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ArticleIce nucleating particles carried from below a phytoplankton bloom to the arctic atmosphere(American Geophysical Union, 2019-07-15) Creamean, Jessie M. ; Cross, Jessica N. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; McRaven, Leah T. ; Lin, Peigen ; Pacini, Astrid ; Schmale, David G. ; Ceniceros, Julio ; Aydell, Taylor ; Colombi, N. ; Bolger, Emily ; DeMott, Paul ; Hanlon, ReginaAs Arctic temperatures rise at twice the global rate, sea ice is diminishing more quickly than models can predict. Processes that dictate Arctic cloud formation and impacts on the atmospheric energy budget are poorly understood, yet crucial for evaluating the rapidly changing Arctic. In parallel, warmer temperatures afford conditions favorable for productivity of microorganisms that can effectively serve as ice nucleating particles (INPs). Yet the sources of marine biologically derived INPs remain largely unknown due to limited observations. Here we show, for the first time, how biologically derived INPs were likely transported hundreds of kilometers from deep Bering Strait waters and upwelled to the Arctic Ocean surface to become airborne, a process dependent upon a summertime phytoplankton bloom, bacterial respiration, ocean dynamics, and wind‐driven mixing. Given projected enhancement in marine productivity, combined oceanic and atmospheric transport mechanisms may play a crucial role in provision of INPs from blooms to the Arctic atmosphere.
ArticleTracking a surrogate hazardous agent (Rhodamine Dye) in a coastal ocean environment using In Situ measurements and concentration estimates derived from drone images(MDPI, 2021-11-02) Filippi, Margaux ; Hanlon, Regina ; Rypina, Irina I. ; Hodges, Benjamin A. ; Peacock, Thomas ; Schmale, David G.New tools and technology are needed to track hazardous agents such as oil and red tides in our oceans. Rhodamine dye (a surrogate hazardous agent) was released into the Atlantic ocean in August 2018, and experiments were conducted to track the movement of the dye near the water surface within three hours following the release. A DrOne Water Sampling SystEm (DOWSE), consisting of a 3D-printed sampling device tethered to a drone, was used to collect 26 water samples at different locations around the dye plume. Rhodamine concentrations were measured from the drone water samples using a fluorometer and ranged from 1 to 93 ppb. Dye images were taken during the drone-sampling of surface water containing dye and at about 10 m above the sampling point. These images were post-processed to estimate dye concentrations across the sampling domain. A comparison of calibrated heat maps showed that the altitude images yielded dye distributions that were qualitatively similar to those from images taken near the ocean surface. Moreover, the association between red ratios and dye concentrations yielded trendlines explaining up to 67% of the variation. Drones may be used to detect, track and assist in mitigating hazardous agents in the future.