Gates Andrew R.
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ArticleA blueprint for an inclusive, global deep-sea ocean decade field program(Frontiers Media, 2020-11-25) Howell, Kerry L. ; Hilario, Ana ; Allcock, A. Louise ; Bailey, David ; Baker, Maria C. ; Clark, Malcolm R. ; Colaço, Ana ; Copley, Jonathan T. ; Cordes, Erik E. ; Danovaro, Roberto ; Dissanayake, Awantha ; Escobar Briones, Elva ; Esquete, Patricia ; Gallagher, Austin J. ; Gates, Andrew R. ; Gaudron, Sylvie M. ; German, Christopher R. ; Gjerde, Kristina M. ; Higgs, Nicholas D. ; Le Bris, Nadine ; Levin, Lisa A ; Manea, Elisabetta ; McClain, Craig ; Menot, Lenaick ; Mestre, Mireia ; Metaxas, Anna ; Milligan, Rosanna J. ; Muthumbi, Agnes W. N. ; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E. ; Ramalho, Sofia P. ; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva ; Robson, Laura M. ; Rogers, Alex D. ; Sellanes, Javier ; Sigwart, Julia D. ; Sink, Kerry ; Snelgrove, Paul V. R. ; Stefanoudis, Paris V. ; Sumida, Paulo Y. ; Taylor, Michelle L. ; Thurber, Andrew R. ; Vieira, Rui P. ; Watanabe, Hiromi K. ; Woodall, Lucy C. ; Xavier, Joana R.The ocean plays a crucial role in the functioning of the Earth System and in the provision of vital goods and services. The United Nations (UN) declared 2021–2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The Roadmap for the Ocean Decade aims to achieve six critical societal outcomes (SOs) by 2030, through the pursuit of four objectives (Os). It specifically recognizes the scarcity of biological data for deep-sea biomes, and challenges the global scientific community to conduct research to advance understanding of deep-sea ecosystems to inform sustainable management. In this paper, we map four key scientific questions identified by the academic community to the Ocean Decade SOs: (i) What is the diversity of life in the deep ocean? (ii) How are populations and habitats connected? (iii) What is the role of living organisms in ecosystem function and service provision? and (iv) How do species, communities, and ecosystems respond to disturbance? We then consider the design of a global-scale program to address these questions by reviewing key drivers of ecological pattern and process. We recommend using the following criteria to stratify a global survey design: biogeographic region, depth, horizontal distance, substrate type, high and low climate hazard, fished/unfished, near/far from sources of pollution, licensed/protected from industry activities. We consider both spatial and temporal surveys, and emphasize new biological data collection that prioritizes southern and polar latitudes, deeper (> 2000 m) depths, and midwater environments. We provide guidance on observational, experimental, and monitoring needs for different benthic and pelagic ecosystems. We then review recent efforts to standardize biological data and specimen collection and archiving, making “sampling design to knowledge application” recommendations in the context of a new global program. We also review and comment on needs, and recommend actions, to develop capacity in deep-sea research; and the role of inclusivity - from accessing indigenous and local knowledge to the sharing of technologies - as part of such a global program. We discuss the concept of a new global deep-sea biological research program ‘Challenger 150,’ highlighting what it could deliver for the Ocean Decade and UN Sustainable Development Goal 14.
ArticleGlobal observing needs in the deep ocean(Frontiers Media, 2019-03-29) Levin, Lisa A. ; Bett, Brian J. ; Gates, Andrew R. ; Heimbach, Patrick ; Howe, Bruce M. ; Janssen, Felix ; McCurdy, Andrea ; Ruhl, Henry A. ; Snelgrove, Paul V. R. ; Stocks, Karen ; Bailey, David ; Baumann-Pickering, Simone ; Beaverson, Chris ; Benfield, Mark C. ; Booth, David J. ; Carreiro-Silva, Marina ; Colaço, Ana ; Eblé, Marie C. ; Fowler, Ashley M. ; Gjerde, Kristina M. ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Katsumata, Katsuro ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Le Bris, Nadine ; Leonardi, Alan P. ; Lejzerowicz, Franck ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; McLean, Dianne ; Meitz, Fred ; Morato, Telmo ; Netburn, Amanda ; Pawlowski, Jan ; Smith, Craig R. ; Sun, Song ; Uchida, Hiroshi ; Vardaro, Michael F. ; Venkatesan, Ramasamy ; Weller, Robert A.The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean Observing Strategy (DOOS), under the auspices of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Here we discuss the scientific need for globally integrated deep-ocean observing, its status, and the key scientific questions and societal mandates driving observing requirements over the next decade. We consider the Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) needed to address deep-ocean challenges within the physical, biogeochemical, and biological/ecosystem sciences according to the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), and map these onto scientific questions. Opportunities for new and expanded synergies among deep-ocean stakeholders are discussed, including academic-industry partnerships with the oil and gas, mining, cable and fishing industries, the ocean exploration and mapping community, and biodiversity conservation initiatives. Future deep-ocean observing will benefit from the greater integration across traditional disciplines and sectors, achieved through demonstration projects and facilitated reuse and repurposing of existing deep-sea data efforts. We highlight examples of existing and emerging deep-sea methods and technologies, noting key challenges associated with data volume, preservation, standardization, and accessibility. Emerging technologies relevant to deep-ocean sustainability and the blue economy include novel genomics approaches, imaging technologies, and ultra-deep hydrographic measurements. Capacity building will be necessary to integrate capabilities into programs and projects at a global scale. Progress can be facilitated by Open Science and Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) data principles and converge on agreed to data standards, practices, vocabularies, and registries. We envision expansion of the deep-ocean observing community to embrace the participation of academia, industry, NGOs, national governments, international governmental organizations, and the public at large in order to unlock critical knowledge contained in the deep ocean over coming decades, and to realize the mutual benefits of thoughtful deep-ocean observing for all elements of a sustainable ocean.