Palter Jaime B.

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Jaime B.

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  • Article
    How does Labrador Sea Water enter the deep western boundary current?
    (American Meteorological Society, 2008-05) Palter, Jaime B. ; Lozier, M. Susan ; Lavender, Kara L.
    Labrador Sea Water (LSW), a dense water mass formed by convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, is an important constituent of the meridional overturning circulation. Understanding how the water mass enters the deep western boundary current (DWBC), one of the primary pathways by which it exits the subpolar gyre, can shed light on the continuity between climate conditions in the formation region and their downstream signal. Using the trajectories of (profiling) autonomous Lagrangian circulation explorer [(P)ALACE] floats, operating between 1996 and 2002, three processes are evaluated for their role in the entry of Labrador Sea Water in the DWBC: 1) LSW is formed directly in the DWBC, 2) eddies flux LSW laterally from the interior Labrador Sea to the DWBC, and 3) a horizontally divergent mean flow advects LSW from the interior to the DWBC. A comparison of the heat flux associated with each of these three mechanisms suggests that all three contribute to the transformation of the boundary current as it transits the Labrador Sea. The formation of LSW directly in the DWBC and the eddy heat flux between the interior Labrador Sea and the DWBC may play leading roles in setting the interannual variability of the exported water mass.
  • Technical Report
    CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamics Experiment (CLIMODE) fall 2006 R/V Oceanus voyage 434 November 16, 2006–December 3, 2006
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-12) Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Lund, John M. ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Tupper, George H.
    CLIMODE (CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment) is a research program designed to understand and quantify the processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of North Atlantic subtropical mode water, also called Eighteen Degree Water (EDW). Among these processes, the amount of buoyancy loss at the ocean-atmosphere interface is still uncertain and needs to be accurately quantified. In November 2006, cruise 434 onboard R/V Oceanus traveled in the region of the separated Gulf Stream and its recirculation, where intense oceanic heat loss to the atmosphere in the winter is believed to trigger the formation of EDW. During this cruise, the surface mooring F that was anchored in the core of the Gulf Stream was replaced by a new one, as well as two subsurface moorings C and D located on the southeastern edge of the stream. Surface drifters, ARGO and bobbers RAFOS floats were deployed, CTD profiles and water samples were also carried out. This array of instruments will permit a characterization of EDW with high spatial and temporal resolutions and accurate in-situ measurements of air-sea fluxes in the EDW formation region. The present report documents this cruise, the methods and locations for the deployments of instruments and some evaluation of the measurements from these instruments.
  • Article
    Linking oxygen and carbon uptake with the Meridional Overturning Circulation using a transport mooring array
    (Oceanography Society, 2022-01-07) Atamanchuk, Dariia ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Palevsky, Hilary I. ; Le Bras, Isabela A. ; Koelling, Jannes ; Nicholson, David P.
    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a system of ocean currents that transports warm, salty water poleward from the tropics to the North Atlantic. Its structure and strength are monitored at several latitudes by mooring arrays installed by the international ocean sciences community. While the main motivation for deploying these mooring arrays is to understand the AMOC’s influence on Northern Hemisphere climate, the circulation system also plays a crucial role in distributing oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) throughout the global ocean. By adding O2 sensors to several of the moorings at 53°N–60°N (Figure 1) in the western Labrador Sea, Koelling et al. (2021) demonstrated that the formation of deep water, in which the AMOC brings surface water to the deep ocean, is important for supplying the oxygen consumed by deep-ocean ecosystems throughout the North Atlantic. Additionally, variability in the deep-water formation has been linked to changes in the amount of anthropogenic CO2 stored in the subpolar ocean (Raimondi et al., 2021). These studies, using data collected during research cruises and a small number of moored sensors, showed that deep-water formation and the AMOC are key to oxygen and carbon cycles in the North Atlantic. However, the common assumption that the magnitude and variability of O2 and CO2 uptake by the ocean are tied to the dynamics of the AMOC has never been evaluated on the basis of direct observations.
  • Article
    The CLIMODE field campaign : observing the cycle of convection and restratification over the Gulf Stream
    (American Meteorological Society, 2009-09) Marshall, John C. ; Ferrari, Raffaele ; Forget, Gael ; Andersson, A. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Dewar, William K. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Fratantoni, David M. ; Joyce, Terrence M. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Toole, John M. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Edson, James B. ; Gregg, M. C. ; Kelly, Kathryn A. ; Lozier, M. Susan ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Lumpkin, Rick ; Samelson, Roger M. ; Skyllingstad, Eric D. ; Silverthorne, Katherine E. ; Talley, Lynne D. ; Thomas, Leif N.
    A major oceanographic field experiment is described, which is designed to observe, quantify, and understand the creation and dispersal of weakly stratified fluid known as “mode water” in the region of the Gulf Stream. Formed in the wintertime by convection driven by the most intense air–sea fluxes observed anywhere over the globe, the role of mode waters in the general circulation of the subtropical gyre and its biogeo-chemical cycles is also addressed. The experiment is known as the CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE). Here we review the scientific objectives of the experiment and present some preliminary results.
  • Working Paper
    US SOLAS Science Report
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2021-12) Stanley, Rachel H. R. ; Bell, Tom G. ; Gao, Yuan ; Gaston, Cassandra J. ; Ho, David T. ; Kieber, David J. ; Mackey, Katherine R. M. ; Meskhidze, Nicholas ; Miller, William L. ; Potter, Henry ; Vlahos, Penny ; Yager, Patricia L. ; Alexander, Becky ; Beaupre, Steven R. ; Craig, Susanne E. ; Cutter, Gregory A. ; Emerson, Steven ; Frossard, Amanda A. ; Gasso, Santiago ; Haus, Brian K. ; Keene, William C. ; Landing, William M. ; Moore, Richard H. ; Ortiz-Suslow, David ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Paulot, Fabien ; Saltzman, Eric ; Thornton, Daniel ; Wozniak, Andrew S. ; Zamora, Lauren M. ; Benway, Heather M.
    The Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) ( is an international research initiative focused on understanding the key biogeochemical-physical interactions and feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere that are critical elements of climate and global biogeochemical cycles. Following the release of the SOLAS Decadal Science Plan (2015-2025) (Brévière et al., 2016), the Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction Committee (OAIC) was formed as a subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Scientific Steering Committee to coordinate US SOLAS efforts and activities, facilitate interactions among atmospheric and ocean scientists, and strengthen US contributions to international SOLAS. In October 2019, with support from OCB, the OAIC convened an open community workshop, Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions: Scoping directions for new research with the goal of fostering new collaborations and identifying knowledge gaps and high-priority science questions to formulate a US SOLAS Science Plan. Based on presentations and discussions at the workshop, the OAIC and workshop participants have developed this US SOLAS Science Plan. The first part of the workshop and this Science Plan were purposefully designed around the five themes of the SOLAS Decadal Science Plan (2015-2025) (Brévière et al., 2016) to provide a common set of research priorities and ensure a more cohesive US contribution to international SOLAS.
  • Article
    Labrador Sea Water transport across the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-07-03) Gonçalves Neto, Afonso ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Xu, Xiaobiao
    Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is a major component of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, yet LSW transport pathways and their variability lack a complete description. A portion of the LSW exported from the subpolar gyre is advected eastward along the North Atlantic Current and must contend with the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge before reaching the eastern basins of the North Atlantic. Here, we analyze observations from a mooring array and satellite altimetry, together with outputs from a hindcast ocean model simulation, to estimate the mean transport of LSW across the Charlie‐Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ), a primary gateway for the eastward transport of the water mass. The LSW transport estimated from the 25‐year altimetry record is 5.3 ± 2.9 Sv, where the error represents the combination of observational variability and the uncertainty in the projection of the surface velocities to the LSW layer. Current velocities modulate the interannual to higher‐frequency variability of the LSW transport at the CGFZ, while the LSW thickness becomes important on longer time scales. The modeled mean LSW transport for 1993–2012 is higher than the estimate from altimetry, at 8.2 ± 4.1 Sv. The modeled LSW thickness decreases substantially at the CGFZ between 1996 and 2009, consistent with an observed decline in LSW volume in the Labrador Sea after 1994. We suggest that satellite altimetry and continuous hydrographic measurements in the central Labrador Sea, supplemented by profiles from Argo floats, could be sufficient to quantify the LSW transport at the CGFZ.
  • Technical Report
    CLIMODE Subsurface Mooring Report : November 2005 - November 2007
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-03) Lund, John M. ; Davis, Xujing Jia ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Torres, Daniel J. ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Gary, Stefan F. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    Two years of temperature, salinity, current, and nutrient data were collected on four subsurface moorings as part of the 2 year field component of the CLIMODE experiment. The moorings were located in North Atlantic’s subtropical gyre, south-east of the Gulf Stream. Two moorings, the most heavily instrumented, were close to the Gulf Stream, in the region where cold air outbreaks force large air-sea fluxes and where Eighteen Degree Water outcrops. Two other moorings were located farther south and carried more limited instrumentation. The moorings were initially deployed in November of 2005, turned around in November of 2006 and finally recovered in November of 2007. During the first year, the moorings close to the Gulf Stream suffered considerable blow down, and some of the instruments failed. During the second year, the blow down was greatly reduced and most instruments collected a full year worth of data.
  • Article
    Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems
    (Frontiers Media, 2019-08-08) Todd, Robert E. ; Chavez, Francisco P. ; Clayton, Sophie A. ; Cravatte, Sophie ; Goes, Marlos Pereira ; Graco, Michelle ; Lin, Xiaopei ; Sprintall, Janet ; Zilberman, Nathalie ; Archer, Matthew ; Arístegui, Javier ; Balmaseda, Magdalena A. ; Bane, John M. ; Baringer, Molly O. ; Barth, John A. ; Beal, Lisa M. ; Brandt, Peter ; Calil, Paulo H. R. ; Campos, Edmo ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Chidichimo, Maria Paz ; Cirano, Mauro ; Cronin, Meghan F. ; Curchitser, Enrique N. ; Davis, Russ E. ; Dengler, Marcus ; deYoung, Brad ; Dong, Shenfu ; Escribano, Ruben ; Fassbender, Andrea ; Fawcett, Sarah E. ; Feng, Ming ; Goni, Gustavo J. ; Gray, Alison R. ; Gutiérrez, Dimitri ; Hebert, Dave ; Hummels, Rebecca ; Ito, Shin-ichi ; Krug, Marjolaine ; Lacan, Francois ; Laurindo, Lucas ; Lazar, Alban ; Lee, Craig M. ; Lengaigne, Matthieu ; Levine, Naomi M. ; Middleton, John ; Montes, Ivonne ; Muglia, Michael ; Nagai, Takeyoshi ; Palevsky, Hilary I. ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Phillips, Helen E. ; Piola, Alberto R. ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Qiu, Bo ; Rodrigues, Regina ; Roughan, Moninya ; Rudnick, Daniel L. ; Rykaczewski, Ryan R. ; Saraceno, Martin ; Seim, Harvey E. ; Sen Gupta, Alexander ; Shannon, Lynne ; Sloyan, Bernadette M. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Thompson, LuAnne ; van der Plas, Anja K. ; Volkov, Denis L. ; Wilkin, John L. ; Zhang, Dongxiao ; Zhang, Linlin
    Ocean boundary current systems are key components of the climate system, are home to highly productive ecosystems, and have numerous societal impacts. Establishment of a global network of boundary current observing systems is a critical part of ongoing development of the Global Ocean Observing System. The characteristics of boundary current systems are reviewed, focusing on scientific and societal motivations for sustained observing. Techniques currently used to observe boundary current systems are reviewed, followed by a census of the current state of boundary current observing systems globally. The next steps in the development of boundary current observing systems are considered, leading to several specific recommendations.