments located within the main water body of the WBUC coinciding with the highest along slope current velocity below 3200 m water depth. Above this depth the authigenic Nd isotopic composition is more radiogenic than measured in a nearby seawater profile and appears to be influenced by downslope and lateral sediment redistribution. Our data suggest that these radiogenic signals were formed at shallow depths in Florida current waters, compromising the recorded ambient deep water Nd isotope signal in the Blake Ridge Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide coatings from intermediate depths during the Holocene and the deglaciation. The unradiogenic Nd isotopic composition typical of present-day NADW is not detectable along the Blake Ridge for any water depth during the LGM. Unlike the deglacial and Holocene sections, the intermediate core from 1790 m water depth did not experience significant sediment focussing during the LGM, in accord with the higher current velocities at this depth, suggesting that at this site an ambient LGM bottom water Nd isotope signal was recorded. Assuming this to be correct, our results indicate that the εNd of the shallower glacial equivalent of NADW, the Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water (GNAIW) may have been as radiogenic as –9.7 ± 0.4. Since the authigenic Nd isotope compositions of the Holocene and the deglacial sections of the intermediate depth sediment core were biased towards a shallow water signal, this first determination of a GNAIW εNd for the LGM will have to be corroborated by results from other locations and archives. The LGM and deglacial sediments below 3400 m water depth bear no evidence of an ambient deep water εNd as unradiogenic as -13.5. Although the deep core sites also experienced enhanced degrees of sediment focusing before the Younger Dryas, the εNd values of between -11 and – 10 are more readily explained in terms of increased presence of Southern Source Waters. If this is the case, the change to Nd isotopic compositions that reflect a modern circulation pattern, including the presence of Lower NADW, only occurred after the Younger Dryas.
  • Article
    Arctic drainage of Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater throughout the past 14,700 years
    (Nature Research, 2022-04-25) Süfke, Finn ; Gutjahr, Marcus ; Keigwin, Lloyd D. ; Reilly, Brendan ; Giosan, Liviu ; Lippold, Jörg
    During the last deglaciation substantial volumes of meltwater from the decaying Laurentide Ice Sheet were supplied to the Arctic, Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic along different drainage routes, sometimes as catastrophic flood events. These events are suggested to have impacted global climate, for example initiating the Younger Dryas cold period. Here we analyze the authigenic Pb isotopic composition of sediments in front of the Arctic Mackenzie Delta, a sensitive tracer for elevated freshwater runoff of the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet. Our data reveal continuous meltwater supply to the Arctic along the Mackenzie River since the onset of the Bølling–Allerød. The strongest Lake Agassiz outflow event is observed at the end of the Bølling–Allerød close to the onset of the Younger Dryas. In context of deglacial North American runoff records from the southern and eastern outlets, our findings provide a detailed reconstruction of the deglacial drainage chronology of the disintegrating Laurentide Ice Sheet.